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FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768 1771. 

SECOND ten 17771784. 

THIRD eighteen 17881797. 

FOURTH twenty 1801 1810. 

FIFTH twenty 18151817. 

SIXTH twenty 1823 1824. 

SEVENTH twenty-one 18301842. 

EIGHTH twenty-two 18531860. 

NINTH twenty-five 18751889. 

TENTH ninth edition and eleven 

supplementary volumes, 1902 1903. 

ELEVENTH published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910 1911 = 


in all countries subscribing to the 
Bern Convention 


of the f 


All rights reserved 











Cambridge, England: 

at the University Press 

New York, 35 West 32nd Street 
191 1 

Copyright, in the United States of America, 1911, 

The Encyclopaedia Britannica Company. 




A. B. R. 
A. F. P. 

A. G. 
A. G. T. 
A. H.* 

A. H. C. 
A. H. H. 

A. H.-S. 

A. H. S. 
A. J. G. 

A. J. H. 

A. J. L. 
A. Ma. 

A. N. 


Keeper, Department of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classi- ' 
fication of Flowering Plants ; &c. 


Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' 
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893-" 
1901. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnold Prizeman, 1898. Author of 
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c. 


H.M. Inspector of Prisons, 1878-1896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate;] Police. 
Secrets of the Prison House ; &c. 

Plants: Classification. 

"erne, Andrew. 


Lecturer in Botany in the University of Cambridge. 
of Botany, University College, London. 

Formerly Assistant Professor 1 Plants: Anatomy. 


Professor of Church History in the University of Leipzig, and Director of the Museum 

of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Geheimer Kirchenrat of the Kingdom of Saxony. , 

Member of the Royal Saxon Academy ot Sciences and Corresponding Member of ") Pilgrimage. 

the Academies of Berlin and Munich. Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands; 

&c. Editor of the new edition of Herzog's Realencyklopddie fur protestantische 

Theologie und Kirche. 


Professor of Chemistry, Royal Academy of Arts, London. Author of Chemistry \ Pigments. 
of Paints and Painting ; English Earthenware ; English Porcelain ; &c. 

Photography: Pictorial. 

|" Persia: Geography and 
\ Statistics. 

\ Persepolis (in part). 


Editor of The Amateur Photographer, 1897-1908, and the Photographic Trades 
Gazette, 1904-1908. Author of Practical Pictorial Photography; &c. 


General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. 

See the biographical article : SAYCE, A. H. 


Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United Independent J , / \ 

College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of] p 'y moutn Brethren (in part). 

Mysore Educational Service. 
ALFRED J. HIPKINS, F.S.A. (1826-1903). r 

Formerly Member of Council and Hon. Curator of the Royal College of Music, Pianoforte (in part)' 

' Pitch, Musical. 

London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; 
of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of 
Musical Instruments; &c. 


Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. 
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901. 

Editor of the Rio News ] Peru: Geography and Statistics. 

ALEXANDER MACALISTER, M.A., LL.D., M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. f Phrenology; 

Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's ~{ Phveino-nnmv 
College. Author of Text Book of Human Anatomy; &c. 

Peacock; Pelican; 
Penguin; Petrel; 
Pheasant; Pigeon; 
Pipit; Pitta; 
Plover; Pochard. 
1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume. 


See the biographical article: NEWTON, ALFRED. 



A. Se.* 

A. SI. 
A. S. P.-P. 

A. S. Wo. 

A. T. I. 

B. R. 

C. Bi. 

C. E.* 
C. E. A. 

C. E. M. 
C. G. K. 

C. L. K. 
C. M. 
C. Pf. 
C. P. J. 

C. R. M. 
C. S. P. 


C. W. R. 

D. G. H. 



Professor of Zoology at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London. 
Fellow, and formerly Tutor, of Trinity College, Cambridge. Professor of Zoology 
in the University of Cambridge, 1907-1909. 


Member of Council of Epidemiplogical Society. Author of The London Water- 
Supply; Industrial Efficiency; Drink, Temperance and Legislation. 


Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford 
Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. 
Author of Man's Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c. 


Keeper of Geology, Natural History Museum, South Kensington, 
the Geological Society of London. 


Scotch Advocate. Author of John Knox; Law of Creeds in Scotland; Studies in 
Scottish History ; &c. 

SIR BOVERTON REDWOOD, D.Sc., F.R.S. (Edin.), F.I.C., Assoc.lNST.C.E., 


Adviser on Petroleum to the Admiralty, Home Office, India Office, Corporation of 
London, and Port of London Authorty. President of the Society of Chemical 
Industry. Member of the Council of the Chemical Society. Member of Council of 
Institute of Chemistry. Author of "Cantor" Lectures on Petroleum; Petroleum 
and its Products ; Chemical Technology ; &c. 

REV. CHARLES BIGG, M.A., D.D. (1840-1908). 

Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Oxford, and Canon 
of Christ Church, 1901-1908. Formerly Senior Student and Tutor of Christ Church. 
Headmaster of Brighton College. Author of The Christian Platonists of Alexandria; 

Sometime Scholar of Magdalen College, Oxford. 

Secretary of-j Plesiosaurus. 

Pilate, Pontius. 


Philo (in part). 

-; Phosphates. 


Formerly Times Correspondent in Buenos Aires. Author of A History of South J Peru: History (in part) 
America, 1854-1904. ^ 

Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 

Curator of the University Herbarium. 

Plants: Ecology. 



Lecturer on Applied Mathematics, Edinburgh University. Professor of Physics, 
Imperial University of Japan, Tokyo, 18831891. Author of Electricity and' 
Magnetism ; Physics ; &c. [ 


Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor J Payne, Peter, 
of Chronicles of London and Stow's Survey of London. 


Professor of Church History in the University of Marburg. Author of Publizistik- 
im Zeitalter Gregor VII. ; Quellen zur Geschichte des Papstthums ; &c. 

Pius IX.; 

Poissy, Colloquy of. 


Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of \ Pippin I.-III. 
Etudes sur le rkgne de Robert le Pieux. 


Lecturer on Botany, Guy's Hospital, London, 1830-1873. Editor of J. A. Sowerby's ^ Pine. 
English Botany ; &c. Author of Ferns of Great Britain ; &c. 


See the biographical article: MARKHAM, SIR CLEMENTS ROBERT. 

J Peru: History (in part). 


M.P. for Perthshire, 1868-1874; M.P. for Perth City, 1878-1892. Honorary Fellow, i D 

formerly Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of Life of Sir Robert Peel;^ * Bel & '" 


REV. CHARLES TAYLOR, M.A., D.D., LL.D. (1840-1908). 

Master of St John's College, Cambridge, 1881-1908. Vice-Chancellor, 1887-1888. J Pirke Aboth. 
Author of Geometrical Conies ; &c. 1 


Assistant Military Secretary, Headquarters of the Army, 1890-1892. Lieut.- Ponincniir War 
Governor and Secretary, Royal Military Hospital, Chelsea, 1895-1898. Author of 1 

Strategy of the Peninsular War ; &c. 


Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Perga; 
Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899^ Pergamunr 
and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906-1907. Director, British School at 
Athens. 1897-1000. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899. 



D. H. 

E. A. J. 

E. A. So. 

E. Br. 

E. G. 
E. Gr. 
E. J. D. 

Ed. M. 

E. M. H. 

E. O'N. 
E. Pr. 

E. R. B. 
E. S.* 

E. Tn. 

F. A. P. 
F. G. P. 

F. J. G. 
F. LI. G. 

F. W. Ga. 


Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. 

Navy; Life of Emilia Castelar; &c. : 

Author of Short History of the Royal 


Author of Old English Gold Plate; Old Church Plate of the Isle of Man; Old Silver 
Sacramental Vessels of Foreign Protestant Churches in England ; Illustrated Cata- < 
Leopold de Rothschild's Collection of Old Plate; A Private Catalogue of the 

Penn, Admiral; Pepys; 
Pescara, Marquis of; 
Peter I.-IV. of Aragon; 
Peter of Castile; 
Pirate and Piracy: History; 
Poe, Edgar Allan; 
Poland: History (in part). 

Plate (in part). 



logue of . 

Royal Plate at Windsor Castle ; &c. 


Professor of Greek and Latin in the University of Birmingham. Hon. Secretary J j 
of the Classical Association. Professor of Greek and Latin in Mason College, 
Birmingham, 1883-1900. Editor of several of the plays of Plautus. 


Fellow and Lecturer in Modern History, St John's College, Oxford. Formerly "\ "6ter the Hermit. 
Fellow and Tutor of Merton College. Craven Scholar, 1895. 


See the biographical article: GOSSE, EDMUND. 


See the biographical article : GARDNER, PERCY. 


Formerly Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. 

| Phigalia. 

- Pergolesi. 

Persia* Ancient History- 
D ; ' n . " 

rersis, rnarnaoazus, 
Phraates; Phraortes. 


Curator of the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society, London. 

f Pharmacopoeia; 
1 Pharmacy. 

EDMUND OWEN, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc. f Ppritnni -,. 

Consulting Surgeon to St Mary's Hospital, London, and to the Children's Hospital, J L:* 1 
Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Late Examiner 1 rnaryngltis; 
in Surgery at the Universities of Cambridge, London and Durham. Author of A Phlebitis. 

Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students. 

ELIZABETH O'NEILL, M.A. (MRS H. 0. O'NEILL). /Peckham, John. 

Formerly University Fellow and Jones Fellow of Manchester University. \ 


Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Ex- 
aminer in Portuguese in the Universities of London, Manchester, &c. Com- J Pma, Ruy de; 
mendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon j Pinto, Fernao Mendes. 
Royal Academy of Sciences, Lisbon Geographical Society; &c. Editor of Letters 
of a Portuguese Nun ; Azurara's Chronicle of Guinea ; &c. 


New College, Oxford. Author of The House of Seleucus; Jerusalem under the- 
High Priests. 

EMIL SCHURER, D.PH. (1844-1910). 

Formerly Professor of New Testament Exegesis in the Universities of Giessen, 
Kiel and Gottingen. Author of Geschichte des jiidischen' Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu ' 
Chris ti; &c. 


Author of The English Black Monks of St Benedict ; History of the Jesuits in England. 

Philip I., II., and V. of Mace- 

Philo (in part). 

Pole, Cardinal. 

J Plutarch (in part). 


See the biographical article, PALEY, F. A. 

Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on I Pharynx; 

Anatomy at St Thomas's Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, H Placenta. 

London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons. 

See the biographical article : GOLDSMID (family). 


Reader in Egyptology, Oxford' University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey Pelusium; 

and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial J Pharaoh; 

German Archaeological Institute. Formerly Assistant Professor of Egyptology ~\ p n jlae' 
in University College, London. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis ; 

I "itiioni. 

J Persia: History, 1405-1884 (in 
\ part). 



See the biographical article: NANSEN, FRIDTJOF. 

Polar Regions (in part). 

FREDERICK WILLIAM GAMBLE, D.Sc., M.Sc., F.R.S. r ,__.._,.,-.,.. 

Professor of Zoology, Birmingham University. Formerly Assistant Director of the J "* 
Zoological Laboratories, and Lecturer in Zoology, University of Manchester. 1 Platyelmia. 
Author of Animal Life. Editor of Marshall and Hurst's Practical Zoology; &c. I 


F. W. R.* 

G. A. C.* 
G. A. Gr. 


G. Ch. 
G. C. W. 


G. E.* 

G. E. C. 
G. G. P.* 
G. H. Bo. 

G. H. Fo. 

G. W. R. 
H. Bi. 

H. Cl. 

H. De. 

H. F. G. 

H. G. de W. 
H. H. T. 

H. L. H. 

H. M. W. 


FREDERICK WILLIAM RUDLER, I.S.O., F.G.S. f Peridot; Phosphates: 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum f Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. H Mineral Phosphates (in part). 
President of the Geologists Association, 1887-1889. 


Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford, and Fellow of I Petra; 
Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary's Cathedral,] Phoenicia. 
Edinburgh. Author of Text Book of North Semitic Inscriptions; &c. 

Indian Civil Service, 1873-190 
1902. Gold Medallist, Ro 
Asiatic Society. Formerly 
of India ; &c. 


Professor of Mathematics and Dean of the Faculty of Arts, Edinburgh University. -( Perpetual Motion. 
Hon. Fellow and formerly Fellow and Lecturer, Corpus Christi College, Cambridge. L 

,, f Petitot, Jean; Petitot, J. Louis; 


Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures ; Life of Richard \ eii, ueo e jonn, 
Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of New Edition! rumer, Andrew; 
of Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and Engravers. Plimer, Nathaniel; 

I Plumbago Drawings. 

-1903. In charge of Linguistic Survey of India, 1898- 

>yal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal 4 Pisaca Languages 

Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages 

Ford's Lecturer, 1909. 
Member, Netherlands 


Peru: History (in part). 

Joint-editor of English \ Peerage. 


Plata, Rio de la. 

Phylactery (in part). 

f Petersburg Campaign: 

I (1864-1865). 


Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. 
Hon. Member, Dutch Historical Society; and Foreign 
Association of Literature. 


Peterhouse, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple. 
Reports. Author of Peerage Law and History. 


See the biographical article: CHURCH, G. E. 


Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law, Middle Temple. \ r 


Rector of Sutton Sandy, Beds. Formerly Hebrew Master, Merchant Taylors' 
School, London. Lecturer in Faculty of Theology, University of Oxford, 1908- ' 
1909. Author of Translation of Book of Isaiah; &c. 


Formerly Berkeley Research Fellow, Owens College, Manchester, and Assistant j Plankton. 
Professor of Zoology at University College, London. 


Author of The War oj Secession, 1861-1862; Fredericksburg: a Study in War. 


Assistant Professor of Latin-American History, Yale University. Albert Shaw J pv,jij DD j np 
Lecturer on Diplomatic History, Johns Hopkins University. Author of Journal'] 
of an Expedition across Venezuela and Colombia ; &c. 


Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly 
Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author-^ Penang. 
of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India; &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary 
of the Malay Language. 


Assistant in the compilation of the Bollandist publications: Analecta Bollandiana -< Pelagia, St. 
and A eta Sanctorum. ( 


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Aberystwyth (University of I p ers j a . 
Wales). Author of Catalogue of Persian Manuscripts in the India Office Library, ] 
London (Clarendon Press) ; &c. L 


Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. J Phororhacos. 
Author of " Amphibia and Reptiles " in the Cambridge Natural History. 


Instructor, Staff College, Camberley, Surrey. 


Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University of Oxford and Fellow of New J Photography, Celestial; 
College. President of the Royal Astronomical Society, 1903-1904. Author ofl Photometry, Celestial. 
Modern Astronomy; &c. t 

r Pharmacology: Terminology; 

/Plymouth (England). 

. TT , r , T , TTT , r , CT 
HARRIET L. HENNESSY, M.D. (Brux.), L.R.C.P.I., L.R.C.S.I. 


HARRY MARSHALL WARD, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S. (d. 1905). f 

Formerly Professor of Botany, University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Sidney 
Sussex College. President of the British Mycological Society. Author of Timber J Plants: Pathology. 
and Some of its Diseases; The Oak; Sack's Lectures on the Physiology of Plants; 
Diseases in Plants ; &c. 

J. Ga. 



Assistant in the Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities, British Museum. ~{ Plate (in part). 
Author of The Oldest Civilization of Greece ; &c. I 


Electrician to the General Post Office, London. Author of The Engineer's Year"] Pneumatic Despatch. 

Book ; &c. I 


Director of British Rainfall Organization. Editor of British Rainfall. President 
of the Royal Meteorological Society, 1907-1908. Hon. Member of Vienna Gep- J p Iar Regions 
graphical Society. Hon. Corresponding Member of Geographical Societies of Paris, 
Berlin, Budapest, St Petersburg, Amsterdam, &c. Author of The Realm of Nature; 
The International Geography; &c. 

H. R. T. HENRY RICHARD TEDDER, F.S.A. f p er j 0( jj ca i s 

Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London. \ 


Assistant Natural History Editor of The Field. Author of Popular History of\ Platypus (in part). 
Animals for Young People; Pond, and Rock Pools; &c. 

H. Sw. HENRY SWEET, M.A., PH.D., LL.D. f 

University Reader in Phonetics, Oxford. Corresponding Member of the Academies J pj, nnp f,,c 
of Munich, Berlin, Copenhagen and Helsingfors. Author of A History of English 1 
Sounds since the Earliest Period ; A Primer of Phonetics ; &c. 

H. S.-K. SIR HENRY SETON-KARR, C.M.G., M.A. /Pistol 

M.P. for St Helen's, 1885-1906. Author of My Sporting Holidays; &c. \ 


Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British J p , t ,. . ,\ 
School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. 1 a e ^ n P an >- 
Author of The Roman Empire ; &c. I 

H. W.* HAROLD W. T. WAGER, F.R.S. f 

H.M. Inspector of Secondary Schools, Board of Education, London. President, J Plants: Cytology. 
Botanical Section, British Association, 1905. Author of Memoirs on the Structure j 
of the Fungi ; &c. 


Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 1 Peter des R ch es. 
1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne. 


Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. J Perles Joseph. 
Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short j 
History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c. 


Professor of English Language and Literature, King's College, London, and Dean J p pa ,i rr,u 
of the Faculty of Arts, University of London. Fellow and Secretary of the British 1 ' 

Academy. Editor of The Pearl ; The " Temple " Shakespeare ; &c. I 

J. A. H. JOHN ALLAN HOWE, B.Sc. I" Permian; 

Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of 1 Pleistocene; 
The Geology of Building Stones. [ Pliocene. 

J. A. S. JOHN ADDINGTON SYMONDS, LL.D., D.C.L. J Petrarch; Poggio; 

See the biographical article: SYMONDS, J. A. j Politian. 


Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King's] pi.-for u/nrt 
College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior I rlasMr ~ worK - 
Engineers. Author of Quantities. 


King's College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. J phjlinnj 
Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of ] 
Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria. t. 

J. E. S.* JOHN EDWIN SANDYS, M.A. , Lrrr.D., LL.D. f Pliny the Elder; 

Public Orator in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John's College. 4 niinu *i,. 
Fellow of the British Academy. Author of History of Classical Scholarship; &c. 


Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpool University. Pereda, Jose Maria de; 
Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University. Fellow of the British Academy. 4 Perez Galdos, Benito; 
Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Picaresque Novel The. 
Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c. 

J. F. P. JOSEPH FRANK PAYNE, M.D., F.R.C.P. (1840-1910). r 

Formerly Harveian Librarian, Royal College of Physicians. Hon. Fellow of J _, ,. , 

Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of University of London. Author of Lectures 1 Plague (in part), 
on Anglo-Saxon Medicine; &c. 

JAMES GAIRDNER, C.B., LL.D. Jr>.,, . /.;., (; i, n .f\ 

See the biographical article: GAIRDNER, JAMES. \ *"* / om/ ? P ari > 

J. G. C. A. JOHN GEORGE CLARK ANDERSON, M.A. f Po . c -_.. c 

Student, Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln 1 
College. Craven Fellow (Oxford), 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893. 


J. G. FT. 

J. H. A. H. 
J. H. M. 

J. H. R. 
J. H. V. C. 

J. L. M. 

J. L. W. 

J. Mt. 

J. M. M. 
J. P. P. 

J. R. C. 
J. R. Gr. 

J. S. F. 

J. T. Be. 
J. T. C. 

J. W. 

J. Wai.* 
J. W. D. 



Professor of Social Anthropology, Liverpool University, and Fellow of Trinity - 
College, Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of The Golden 
Bough; &c. 


Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John's College, Cambridge. 

Penates (in part). 


JOHN HENRY MIDDLETON, M.A., LITT.D., F.S.A., D.C.L. (1846-1896). r 

Slade Professor of Fine Art in the University of Cambridge, 1886-1895. Director phi<ralia c; y,/, 
of the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1889-1892. Art Director of the South \ L. f . . fa " 
Kensington Museum, 1892-1896. ^Author of The^ Engraved Gems of Classical rintunccnio. 
'--'"' , .,. , m- ^ 

Times; Illuminated Manuscripts in Classical and Mediaeval Times. 


Balliol College, Oxford. Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family 
History ; Peerage and Pedigree. 


Lieut. -Colonel, Royal Artillery. Commandant of the Royal Military College of 
Canada. Formerly Chief Instructor in Military Topography and Military History 
and Tactics at the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich. Author of Epitome of the 
Russo-Turkish War, 1877-1878; &c. 


Percy: family (in part); 


in University of Oxford, and Student and Tutor of Christ Church. 
A History of Rome ; &c. 


Author of Arthurian Romances unrepresented in Malory. 


Minister of the United Free Church of Scotland. 
ment; &c. 

Author "of 

Author of Historical New Testa- 




J Philemon; 

"j Philippians, Epistle to the. 


Peloponnesian War; 

Persia: History (Transition 

Period) ; 
Plutarch (in part). 


Sometime Scholar of Queen's College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London 
College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote's History of Greece. 


Professor of Latin in the University of Liverpool. Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. Fellow of the British Academy. Editor of the Classical Quarterly. ' 
Editor-in-chiet of the Corpus Poetarum Latinorum ; &c. |_ 


Assistant to the Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy, Trinity College, < Phosphorescence. 
Dublin. Editor of 2nd edition of Preston's Theory of Heat. 


Fellow, Lecturer and Librarian of Downing College, Cambridge. Formerly Hartley J pi an tc. 
Lecturer on Plant Physiology, University of Liverpool. Author of History of 1 
Botany; &c. 


Petrographer to the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Formerly Lecturer 
on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London. 

f Pegmatite; Peridotite; 
Perlite; Petrology; Phonolite; 
Phosphates: Mineral Phos- 
phates (in part); Phylllte; 
Picrite; Pitchstone; 

JOHN THOMAS BEALBY. rPerm (in part); 

Joint-author of Stanford's Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical I Podolla (in part) ; 
Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin's Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c: I Poland, Russian (in part). 


Lecturer on Zoology at the South-Western Polytechnic, London. Formerly Fellow I P ear '> 
of University College, Oxford. Assistant Professor of Natural History in the 1 Pilchard. 
University of Edinburgh. Naturalist to the Marine Biological Association. L 


All Souls' Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln { Personal Property. 
College. Barrister of Lincoln's Inn. Author of Wills and Succession; &c. 


Major-General, Indian Army (retired). Assistant Surveyor-General of India in 

charge of Photographic and Lithographic Branch, Calcutta, 1866-1897. President -! Photography: Apparatus. 

of the Royal Photographic Society, 19051906. Author of The Preparation of I 

Drawings for Photographic Purposes ; &c. I 


Christ Church, Oxford. Demonstrator in the Clarendon Laboratory. Formerly J Polarization of Light 

Vice-President of the Physical Society. Author of The Analytical Theory of Light; } 



Captain, R.N. Nautical Assessor to the Court of Appeal. 

/Pilot dn part). 


x i 

K. G. 

K. L. 

K. S. 

Persia: Language. 

L. C. 

L. F. V.-H. 

L. J. S. 


M. Be. 
M. D. 
M. N. T. 

M. 0. B. C. 
M. V. 

N. D. M. 
N. M. 

N. V. 

N. W. T. 
0. A. 

0. Ba. 
0. C. W. 

P. A. K. 


Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology in the University of Marburg. 
Author of Vedische Studien ; &c. 


Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testa- J Peter, Saint; 
ment Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testa- I Peter, Epistles Of 
ment ; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ ; &c. 

Pedal Clarinet; 


Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the 

COUNT LtJTzow, Lnr.D., PH.D., F.R.G.S. 

Chamberlain of H.M. the Emperor of Austria, King of Bohemia. Hon. Member 
of the Royal Society of Literature. Member of the Bohemian Academy, &c. Author 
of Bohemia, a Historical Sketch; The Historians of Bohemia (Ilchester Lecture, 
Oxford, 1904) ; The Life and Times of John Hus; &c. 


See the biographical article: CAMPBELL, LEWIS. 


Professor of Civil Engineering at University College, London, 1882-1905. Author 
of Rivers and Canals ; Harbours and Docks ; Civil Engineering as applied in Con- ' 
struction; &c. 


Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of 
Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Miner- 
alogical Magazine. 


See the biographical article: MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY, BARON. 


Author of Pewter Plate ; &c. 


See the biographical article : DODS, MARCUS. 


Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. 
Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum. 

Philomel; Physharmonica; 
Pianoforte (in part); 
Piccolo; Pipe and Tabor; 

Podebrad, George Of. 


pj er 

r Perovskite; Petalite; 

f," 8 
1 Pnenaeite; PhllllpSlte; 

\ Phlogopite; Phosgenite; 
' Pitchblende; Plagioclase. 



Pela _ ius 


4 Perioeci. 

Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham 

Pelopidas; Periander; 

Pericles; Phocion; 

Phocis; Plataea. 

Professor of Physiology and Director of the Physiological Institute in the University -< Physiology. 
of Bonn. Author of Allgemeine Physiologie; &c. 


Reader in Ancient History at London University. 
University, 1905-1908. ' 

f Philippine Islands: 

\ Geography and Statistics - 

Author of Maryland as a Proprietary Province. 


Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ's - Philoxenus. 
College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint. 


Member of Acad^mie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Paris. Honorary Archivist 
at the Archives Nationales. Formerly President of the Societe de 1'Histoire de J Pisa, Council of. 
France and the Soci6t6 de 1'Ecole des Chartes. Author of La France et le grand I 
schisme d' Occident ; &c. 


Government Anthropologist to Southern Nigeria. Corresponding Member of the _, 

Soci6t6 d'Anthropolpgie of Paris. Author of Thought Transference; Kinship and] Physical Phenomena. 

Marriage in A ustralia ; &c. 


H.M. Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of J p finn William 
Education, London. Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles'] ' 

II. ; &c. Editor of the Lauderdale Papers ; &c. [ 


Editor of The Ancestor, 1902-1905. Hon. Genealogist to Standing Council of the < rote family). 
Honourable Society of the Baronetage. [ 


Senior Theological Tutor and Lecturer in Hebrew, Cheshunt College, Cambridge. -J Pentecost. 
Principal of the Countess of Huntingdon's College, Cheshunt, 1895-1905. [_ 


Professor of Mechanics and Mathematics in the Central Technical College of the I Perspective 
City and Guilds of London Institute. Author of Vectors and Rotors; Congruent 1 
Figures; &c. 


See the biographical article: KROPOTKIN, PRINCE P. A. 


[ Perm (*n 

Podolia (in part); 
[ Poland, Russian (in part). 


P. A. T. P. A. TIELE. f 

Formerly Librarian, Utrecht University. Author of Biographical and Historical i Plantin. 
Memoir on the Voyages of the Dutch Navigators ; &c. L 


Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in J Phosphorescence: in Zoology. 
Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. 
Author of Outlines of Biology ; &c. 

P. G. PERCY GARDNER, LL.D., F.S.A., D.LITT. / Pheidicis. 

See the biographical article : GARDNER, PERCY. I 

P. Gi. PETER GILES, M.A., LL.D., Lrrr.D. f 

Fellow and Classical Lecturer of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and University J Philology (in part) 

Reader in Comparative Philology. Formerly Secretary of the Cambridge Philological i 


P. La. PHILIP LAKE, M.A., F.G.S. I" 

Lecturer on Physical and Regional Geography in Cambridge University. Formerly J p ers j a - Ceoloev 

of the Geological Survey of India. Author of Monograph of British Cambrian ] 
Trilobites. Translator and Editor of Keyser's Comparative Geology. L 

P. Sm. PRESERVED SMITH, Pn.D. f p ius j an( j jj 

Rufus B. Kellogg University Fellow, Amherst College, U S.A. \ 


See the biographical article: VILLARI, PASQUALE. \ 


See the biographical article: JEBB, SIR RICHARD CLAVERHOUSE. \ rl 

R. G. RICHARD GARNETT, LL.D. / Peacock, Thomas Love. 

See the biographical article: GARNETT, RICHARD. \ 


R. I. P. REGINALD INNES POCOCK, F.Z.S. f p- d i na i ni . p pr ,tastnmida 

Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London. \ Pedlpalpl, atastomida. 


Formerly Professor of Chinese, King's College, London. Keeper of Oriental Printed 
Books and MSS. at British Museum, 1892-1907. Member of the Chinese Consular J Peking. 
Service, 1858-1865. Author of The Language and Literature of China; China; 
Europe and the Far East ; &c. I 

Peccary; Pecora; 

R. L.* RICHARD LYDEKKER, F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.G.S. Pere David's Deer; 

Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of J Perissodactyla* 
Catalogues of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The} ,. ..*, 

Deer of all Lands ;&c. ^ halal ^ e , r> enacodus, 

[ Pica; Polecat. 

R. N. B. ROBERT NISBET BAIN (d. 1909). f *>*ny; Pecl jlin; 

Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia; the e ' e ! ant * *" ' Russia; 
Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, J Petofl, Alexander Philaret; 
1613-1725; Slavonic Europe: The Political History of Poland and Russia from pjper, Carl; 
1460 to 1706; &c. I Poland: History (in part). 

R. Po. RENE POUPARDIN, D. ES L. Cm.-!' *. i> 

Secretary of the Ecole des Chartes. Honorary Librarian at the Bibliotheque I B010; 

Nationale, Paris. Author of Le Royaume de Provence sous les Carolingiens; Recueil\ Philip the Good. 
des chartes de Saint-Germain ; &c. 


Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past 

President of Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King's College, J Pier (in architecture). 

London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson's | 

History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c. [ 

R. S.* RALPH STOCKMAN, M.D., F.R.S.(Edin.), F.R.C.P.(Edin.). /Pharmacology. 

Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the University of Glasgow. 1 


Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. J pj cenum (in Part). 
Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff, and Fellow of Gonville 1 
and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects. [ 

R. W. ROBERT WALLACE, F.R.S.(Edin.), F.L.S. 

Professor of Agriculture and Rural Economy at Edinburgh University, and Garton I 

Lecturer on Colonial and Indian Agriculture. Professor of Agriculture, R.A.C., ,. .. 

Cirencester, 1882-1885. Author of Farm Live Stock of Great Britain; The Agri-\ PI S U fo.rt). 

culture and Rural Economy of Australia and New Zealand; Farming Industries of 

Cape Colony; &c. 


Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, 
Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Examiner in Hebrew and J Philistines. 
Aramaic, London University, 19041908. Author of Glossary of Aramaic In- 
scriptions; The Law of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old 
Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c. 


Keeper of Zoology, Natural History Department, British Museum. Fellow, I phorinidea 
formerly Tutor and Lecturer, King's College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of The j 
Cambridge Natural History. I 



Sherardian Professor of Botany, University of Oxford and Fellow of Magdalen 

College. Fellow of the University of London. President of the Linnean Society, , 

1900-1904. Formerly Reader in Botany in the University of Cambridge and ] Plants: Morphology. 

Fellow and Lecturer of Christ's College. Author of A Student's Textbook of Botany; 


S. N. SIMON NEWCOMB, D.Sc., LL.D. /Planet; 

See the biographical article : NEWCOMB, SIMON. \ Planets, Minor. 

T. As. THOMAS ASHBY, M.A., D.Lrrr. f 

Director of British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Perugia; 
Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of 4 Pjeenum (in part)' 
the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topo- pirnTnn 
graphy of the Roman Campagna. 

T. Ba. SIR THOMAS BARCLAY. f p eace - 

Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. J D ' r . 

Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for! 

Blackburn, 1910. [Pirate and Piracy: Law. 


Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., U.S.A. I rlllS 1U ' 1V * an V> 


Professor Superintendent, Brown Animal Sanatory Institution, University of 

London. Professor of Physiology, Royal Veterinary College, London. Lecturer-^ Phagocytosis. 

on Physiology, London School of Medicine for Women. Fellow of King's College, 

London. Author of Essentials of Experimental Physiology. 


Principal of the United Free Church College, Glasgow. Formerly Assistant to the J Plymouth Brethren (in part) 
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Author of j 
History of the Reformation ; Life of Luther; &c. L 

Th. N. THEODOR NOLDEKE, PH.D. /Persepolis (in part). 

See the biographical article : NOLDEKE, THEODOR. I 

T. S.* SIR THOMAS STEVENSON, M.D., F.R.C.P. (1838-1908). f 

Formerly Senior Scientific Analyst to the Home Office. Lecturer on Chemistry -J Poison, 
and Forensic Medicine at Guy's Hospital, London. 


See the biographical article: WATTS-DUNTON, WALTER THEODORE. \ 


Author of Atlantic Essays; Cheerful Yesterdays; History of the United States; &c. \ P ' 


Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the 
Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Secretary and Librarian of -j Piprawa. 
Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the 
Buddhists ; Early Buddhism ; Buddhist India ; Dialogues of the Buddha ; &c. 


Professor of Latin in the University of Sheffield. Formerly Fellow of St John's J Persius; 

College, Cambridge. Craven Scholar, 1890. Chancellor's Medallist, 1892. Author 1 PetronillS (in part). 

of A Study of Valerius Flaccus ; &c. 


Trinity College, Cambridge. Architect to the Ecclesiastical Commission and the -| Pearson, John Loughborough. 
Charity Commission, London 


See the biographical article: WHITNEY, WILLIAM DWIGHT. -^Philology (in part). 


Adviser in Science to the Board of Education for England. Member of the 

Advisory Council for Education to the War Office. Formerly President of Royal -j Photography. 

Astronomical Society, Physical Society and Royal Photographic Society. Author 

of Instruction in Photography ; Colour Vision ; &c. L 



Author of The Transvaal and the Boers. \ Phylloxera. 

W. Fr. WILLIAM FREAM, LL.D. (d. 1906). f 

Formerly Lecturer on Agricultural Entomology, University of Edinburgh, and -< Pig (in part). 
Agricultural Correspondent of The Times. 


Barrister-at-Law, Inner Temple and Lecturer on Criminal Law, King's College, -s Pleading. 
London. Editor of Archbold's Criminal Pleading (2yd edition). 


Professor of Zoology in the University of Leeds. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln 

College, Oxford. Scientific Adviser to H.M. Delegates on the International Council "j Pisciculture. 

for the Exploration of the Sea, 1901-1907. Author of The Impoverishment of the 

Sea; &c. 

W. Hi. WHEELTON HIND, M.D., F.R.C.S., F.G.S. f 

Surgeon, North Staffs Infirmary. Lyell Medallist, Geological Society, 1902. Author 4 Pendleside Series, 
of British Carboniferous Lambellibranchiata; &c. I 

W. H. F. SIR WILLIAM HENRY FLOWER, F.R.S. f Platypus (in part). 

See the biographical article: FLOWER, SIR W. H. 1 




See the biographical article : ROSSETTI, DANTE G. 

See the biographical article: RAMSAY, SIR W. M. 


See the article: COURTNEY, Baron. 


Formerly Professor of Russian and the other Slavonic Languages in the University 
of Oxford. Curator of the Taylorian Institution, Oxford. Author of Russia; 
Slavonic Literature; &c. 


See the biographical article: SMITH, WILLIAM ROBERTSON. 


Associate Professor of History, Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania. Author of 
Sectionalism in Pennsylvania during the Revolution ; &c. 


Author of A Great History of Music from the Infancy of the Greek Drama to the 
Present Period ; and other works on the history of music. 


PH.D., F.L.S. 

Hon. Student of Christ Church, Oxford. Director, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 
1885-1905. Botanical Adviser to Secretary of State for Colonies, 1902-1906. 
Joint-author of Flora of Middlesex. 


Assistant Professor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 


See the biographical article: SELLAR, W. Y. 

/Perino del Vaga; 
\ Perugino, Pietro. 

-} Phrygia; Pisidla. 

/Peterborough and Monmouth, 
1 Earl of. 


\ Poland: Lit, 

| Phylactery (in part). 
Polk, James Knox. 

Plain Song. 

Plants: Distribution. 

Pius VI., VII., and VIII. 

J Petronius (in part). 











Pembroke, Earls of. 












Pennine Chain. 

Perth (N.B.). 



Pennsylvania, University of. 

















Physiocratic School. 














Pitcher Plants. 







Plough and Ploughing. 


Plymouth (U.S.A.). 

Pneumatic Gun. 









PAYN, JAMES (1830-1898), English novelist, was born at 
Cheltenham, on the 28th of February 1830, his father being 
clerk to the Thames Commissioners and treasurer to the county 
of Berkshire. He was educated at Eton, and afterwards 
entered the Military Academy at Woolwich ; but his health was 
not equal to the demands of a military career, and he proceeded 
in 1847 to Trinity College, Cambridge. He was among the 
most popular men of his time, and served as president of the 
Union. Before going to Cambridge he had published some 
verses in Leigh Hunt's Journal, and while still an undergraduate 
put forth a volume of Stories from Boccaccio in 1852, and in 
1853 a volume of Poems. In the same year he left Cambridge, 
and shortly afterwards married Miss Louisa Adelaide Edlin, 
sister of Sir Peter Edlin. He then settled down in the Lake 
district to a literary career and contributed regularly to Household 
Words and Chambers' s Journal. In 1858 he removed to Edin- 
burgh to act as joint-editor of the latter periodical. He became 
sole editor in 1859, and conducted the magazine with much 
success for fifteen years. He removed to London in 1861. In 
the pages of the Journal he published in 1864 his most popular 
story, Lost Sir Massingberd. From this time he was always 
engaged in novel-writing, among the most popular of his 
productions being Married Beneath Him (1865), Carlyon's Year 
(1868), By Proxy (1878), and The Talk of the Town (1885). In 
1883 he succeeded Leslie Stephen as editor of the Cornhill 
Magazine and continued in the post until the breakdown of his 
health in 1896. He was also literary adviser to Messrs Smith, 
Elder & Company. His publications included a Handbook 
to the English Lakes (1859), and various volumes of occasional 
essays, Maxims by a Man of the World (1869), Some Private 
Views (1881), Some Literary Recollections (1884). A posthumous 
work, The Backwater of Life (1899), revealed much of his own 
personality in a mood of kindly, sensible reflection upon familiar 
topics. He died in London, on the 25th of March 1898. 

A biographical introduction to The Backwater of Life was furnished 
by Sir Leslie Stephen. 

PAYNE, PETER (c. 1380-1455), English Lollard and Taborite, 
the son of a Frenchman by an English wife, was born at Hough- 
on-the-Hill near Grantham, about 1380. He was educated at 
Oxford, where he adopted Lollard opinions, and had graduated 
as a master of arts before the 6th of October 1406, when he was 
concerned in the irregular proceedings through which a letter 
declaring the sympathy of the university was addressed to the 
Bohemian reformers. From 1410 to 1414 Payne was principal 
of St Edmund Hall, and during these years was engaged in 
controversy with Thomas Netter of Walden, the Carmelite 
defender of Catholic doctrine. In 1414 he was compelled to 
leave Oxford and taught for a time in London. Ultimately 


he had to flee from England, and took refuge in Bohemia, where 
he was received by the university of Prague on the i3th of 
February 1417, and soon became a leader of the reformers. 
He joined the sect of the " Orphans," and had a prominent part 
in the discussions and conferences of the ten years from 1420 
to 1430. When the Bohemians agreed to send representatives 
to the Council of Basel, Payne was naturally chosen to be one 
of their delegates. He arrived at Basel, on the 4th of January 
1433, and his unyielding temper and bitter words probably 
did much to prevent a settlement. The Bohemians left Basel 
in April. The party of the nobles, who had been ready to make 
terms, were attacked in the Diet at Prague, by the Orphans 
and Taborites. Next year the dispute led to open war. The 
nobles were victorious at Lipau on the 29th of May 1434, and 
it was reported in England that Payne was killed. When soon 
afterwards the majority of the Orphans joined the moderate 
party, Payne allied himself with the more extreme Taborites. 
Nevertheless his reputation was so great that he was accepted 
as an arbitrator in doctrinal disputes amongst the reformers. 
In February 1437 the pope desired the emperor Sigismund 
to send Payne to be tried for heresy at Basel. Payne had to 
leave his pastorate at Saas, and took refuge with Peter Chelcicky, 
the Bohemian author. Two years later he was captured and 
imprisoned at Gutenstein, but was ransomed by his Taborite 
friends. Payne took part in the conferences of the Bohemian 
parties in 1443-1444, and again in 1452. He died at Prague in 
1455. He was a learned and eloquent controversialist, and a 
faithful adherent to Wycliffe's doctrine. Payne was also known 
as Clerk at Oxford, as Peter English in Bohemia, and as Freyng, 
after his French father, and Hough from his birth place. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The chief facts of Payne's English career are 
given in the Loci e libra veritatum of T. Gascoigne (ed. Thorold 
Rogers, Oxford, 1881). For his later life the principal sources are 
contained in the Monumenta conciliorum generalium saeculi ., 
Saeculi xv., or saeculi quintodecimi, vols. i. iii. (Vienna, 18571894). 
For modern authorities consult Palacky, Geschichte von Bohmen, 
vii.-ix., and Creighton's History of the Papacy. The biography 
by James Baker, A Forgotten Great Englishman (London, 1894) 
is too partial. (C. L. K.) 

PAYNTER (or PAINTER), WILLIAM (c. 1540-1594), English 
author, was a native of Kent. He matriculated at St John's 
College, Cambridge, in 1554. In 1561 he became clerk of the 
ordnance in the Tower of London, a position in which he 
appears to have amassed a fortune out of the public funds. In 
1586 he confessed that he owed the government a thousand 
pounds, and in the next year further charges of peculation were 
brought against him. In 1591 his son Anthony owned that 
he and his father had abused their trust, but Paynter retained 
his office until his death. This event probably followed 


immediately upon his will, which was nuncupative and was 
dated the i4th of February 1594. The first volume of his Palace 
of Pleasure appeared in 1566, and was dedicated to the earl of 
Warwick. It included sixty tales, and was followed in the next 
year by a second volume containing thirty-four new ones. A 
second improved edition in 1575 contained seven new stories. 
Paynter borrows from Herodotus, Plutarch, Aulus Gcllius, 
Aelian, Livy, Tacitus, Quintus Curtius; from Giraldi Cinthio, 
Matteo Bandello, Ser Giovanni Fiorentino, Straparola, Queen 
Margaret of Navarre and others. To the vogue of this and 
similar collections we owe the Italian setting of so large a pro- 
portion of the Elizabethan drama. The early tragedies of 
A p plus and Virginia, and Tancred and Gismund were taken 
from The Palace of Pleasure; and among better-known plays 
derived from the book are the Shakespearian Timon of Athens, 
All's Well that Ends Well (from Giletta of Narbonne), Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Triumph of Death and Shirley's Love's Cruelty. 

The Palace of Pleasure was edited by Joseph Haslewood in 1813. 
This edition was collated (1890) with the British Museum copy of 
!575 by M r Joseph Jacobs, who added further prefatory matter, 
including an introduction dealing with the importance of Italian 
novelle in Elizabethan drama. 

PAYSANDtJ, or PAISANDU, a town and river port of Uruguay 
and capital of a department of the same name, on the left bank 
of the Uruguay River about 214 m. N.W. of Montevideo, with 
which it is connected by rail. Pop. (1908 estimate), 15,000. It 
has railway connexion with Rio Negro and Montevideo to the 
south-east, and with Salto and Santa Rosa, on the Brazilian 
frontier, on the north; it is at the head of low water navigation 
on the Uruguay River, and is in regular steamer communication 
with Montevideo and Buenos Aires. 

There are some good public buildings, including two churches, 
a hospital, a theatre and the government offices. Paysandii 
exports cattle and sheep and salted meats, hides, ox 
tongues, wool and other animal products. There is a meat- 
curing establishment (saladero) at Guaviyu, in the vicinity. 
The town was named in honour of Pay, or Pai (Father) Sandu, 
a priest who settled there in 1772. It has suffered severely 
from revolutionary outbreaks, was bombarded by Rivera 
in 1846, and was partly destroyed in 1865 by a Brazilian 
bombardment, after which its gallant defenders, Leandro 
Gomez and his companions, were butchered in cold blood. 

The department of Paysandu area 5117 sq. m.; pop. (1907, 
estimate), 54,097 is one of the richest stock-raising regions 
of the republic. 

PAYSON, EDWARD (1783-1827), American Congregational 
preacher, was born on the 25th of July 1783 at Rindge, New 
Hampshire, where his father, Seth Payson (1758-1820), was 
pastor of the Congregational Church. His uncle, Phillips Payson 
(1736-1801), pastor of a church in Chelsea, Massachusetts, 
was a physicist and astronomer. Edward Payson graduated 
at Harvard in 1803, was then principal of a school at Portland, 
Maine, and in 1807 became junior pastor of the Congregational 
Church at Portland, where he remained, after 1811, as senior 
pastor, until his death on the 22nd of October 1827. 

The most complete collection of his sermons, with a memoir by 
Asa Cummings originally published in 1828, is the Memoir, Select 
Thoughts and Sermons of the late Rev. Edward Payson (3 vols., Port- 
land, 1846; Philadelphia, 1859). "Based on this is the volume, 
Mementos of Edward Payson (New York, 1873), by the Rev. E. L. 
Janes of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

PAZMANY, PESTER (1570-1637), Hungarian cardinal and 
statesman, was born at Nagyvarad on the 4th of October 1570, 
and educated at Nagyvarad and Kolozsvar, at which latter 
place he quitted the Calvinist confession for the Roman com- 
munion (1583). In 1587 he entered the Jesuit order. Pazmany 
went through his probation at Cracow, took his degree at 
Vienna, and studied theology at Rome, and finally completed his 
academic course at the Jesuit college at Graz. In 1601 he was 
sent to the order's establishment at Sellye, where his eloquence 
and dialectic won back hundreds to Rome, including many 
of the noblest families. Prince Nicholas Esterhazy and Paul 
Rakoczy were among his converts. In 1607 he was attached 

to the archbishop of Esztergom, and in the following year 
attracted attention by his denunciation, in the Diet, of the 8th 
point of the peace of Vienna, which prohibited the Jesuits from 
acquiring landed property in Hungary. At about the same 
time the pope, on the petition of the emperor Matthias II., 
released Pazmany from his monkish vows. On the 25th of 
April 1616 he was made dean of Turocz, and on the 28th of 
September became primate of Hungary. He received the red 
hat from Urban VIII. in 1629. Pazmany was the soul of the 
Roman Catholic reaction in Hungary. Particularly remarkable 
is his Igazsdgra vezeto Kalauz (Guide to Truth), which appeared 
in 1613. This manual united all the advantages of scientific 
depth, methodical arrangement and popular style. As the chief 
pastor of the Hungarian church Pazmany used every means 
in his power, short of absolute contravention of the laws, to 
obstruct and weaken Protestantism, which had risen during 
the i6th century. In 1619 he founded a seminary for theological 
candidates at Nagyszombat, and in 1623 laid the foundations 
of a similar institution at Vienna, the still famous Pazmanaeum, 
at a cost of 200,000 florins. In 1635 he contributed 100,000 
florins towards the foundation of a Hungarian university. 
He also built Jesuit colleges and schools at Pressburg, and 
Franciscan monasteries at Ersekujvar and Kormoczbanya. 
In politics he played a considerable part. It was chiefly due 
to him that the diet of 1618 elected the archduke Ferdinand 
to succeed the childless Matthias II. He also repeatedly 
thwarted the martial ambitions of Gabriel Bethlen, and prevented 
George Rakoczy I., over whom he had a great influence, from 
combining with the Turks and the Protestants. But Pazmany's 
most unforgetable service to his country was his creation of the 
Hungarian literary language. As an orator he well deserved 
the epithet of " the Hungarian purple Cicero." Of his numerous 
works the chief are: The Four Books of Thomas d Kempis 
on the imitation of Christ (Hung., 1603), of which there are 
many editions; Diatribe theologica de msibili Christi in terris 
ecclesia (Graz, 1615); Vindiciae ecclesiasticae (Vienna, 1620); 
Sermons for every Sunday in the Year (Hung., Pressburg, 1636); 
The Triumph of Truth (Hung., Pressburg, 1614). 

See Vilmos Fraknoi, Peter Pdzmdny and his Times (Hung. Pest, 
1868-1872); Correspondence of Pazmany (Hung.and Latin), published 
by the Hungarian Academy (Pest, 1873). (R. N. B.) 

PAZ SOLDAN, MARIANO FELIPE (1821-1886), Peruvian 
historian and geographer, was born at Arequipa, on the 22nd 
of August 1821. He studied law, and after holding some minor 
judicial offices, was minister to New Granada in 1853. After his 
return he occupied himself with plans for the establishment 
of a model penitentiary at Lima, which he was enabled to 
accomplish through the support of General Castilla. In 1860 
Castilla made him director of public works, in which capacity 
he superintended the erection of the Lima statue of Bolivar. 
He was also concerned in the reform of the currency by the 
withdrawal of the debased Bolivian coins. In 1861 he published 
his great atlas of the republic of Peru, and in 1868 the first 
volume of his history of Peru after the acquisition of her inde- 
pendence. A second volume followed, and a third, bringing 
the history down to 1839, was published after his death by his 
son. In 1870 he was minister of justice and worship under 
President Balta, but shortly afterwards retired from public 
life to devote himself to his great geographical dictionary of 
Peru, which was published in 1877. During the disastrous 
war with Chile he sought refuge at Buenos Aires, where he was 
made professor in the National College, and where he wrote 
and published a history of the war (1884). He died on the 
3ist of December 1886. 

PEA (Pisum), a genus of the order Leguminosae, consisting 
of herbs with compound pinnate leaves ending in tendrils, by 
means of which the weak stems are enabled to support themselves, 
and with large leafy stipules at the base. The flowers (fig. i) 
are typically " papilionaceous," with a " standard " or large 
petal above, two side petals or wings, and two front petals 
below forming the keel. The stamens are ten nine united, 
the tenth usually free or only slightly joined to the others. 




FIG. i. Flower of Pea. 
c, Calyx. 
st, Standard, 
a, Alae, or wings. 
car, Carina, or Keel. 

This separation allows approach to the honey which is secreted 
at the base of the staminal tube. The ovary is prolonged 
into a long, thick, bent style, com- 
pressed from side to side at the tip 
and fringed with hairs. The fruit is 
a characteristic " legume " or pod 
(fig. 2), bursting when ripe into halves, 
which bear the large globular seeds 
(peas) on their edges. These seeds 
are on short stalks, the upper ex- 
tremity of which is dilated into a 
shallow cup (aril); the two seed-leaves 
(cotyledons) are thick and fleshy, with 
a radicle bent along their edges on 
one side. The genus is exceedingly close to Lalhyrus, being 
only distinguished technically by the style, which in the latter 
genus is compressed from above downwards and not thick. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that under 
the general name " pea " species both of 
Pisum and of Lalhyrus are included. The 
common field pea with tan-coloured or 
compressed mottled seeds and two to four 
leaflets is Pisum arvense, which is culti- 
vated in all temperate parts of the globe, 
but which, according to the Italian 
botanists, is truly a native of central and 
southern' Italy: it has purple flowers. 
The garden pea, P. sativum, which has 
white flowers, is more tender than the 
preceding, and its origin is not known. 
It has not been found in a wild state 
anywhere, and it is considered that it 
may be a form of P. arvense, having, 
however, from four to six leaflets to 
From vine's student each leaf and globular seeds of uniform 

Text-book of Botany, by colour. 
permission of Swan, Son- 
nenschein & Co. 

p IG- 2 _ _ The 

r, The dorsal suture. 
6, The ventral. 
c, Calyx. 
s, Seeds. 

P. sativum was known to Theophrastus ; 
and De Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, 

(legume) of the Pea. P- 3.29) points out that the word " pison " 
or its equivalent occurs in the Albanian 
tongue as well as in Latin, whence he con- 
cludes that the pea was known to the Aryans, 
and was perhaps brought by them into 
Greece and Italy. Peas have been found 
in the Swiss lake-dwellings of the bronze period. The garden 
peas differ considerably in size, shape of pod, degree of productive- 
ness, form and colour of seed, &c. The sugar peas are those in which 
the inner lining of the pod is very thin instead of being somewhat 
horny, so that the whole pod can be eaten. Unlike most papilion- 
aceous plants, peaflowers are perfectly fertile without the aid of 
insects, and thus do not intercross so freely as most similar plants do. 
On the other hand, a case is known wherein the pollen from a purple- 
podded pea applied to the stigma of one of the green-podded sugar 
peas produced a purple pod, showing that not only the ovule but even 
the ovary was affected by the cross. The numerous varieties of 
peas in cultivation have been obtained by cross-fertilization, but 
chiefly by selection. Peas constitute a highly nutritious article of 
diet from the large quantity of nitrogenous materials they contain 
in addition to starchy and saccharine matters. 

The sweet pea, cultivated for the beauty and fragrance of its 
flowers, is a species of the allied genus Lathyrus (L. odoratus), a 
native of southern Europe. The chick pea (q.v.) (Cicer arieti- 
num), not cultivated in England, is still farther removed from 
the true peas. The everlasting pea of gardens is a species of 
Lathyrus (L. latifolius) with very deep fleshy roots, bold foliage, 
and beautiful but scentless flowers; the field pea (Pisum arvense) 
is better adapted than the bean to light soils, and is best culti- 
vated in rows of such a width as to admit of horse-hoeing. 
The early stage at which the plants fall over, and forbid further 
culture, renders it even more needful than in the case of beans 
to sow them only on land already clean. If annual weeds can 
be kept in check until the peas once get a close cover, they then 
occupy the ground so completely that nothing else can live 
under them; and the ground, after their removal, is found in 
the choicest condition. A thin crop of peas should never be 
allowed to stand, as the land is sure to get perfectly wild. The 

difficulty of getting this crop well harvested renders it peculiarly 
advisable to sow only the early varieties. 

The pea prefers a friable calcareous loam, deeply worked, and well 
enriched with good hotbed or farm-yard manure. The early crops 
require a warm sheltered situation, but the later are better grown 
6 or 8 ft. apart, or more, in the open quarters, dwarf crops being in- 
troduced between the rows. The dwarf or early sorts may be sown 
3 or 4 ft. apart. The deep working of the soil is of importance, 
lest the plants should suffer in hot dry weather from mildew or 
arrest of growth. The first sowing may be made about the beginning 
or middle of November, in front of a south wall, the plants being 
defended by spruce fir branches or other spray throughout the winter. 
In February sowings are sometimes made in private gardens, in flower- 
pots or boxes, and the young plants afterwards planted out. The 
main crop should be sown towards the end of February, and moder- 
ate sowings should be made twice a month afterwards, up to the 
beginning of July for the north, and about the third week in July 
for warmer districts. During dry hot weather late peas derive 
great benefit from mulching and watering. The latest sowings, 
at the middle or end of August, should consist of the best early sorts, 
as they are not so long in producing pods as the larger and finer 
sorts, and by this means the supply may be prolonged till October 
or November. As they grow the earth is drawn up to the stems, 
which are also supported by stakes, a practice which in a well-kept 
garden is always advisable, although it is said that the early varieties 
arrive sooner at maturity when recumbent. 

Peas grown late in autumn are subject to mildew, to obviate 
which it has been proposed to dig over the ground in the usual way, 
and to soak the spaces to be occupied by the rows of peas thoroughly 
with water the earth on each side to be then collected so as to 
form ridges 7 or 8 in. high, these ridges being well watered, and the 
seed sown on them in single rows. If dry weather at any time S'.-t 
in, water should be supplied profusely once a week. 

To produce very early crops the French market-gardeners used to 
sow early in November, in frames, on a border having a good aspect, 
the seeds being covered very slightly. The young plants are trans- 
planted into other frames in December, the ground inside being 
dug out so as to be 18 or 20 in. below the sashes, and the earth thus 
removed placed against the outside of the frames. The young 
plants, when 3 or 4 in. high, are planted in patches of three or 
four, 8 in. asunder, in four longitudinal rows. The sashes are covered 
at night with straw mats, and opened whenever the weather is 
sufficiently mild. When 8 or 10 in. high the stems are inclined 
towards the back of the frame, a little earth being drawn to their 
base, and when the plants come into blossom the tops are pinched out 
above the third or fourth flower to force them into bearing. As 
soon as they begin to pod, the soil may have a gentle watering, 
whenever sufficiently warmed by the sun, but a too vigorous growth 
at an earlier period would be detrimental. Thus treated the plants 
bear pods fit for gathering in the first fortnight in April. 

A very convenient means of obtaining an early crop is to sow in 
5-in. pots, a few seeds in each, the plants to be ultimately planted 
out on a warm border. Peas may also be obtained early if gently 
forced in frames, in the same way as kidney beans, the dwarfest 
varieties being preferable. 

For the very early peas the rows should range east and west, 
but for the main crops north and south. The average depth of the 
drills should be about 2 in. for small sorts, and a trifle more for 
the larger kinds. The drills should be made wide and flat at bottom 
so that the seeds may be better separated in sowing. The large 
sorts are the better for being sown 3 in. apart. Chopped furze 
may be advantageously scattered in the drill before covering in, 
to check the depredations of mice, and before levelling the surface 
the soil should be gently trodden down over the seeds. 

A good selection of sorts may be made from the following : 

Early. William Hurst; Chelsea Gem; Sutton's Bountiful and 
Excelsior; Gradus. 

Second Early. Stratagem ; Telephone ; Telegraph ; Carter's Daisy ; 
Duke of York; Veitch's Autocrat. 

Late. Veitch's Perfection; Ne Plus Ultra, the finest of all late 
peas, but a little delicate in cold wet soils and seasons ; British Queen ; 
Champion of England ; Duke of Albany. 

PEABODY, ANDREW PRESTON (1811-1893), American 
clergyman and author, was born in Beverly, Massachusetts, 
on the i Qth of March 1811, and was descended from Lieut. 
Francis Peabody of St Albans, who emigrated to Massachusetts 
in 1635. He learned to read before he was three years old, 
entered Harvard College at the age of twelve, and graduated 
in 1826, with the single exception of Paul Dudley (class of 1690) 
the youngest graduate of Harvard. In 1833 he became assistant 
pastor of the South Parish (Unitarian) of Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire; the senior pastor died before Peabody had been 
preaching a month, and he succeeded to the charge of the church, 
which he held until 1860. In 1852-1860 he was proprietor and 
editor of the North American Review. He was preacher to 


Harvard University and Plummer professor of Christian morals 
from 1860 to 1 88 1, and was professor emeritus from 1881 until 
his death in Boston, Massachusetts, on the loth of March 1893. 
On the walls of Appleton Chapel, Cambridge, U.S.A., is a bronze 
tablet to his memory. 

Besides many brief memoirs and articles, he wrote: Christianity 
the Religion of Nature (2 id ed., 1864), Lowell Institute Lectures; 
Reminiscences of European Travel (1868); A Manual of Moral 
Philosophy (1873); Christian Belief and Life (1875), and Harvard 
Reminiscences (1888). See the Memoir (Cambridge, 1896) by 
Edward J. Young. 

PEABODY, ELIZABETH PALMER (1804-1894), American 
educationist, was born at Billerica, Massachusetts, on the i6th 
of May 1804. Early in life she was assistant in A. Bronson 
Alcott's school in Boston, Mass., the best account of which is 
probably her Record of Mr Alcott's School (1835). She had been 
instructed in Greek by Emerson at Concord when she was 
eighteen years old. She became interested in the educational 
methods of Froebel, and in 1860 opened in Boston a small school 
resembling a kindergarten. In 1867 she visited Germany for 
the purpose of studying Froebel's methods. It was largely 
through her efforts that the first public kindergarten in the 
United States was established in Boston in 1870. She died at 
Jamaica Plain, Boston, on the 3rd of January 1894. She was 
the sister-in-law of Nathaniel Hawthorne and of Horace Mann. 

Among her publications are: Kindergarten in Italy (1872); 
Reminiscences of William Ellery Channing (1880); Lectures in the 
Training Schools for Kinder gar tners (1888); and Last Evening with 
Allslon, and other Papers (1886). 

PEABODY, GEORGE (1795-1869), American philanthropist, 
was descended from an old yeoman family of Hertfordshire, 
England, named Pabody or Pebody. He was born in the part 
of Danvers which is now Peabody, Mass., on the i8th of February 
1795. When eleven years old he became apprentice at a 
grocery store. At the end of four years he became assistant to 
his brother, and a year afterwards to his uncle, who had a 
business in Georgetown, District of Columbia. After serving as a 
volunteer at Fort Warburton, Maryland, in the War of 1812, he 
became partner with Elisha Riggs in a dry goods store at George- 
town, Riggs furnishing the capital, while Peabody was manager. 
Through his energy and skill the business increased with astound- 
ing rapidity, and on the retirement of Riggs about 1830 Peabody 
found himself at the head of one of the largest mercantile con- 
cerns in the world. About 1837 he established himself in London 
as merchant and money-broker at Wanford Court, in the city, 
and in 1843 he withdrew from the American business. The 
number of his benefactions to public objects was very large. 
He gave 50,000 for educational purposes at Danvers; 200,000 
to found and endow a scientific Institute in Baltimore; various 
sums to Harvard University; 700,000 to the trustees of the 
Peabody Educational Fund to promote education in the 
southern states; and 500,000 for the erection of dwelling-houses 
for the working-classes in London. He received from Queen 
Victoria the offer of a baronetcy, but declined it. In 1867 the 
United States Congress awarded him a special vote of thanks. 
He died in London on the 4th of November 1869; his body 
was carried to America in a British warship, and was buried 
in his native town. 

See the Life (Boston, 1870) by Phebe A. Hanaford. 

PEABODY, a township of Essex county, Massachusetts, 
U.S.A., in the eastern part of the state, 2 m. N.W. of Salem. 
Pop. (1905) 13,098; (1910) 15,721. It is served by the Boston & 
Maine railroad. The township covers an area of 17 sq. m. Its 
principal village is also known as Peabody. It contains the 
Peabody institute (1852), a gift of George Peabody ; in 1909 the 
institute had a library of 43,200 vols., and in connexion with it is 
the Eben Dale Sutton reference library, containing 4100 vols. 
in 1909. In the institute is the portrait of Queen Victoria given 
by her to Mr Peabody. Among the places of interest in the 
township are the birthplace of George Peabody, the home of 
Rufus Choate (who lived here from 1823 to 1828), and the old 
burying-ground, where many soldiers of the War of Indepen- 
dence are buried; and the town has a Lexington monument, 

dedicated in 1835, and a soldiers' monument, dedicated in 1881. 
Manufacturing is the principal industry, and leather is the 
principal product; among other manufactures are shoes, gloves, 
glue and carriages. The value of the factory products in 
1905 was $10,236,669, an increase of 47-4% over that for 1900, 
and of the total the leather product represented 77-3%. 

Peabody was originally a part of the township of Salem. In 
1752 the district of Danvers was created, and in 1757 this district 
was made a separate township. In 1855 the township was divided 
into Danvers and South Danvers, and in 1868 the name of South 
Danvers was changed to Peabody, in honour of George Peabody. 

See Old Naumkeag (Salem, 1877), by C. H. Webber and W. H. 

PEACE, a river of western Canada. It rises in the Rocky 
Mountains near 55 N., and breaking through the mountains, 
flows N.E. into Slave River, near lake Athabasca. The district 
between 56 40' and 60 N., and between 112 W. and the Rocky 
Mountains is usually known as the Peace River district. 

PEACE (Lat. pax; FT. paix; Ger. Friede), the contrary of 
war, conflict or turmoil, and the condition which follows their 
cessation. Its sense in international law is the condition of 
not being at war. The word is also used as an abridgment for 
a treaty of peace, in such cases as the Peace of Utrecht (1713) 
and the Peace of Amiens (1802). 

Introduction. Peace until quite recently was merely the 
political condition which prevailed in the intervals between 
wars. It was a purely negative condition. Even Grotius, who 
reduced the tendencies existing in his time to a sort of orderly 
expression, addressed himself to the law of war as the positive 
part of international jurisprudence and dealt only with peace 
as its negative alternative. The very name of his historic 
treatise, De jure belli ac pads (1625), shows the subordination 
of peace to the main subject of war. In our own time peace has 
attained a higher status. It is now customary among writers 
on international law to give peace at any rate a volume to itself. 
Peace in fact has become a separate branch of the subject. The 
rise of arbitration as a method of settling international difficulties 
has carried it a step further, and now the Hague Peace Con- 
ventions have given pacific methods a standing apart from war. 
and the preservation of peace has become an object of direct 
political effort. The methods for ensuring such preservation 
are now almost as precise as the methods of war. However 
reluctant some states may be to bind themselves to any rules 
excluding recourse to brute force when diplomatic negotiations 
have failed, they have nevertheless unanimously at the Hague 
Conference of 1907 declared their " firm determination to co- 
operate in the maintenance of general peace " (la ferme volontt 
de concourir au mainlien de la paix gfnfrale) 1 , and their resolution 
" to favour with all their efforts the amicable settlement of 
international conflicts " (preamble to Peace Convention). The 
offer of mediation by independent powers is provided for (Peace 
Convention: art. 3), and it is specifically agreed that in matters 
of a " legal character " such as " questions of interpretation and 
application " of international conventions, arbitration is the 
" most efficacious and at the same time most equitable method " 
of settling differences which have not been solved by diplomacy 
(Peace Convention: art. 38). In the final act, the conference 
went farther in agreeing to the " principle of compulsory arbi- 
tration," declaring that " certain disputes, in particular those 
relating to the interpretation and application of the provisions 
of international agreements, are suitable (susceptible) to be 
submitted to compulsory arbitration without any restriction." 

These declarations were obviously a concession to the wide- 
spread feeling, among civilized nations, that peace is an object 
in itself, an international political condition requiring its code of 
methods and laws just as much as the domestic political conditions 
of nations require their codes of methods and laws. In other 
words peace among nations has now become, or is fast becoming, 
a positive subject of international regulation, while war is 

1 This has been incorrectly rendered in the English official trans- 
lation as " the sincere desire to work for the maintenance of general 


coming, among progressive peoples, to be regarded merely as an 
accidental disturbance of that harmony and concord among 
mankind which nations require for the fostering of their 
domestic welfare. 

Though the idea of preserving peace by general international 
regulation has had several exponents in the course of ages, no 
deliberate plan has ever yet been carried into effect. Indirectly, 
however, there have been many agencies which have operated 
towards this end. The earliest, known to history, is the Amphi- 
ctyonic Council (q.v.) which grew out of the common worship 
of the Hellenes. It was not so much a political as a religious 
body. " If it had any claim," says Freeman, 1 " to the title of a 
general council of Greece, it was wholly in the sense in which we 
speak of general councils in modern Europe. The Amphictyonic 
Council represented Greece as an ecclesiastical synod repre- 
sented western Christendom. Its primary business was to 
regulate the concerns of the temple of Apollo at Delphi. The 
Amphictyonic Council which met at Delphi was only the most 
famous of several bodies of the same kind." " It is easy, 
however," adds Freeman, " to understand how the religious 
functions of such a body might assume a political character. 
Thus the old Amphictyonic oath forbade certain extreme 
measures of hostility against any city sharing in the common 
Amphictyonic worship, and it was forbidden to raze any Amphi- 
ctyonic city or to cut off its water. As the only deliberative 
body in which most Greek communities were represented, its 
decisions were those of the bulk of the Hellenic people. It sank 
eventually into a mere political tool in the hands first of Thebes, 
and then under Philip of Macedonia." 

The so-called pax romana was merely peace within an 
empire governed from a central authority, the constituent 
parts of which were held together by a network of centralized 

The feudal system again was a system of offence and defence, 
and its object was efficiency for war, not the organized regulation 
of peace. Yet it had elements of federation within the bonds of 
its hierarchy. 

The spiritual influence of the Church again was exerted to 
preserve relative peace among feudal princes. The " Truce of 
God " was established by the clergy (originally in Guyenne in 
1031) to take advantage of holy days and festivals for the purpose 
of restricting the time available for bloodshed. 

The " grand design " of Henry IV. (France), which some 
historians regard merely as the fantastic idea of a visionary, was 
probably a scheme of his great minister Sully to avert by a 
federation the conflict which he probably foresaw would break 
out sooner or later between Catholic and Protestant Europe, 
and which, in fact, broke out some fifteen years later in the 
Thirty Years' War. 

The Holy Roman Empire itself was in some respects an agent 
for the preservation of peace among its constituent states. In 
the same way the federation of Swiss cantons, of the states of the 
North American Union and of the present German Empire have 
served as means of reducing the number of possible parties to war, 
and consequently that of its possible occasions. 

Not only the number of possible war-making states but also 
the territorial area over which war can be made has been 
reduced in recent times by the creation of neutralized states such 
as Switzerland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Norway, and areas 
such as the Congo basin, the American lakes and the Suez Canal. 

The " balance of power," which has played in the history of 
modern Europe such an important part, is inherent in the 
notion of the independence and stability of states. Just as in 
Italy the common weal of the different republics which were 
crowded within the limited area of the peninsula required that 
no one of them should become so powerful as to threaten the 
independence of the others, so western Europe had a similar 
danger to counteract. France, Spain and the Empire were 
competing with each other in power to the detriment of smaller 
states. Great Britain and the Netherlands, Prussia and Russia, 

1 History of Federal Government in Greece and Italy (2nd ed., 
London, 1893), p. 97. 

had interests in the preservation of the status quo, and wars were 
waged and treaties concluded to adjust the strength of states in 
the common interest of preventing any one of them from obtain- 
ing undue predominance. Then came the break up of what 
remained of feudal Europe and a readjustment under Napoleon, 
which left the western world with five fairly balanced homo- 
geneous nations. These now took the place of the old hetero- 
geneous areas, governed by their respective sovereigns without 
reference to any idea of nationality or of national representation. 
The leading nations assumed the hegemony of the west, and in 
more recent times this combination has become known as the 
" concert of Europe." This concert of the great powers, as 
its name implies, in contradistinction to the " balance of 
power," was essentially a factor for the preservation of peace. 
For a century back it has played the part of an upper council in 
the management of Europe. In all matters affecting the Near 
East, it considers itself supreme. In matters of general interest 
it has frequently called conferences to which the minor states 
have been invited, such as the West African Conference in Berlin 
in 1885, and the Anti-Slavery Conference at Brussels in 1889- 
1890, and the Conference of Algeciras in 1906. Meanwhile the 
concert has admitted among its members first in 1856 Turkey, 
later in 1878 at the Congress of Berlin the United States, and 
now undoubtedly Japan will expect to be included as a great 
power in this controlling body. The essential feature of the 
concert has been recognition of the advantage to all the great 
powers of common action in reference to territorial changes in 
the Near East, of meeting together as a council, in preference 
to unconcerted negotiation by the powers acting severally. 

A departure of more recent origin has been the calling together 
of the smaller powers for the settlement of matters of general 
administrative interest, conferences such as those which led to 
the conclusion of the conventions creating the Postal Union, 
the Copyright and Industrial Property Unions, &c. 

These conferences of all the powers serve in practice as a sort 
of common council in the community of states, just as the 
concert of the great powers acts as a kind of senate. We have 
thus the nucleus of that international parliament which idealist 
peacemakers have dreamt of since the time of Henry IV. 's 
" grand design." 

This brings us down to the greatest deliberate effort ever made 
to secure the peace of the world by a general convention. It 
was due to the initiative of the young tsar Nicolas II., who, 
in his famous rescript of the 24th of August 1898, stated that 
he thought that the then moment was " very favourable for 
seeking, by means of international discussion, the most effectual 
means of assuring to all peoples the benefits of a real and durable 
peace." " In the course of the last twenty years," added the 
rescript, " the preservation of peace had become an object of 
international policy." Economic crises, due in great part to the 
existing system of excessive armaments, were transforming 
armed peace into a crushing burden, which peoples had more and 
more difficulty in bearing. He therefore proposed that there 
should be an international conference for the purpose of focusing 
the efforts of all states which were " sincerely seeking to make 
the great idea of universal peace triumph over the elements 
of trouble and discord." The first conference was held in 1899, 
and another followed it in 1907: at the earlier one twenty-six 
powers were represented; at that of 1907 there were forty-four, 
this time practically the whole world. The conventions drawn 
up at the second conference were a deliberate codification of 
many branches of international law. By them a written law 
has been substituted for that unwritten law which nations had 
been wont to construe with a latitude more or less corre- 
sponding to their power. At the conference of 1899, moreover, 
a court of arbitration was instituted for the purpose of dealing 
judicially with such matters in dispute as the powers agreed to 
submit to it. 

In the interval between the two Hague Conferences, Great 
Britain and France concluded the first treaty applicable to 
future difficulties, as distinguished from the treaties which had 
preceded it, treaties which related in all cases to difficulties already 


existing and confined to them. This treaty made arbitration 
applicable to all matters not affecting " national honour or vital 
interests." Since then a network of similar treaties, adopted 
by different nations with each other and based on the Anglo- 
French model, has made reference to the Hague Court of Arbitra- 
tion practically compulsory for all matters which can be settled by 
an award of damages or do not affect any vital national interest. 

The third Hague Conference is timed to be held in 1917. 
Meanwhile a conference of the maritime powers was held in 
London in 1908-1909 for the elaboration of a code of international 
maritime law in time of war, to be applied in the international 
Court of Prize, which had been proposed in a convention signed 
ad referendum at the Hague Conference of 1907. 

A further development in the common efforts which have 
been made by different powers to assure the reign of justice 
and judicial methods among the states of the world was the pro- 
posal of Secretary Knox of the United States to insert in the 
instrument of ratification of the International Prize Court 
Convention (adopted at the Hague in 1897) a clause stating 
that the International Prize Court shall be invested with the 
duties and functions of a court of arbitral justice, such as 
recommended by the first Voeu of the Final Act of the con- 
ference. The object of this proposal was to give effect to the 
idea that the existing " permanent " court lacked the essential 
characteristics of national courts of justice in not being ready 
at all times to hear cases, and in needing to be specially con- 
stituted for every case submitted to it. The new court would 
be permanently in session at the Hague, the full panel of 
judges to assemble in ordinary or extraordinary session once 
a year. 

Thus, while armaments are increasing, and wars are being 
fought out in the press and in public discussion, the great 
powers are steadily working out a system of written law and 
establishing a judiciary to adjust their differences in accordance 
with it. 1 

The Current Grouping of Mankiitd and Nation-making. 
In the consolidation of peace one of the most important 
factors is unquestionably the grouping of mankind in accordance 
with the final territorial and racial limitations of their apparent 
destiny. Language has played a vital part in the formation 
of Germany and Italy. The language question still disturbs 
the tranquillity of the Near East. The Hungarian government 
is regarded by the Slav, Ruman and German inhabitants 
of the monarchy as an oppressor for endeavouring to force every- 
body within the realm to learn the Magyar language. The 
" Young Turkish " government has problems to face which will 
be equally difficult, if it insists on endeavouring to institute 
centralized government in Turkey on the French model. 

Whereas during the igth century states were being cut out 
to suit the existing distribution of language, in the 2oth the 
tendency seems to be to avoid further rearrangement of boun- 
daries, and to complete the homogeneity, thus far attained, by 
the artificial method of forcing reluctant populations to adopt 
the language of the predominant or governing race. In the 
United States this artificial method has become a necessity, to 
prevent the upgrowth of alien communities, which might at some 
later date cause domestic trouble of a perilous character. For 
example, when a community of French Canadians, discontented 
with British rule, many years ago migrated and settled in 
Massachusetts, they found none of the tolerance they had 
been enjoying in Canada for their French schools and the 
French language they wished to preserve. In Alsace-Lorraine 
German-speaking immigrants are gradually displacing, under 

1 Schemes of thinkers, like William Penn's European Parliament 
(1693); the Abb6 St Pierre's elaboration (c. 1700) of Henry IV.'s 
"grand design" (see supra); Jeremy Bentham's International 
Tribunal (1786-1789); Kant's Permanent Congress of Nations and 
Perpetual Peace (1796); John Stuart Mill's Federal Supreme Court; 
Seeley's, Bluntschli's, David Dudley Field's, Professor Leone Levi's, 
Sir Edmund Hornby's co-operative schemes for promoting law and 
order among nations, have all contributed to popularizing in 
different countries the idea of a federation of mankind for the 
preservation of peace. 

government encouragement, the French-speaking population. 
Poland is another case of the difficulty of managing a population 
which speaks a language not that of the governing majority, and 
Russia, in trying to solve one problem by absorbing Finland 
into the national system, is burdening herself with another 
which may work out in centuries of unrest, if not in domestic 
violence. Not very long ago Pan-Germans were paying much 
attention to the German settlers in the Brazilian province of 
Rio Grande do Sul, where large villages spoke nothing but German, 
and German, as the only language known on the spot, had become 
the tongue in which municipal business was transacted. The 
Brazilian government, in view of the danger to which such a 
state of things might give rise, followed the example of the 
United States in dealing with the language question. 

Thus while in the one case homogeneity of language within 
state boundaries seems to be one of the conditions making for 
peace, the avoidance of interference with a well-marked homo- 
geneous area like Finland would seem to contribute equally to 
the 'same end. 

Meanwhile the difficulties in the way of contemporary nation- 
making are fostered by many extraneous influences, as well as 
by dogged resistance of the races in question. Not the least 
important of these influences is the sentimental sympathy felt 
for those who are supposed to be deprived of the use of their 
mother-tongue, and who are subjected to the hardship of learning 
an alien one. The hardship inflicted on those who have to 
learn a second language is very easily exaggerated, though it 
is to be regretted that in the case of Hungary the second language 
is not .one more useful for international purposes. 

Contemporary Statecraft. Nation-making has hitherto been 
more or less unconscious the outcome of necessity, a natural 
growth due to the play of circumstance and events. But in 
our own age conscious statecraft is also at work, as in Canada, 
where the genius of statesmen is gradually endowing that 
dominion with all the attributes of independence and power. 
Australia has not learnt the lesson of Canada in vain. Whatever 
value may attach to the consolidation of the British Empire 
itself as a factor in spreading the peace which reigns within it, 
it is also a great contribution to the peace of the world that the 
British race should have founded practically independent states 
like the Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, 
the South African Union and the Dominion of New Zealand. 
These self-governing colonies with their spheres of influence, 
with vast areas still unpeopled, have a future before them 
which is dissociated from the methods of an over-peopled 
Europe, and among them the preservation of peace is 
the direct object and condition of their progressive develop- 
ment. Like the United States, they have or will have their 
Monroe doctrine. Colonized by the steady industrial peoples 
of northern Europe, there is no danger of the turbulence 
of the industrially indolent but more passionate peoples of 
Central and South America. As in Europe, these northern 
peoples will hold the power which intelligent democracies are 
consciously absorbing, and the British faculty for statecraft is 
gradually welding new nations on the British model, without the 
obsolete traditions and without that human sediment which too 
frequently chokes the currents of national vitality in the older 
communities of Europe. 

Militarism. It is often stated, as if it were incontrovertible, 
that conscription and large standing armies are a menace to 
peace, and yet, although throughout the civilized world, except 
in the British Empire and the United States, conscription is 
the system employed for the recruiting of the national forces 
of both defence and offence, few of these countries show any 
particular disposition to make war. The exceptional position 
of the United States, with a population about equal to that of 
the rest of the American continent, and of Great Britain, an 
island state but little exposed to military invasion, places both 
beyond absolute need of large standing armies, and renders an 
enlisting system feasible which would be quite inadequate for 
the recruitment of armies on the French or German scale. Demo- 
cratic progress on the Continent has, however, absorbed 



conscription as a feature in the equalization of the citizen's rights 
and liabilities. Just as in Anglo-Saxon lands a national ideal 
is gradually materializing in the principle of the equalization of 
chances for all citizens, so in continental Europe, along with 
this equalization of chances, has still more rapidly developed 
the ideal of an equalization of obligations, which in turn leads to 
the claim for an enlargement of political rights co-extensive 
with the obligations. Thus universal conscription and universal 
suffrage tend to become in continental political development 
complementary conditions of the citizen's political being. In 
Germany, moreover, the military service is designed not only to 
make the recruit a good soldier, but also to give him a healthy 
physical, moral and mental training. German statesmen, under 
the powerful stimulus of the emperor William II., have, in the 
eyes of some cntics, carried this secondary object of conscript 
training to such excess as to be detrimental to military efficiency. 
To put it shortly, the Germans have taught their soldiers to 
think, and not merely to obey. The French, who naturally 
looked to German methods for inspiration, have come to apply 
them more particularly in the development of their cavalry and 
artillery, especially in that of the former, which has taken in the 
French army an ever higher place as its observing and thinking 

Militarism on the Continent has thus become allied with the 
very factors which made for the reign of reason. No agitation 
for the development of national defences, no beating of drums 
to awaken the military spirit, no anti-foreign clamour or 
invasion panic, no parading of uniforms and futile clash of 
arms, are necessary to entice the groundling and the bumpkin 
into the service. In Germany patriotic waving of the flag, as a 
political method, is directed more especially to the strengthen- 
ing of imperial, as distinguished from local, patriotism. Where 
conscription has existed for any appreciable time it has sunk 
into the national economy, and men do their military service 
with as little concern as if it were a civil apprenticeship. 

As implied above, military training under conscription does 
not by any means necessarily tend to the promotion of the 
military spirit. In France, so far from taking this direction, 
it has resulted, under democratic government and universal 
suffrage, in a widespread abhorrence of war, and, in fact, has 
converted the French people from being the most militant 
into being the most pacific nation in Europe. The fact that 
every family throughout the land is a contributory to the 
military forces of the country has made peace a family, and 
hence a national, ideal. Paradoxical as it may seem, it is the 
logical conclusion of such comparisons that militarism only 
exists in countries where there are no citizen armies, and that, 
where there are citizen armies, they are one of the elements 
which make for permanent peace. 

Normal Nature of Peace. America has been the pioneer of 
the view that peace is the normal condition of mankind, and 
that, when the causes of war arc eliminated, war ceases to have 
a raison d'etre. The objects and causes of war are of many kinds. 
War for fighting's sake, although in the popular mind there may 
be, during most wars, only the excitement and the emotion of 
a great gamble, has no conscious place among the motives of 
those who determine the destinies of peoples. Apart, however, 
from self-defence, the main causes of war are four: (i) The 
desire for territorial expansion, due to the overgrowth of 
population, and insufficiency of the available food-supply; if 
the necessary territory cannot be obtained by negotiation, 
conquest becomes the only alternative to emigration to foreign 
lands. (2) The prompting of national ambition or a desire to 
wipe out the record of a humiliating defeat. (3) Ambitious 
potentates again may seek to deflect popular tendencies into 
channels more satisfactory for their dynasty. (4) Nations, on 
the other hand, may grow jealous of each other's commercial 
success or material power. In many cases the apparent cause 
may be of a nobler character, but historians have seldom been 
content to accept the allegations of those who have claimed to 
carry on war from disinterested motives. 

On the American continent South and Central American 

states have had many wars, and the disastrous effects of them 
not only in retarding their own development, but in impair- 
ing their national credit, have led to earnest endeavours on 
the part of their leading statesmen to arrive at such an under- 
standing as will banish from their international polity all 
excuses for resorting to armed conflicts. In 1881 Mr Elaine, 
then U.S. secretary of state, addressed an instruction to the 
ministers of the United States of America accredited to 
the various Central and South American nations, directing 
them to invite the governments of these countries to par- 
ticipate in a congress, to be held at Washington in 1882, 
" for the purpose of considering and discussing the methods 
of preventing war between the nations of America." Owing 
to different circumstances the conference was delayed till the 
autumn of 1889. At this conference a plan of arbitration 
was drawn up, under which arbitration was made obligatory 
in all controversies whatever their origin, with the single 
exception that it should not apply where, in the judgment of 
any one of the nations involved in the controversy, its national 
independence was imperilled, and even in this case arbitration, 
though optional for the nation so judging, was to be obligatory 
for the adversary power. At the second International Confer- 
ence of American States, which sat in the city of Mexico from 
the 22nd of October 1901 to the 3ist of January 1902, the same 
subject was again discussed, and a scheme was finally adopted as 
a compromise which conferred authority on the government of 
Mexico to ascertain the views of the different governments 
represented in the conference, regarding the most advanced 
form in which a general arbitration convention could be drawn 
up that would meet with the approval and secure ratification 
by all the countries represented, and afterwards to prepare a 
plan for such a general treaty. The third Pan-American 
Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, 
and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, 
Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican 
Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, 
Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay. Only 
Haiti and Venezuela were absent. The conference, being held 
only a year before the time fixed for the second Hague Conference, 
applied itself mainly to the question of the extent to which 
force might be used for the collection of pecuniary claims against 
defaulting governments, and the forwarding of the principle 
of arbitration under the Hague Conventions. The possible 
causes of war on the American continent had meanwhile been 
considerably reduced. Different states had adjusted their 
frontiers, Great Britain in British Guiana had settled an out- 
standing question with Venezuela, France in French Guiana 
another with Brazil, Great Britain in Newfoundland had re- 
moved time-honoured grievances with France, Great Britain in 
Canada others with the United States of America, and now the 
most difficult kind of international questions which can arise, 
so far as the American continent is concerned, have been removed 
from among existing dangers to peace. Among the Southern 
Republics Argentina and Chile concluded in 1902 a treaty of 
arbitration, for the settlement of all difficulties without dis- 
tinction, combined with a disarmament agreement of the 
same date, to which more ample reference will be made 
hereafter. Thus in America progress is being rapidly made 
towards the realization of the idea that war can be super- 
annuated by elimination of its causes and the development of 
positive methods for the preservation of peace (see PAN- 

With the American precedent to inspire him, the emperor 
Nicolas II. of Russia in 1898 issued his invitation to the powers 
to hold a similar conference of European states, with a more or 
less similar object. In 1899 twenty-six states met at the Hague 
and began the work, which was continued at the second con- 
ference in 1907, and furthered by the Maritime Conference 
of London of 1908-1909. The creation of the Hague Court and 
of a code of law to be applied by it have further eliminated 
causes of difference. 

These efforts in the two hemispheres are based on the idea 



that international differences can be adjusted without war, 
where the parties are honestly aggrieved. With this adjust- 
ment of existing cases the number of possible pretexts for the 
employment of force is being rapidly diminished. 

Peace Procedure under the Hague Conventions. The Hague 
Peace Convention of 1907, which re-enacts the essential parts of 
the earlier one of 1899, sets out five ways of adjusting inter- 
national conflicts without recourse to war. Firstly, the signatory 
powers have undertaken to use their best efforts to ensure the 
pacific settlement of international difficulties. This is a general 
declaration of intention to lend themselves to the peaceable 
adjustment of difficulties and employ their diplomacy to this 
end. Secondly, in case of serious disagreement, diplomacy 
having failed, they agree to have recourse, as far as circumstances 
allow, to the good offices or mediation of one or more friendly 
powers. Thirdly, the signatory powers agree that it shall not 
be regarded as an unfriendly act if one or more powers, strangers 
to the dispute, on their own initiative offer their good offices or 
mediation to the states in disagreement, or even during hostili- 
ties, if war has already broken out. Fourthly, the convention 
recommends that in disputes of an international nature, involving 
neither national honour nor vital interests, and arising from a 
difference of opinion on points of fact, the parties who have not 
been able to come to an agreement by means of diplomacy 
should institute an international commission of inquiry to 
facilitate a solution of these disputes by an investigation of the 
facts. Lastly, the high contracting parties have agreed that 
in questions of a legal nature, and especially in interpretation 
or application of international conventions, arbitration is recog- 
nized as the most effective, and at the same time the most 
equitable, means of settling disputes which diplomacy has failed 
to adjust. 

Down to 1910 no suggestion of mediation had actually been 
carried out, but a number of cases of arbitration had been tried 
by the Hague Court, created by the Hague Peace Convention 
(see ARBITRATION, INTERNATIONAL), and one case, viz. that of the 
Dogger Bank incident, was submitted to a commission of inquiry, 
which sat in January 1905. ' 

If Secretary Knox's proposal (see supra) to convert the 
International Prize Court into a permanently sitting court of 
arbitration is adopted, a detailed procedure and jurisprudence 
will no doubt grow out of a continuity which is lacking in the 
present system, under which the court is recruited from a large 
panel for each special case. Secretary Knox's idea, as expressed 
in the identical circular note addressed by him on the i8th of 
October 1909 to the powers, was to invest the International Prize 
Court, proposed to be established by the convention of the i8th 
of October 1907, with the functions of a " court of arbitral 
justice." The court contemplated by the convention was a 
court of appeal for reviewing prize decisions of national courts 
both as to facts and as to the law applied, and, in the exercise 
of its judicial discretion, not only to confirm in whole or in part the 
national decision or the contrary, but also to certify its judgment 
to the national court for enforcement thereof. The adoption of 
this jurisdiction would have involved a revision of the judicial 
systems of probably every country accepting it. The United 
States government therefore proposed that the signatories should 
insert in the act of ratification a reservation to the effect that 
resort to the International Prize Court, in respect of decisions of 
their national tribunals, should take the form of a direct claim 
for compensation. This in any case would remove the United 
States' constitutional objection to the establishment of the 
proposed court. In connexion with this enabling clause Mr 

'The procedure adopted by the commission was afterwards 
incorporated in the convention of 1907. Under the rules adopted, 
the examination of witnesses is conducted by the president in 
accordance with the system prevailing in most continental countries ; 
members of the commission may only put questions to witnesses for 
the eliciting of further information; and they may not interrupt 
the witness when he is in course of making his statement, but they 
may ask the president to put any additional questions. This 
seems likely to become the procedure also in cases before the Hague 
Court, where witnesses are examined. 

Secretary Knox also proposed that a further enabling clause be 
inserted providing that the International Court of Prize be 
competent to accept jurisdiction in all matters, arising between 
signatories, submitted to it, the Court to sit at fixed periods 
every year and to be composed according to the panel which 
was drawn up at the Hague. This court, which the American 
government proposed to call a " Court of Arbitral Justice," 
would take the place of that which it was proposed to institute 
under Vau No. i of the Final Act of the conference of 1907. 
The intention of the Hague draft annexed to the Vceu was to 
create a permanent court as distinguished from that established 
in 1899, which, though called permanent, was not so, having to 
be put together ad hoc as the occasion arose. The new court, if 
adopted, would hold regular and continuous sessions, consist of 
the same judges, and pay due heed to the precedents created by 
its prior decisions. The two courts would have separate spheres 
of activity, and litigants would practically have the option of 
submitting their differences to a judicial court which would regard 
itself as being bound by the letter of the law and by judicial 
methods or to a special court created ad hoc with a purely 
arbitrative character. 

The Place of Diplomacy. The utility of the diplomatic service 
has been considerably diminished through the increasing 
efficiency of the public press as a medium of information. It is 
not too much to say that at the present day an experienced 
journalist, in a place like Vienna or Berlin, can give more 
information to an ambassador than the ambassador can give to 
him. It is even true to say that an ambassador is practically 
debarred from coming into actual touch with currents of public 
feeling and the passing influences which, in this age of democracy, 
determine the course of events in the political life of peoples. 
The diplomatist has therefore lost one of his chief functions as 
an informant of the accrediting government. The other chief 
function of diplomacy is to be the courteous medium of conveying 
messages from one government to another. Even this function 
is losing its significance. The ciphered telegram leaves little 
discretion to the envoy, and written notes are exchanged which 
are practically a mere transcription of the deciphered telegram 
or draft prepared at the instructing foreign office. Neverthe- 
less, the personality of an ambassador can play a great part, if he 
possesses charm, breadth of understanding and interest in the 
social, intellectual and industrial life of the country to which he 
is accredited. There are several instances of such men in Europe 
and America, but they are so rare that some reformers consider 
them as hardly justifying the large expenditure necessary to 
maintain the existing system. On the other hand, the utility 
of the consular service has concurrently increased. Adminis- 
trative indifference to the eminently useful officials forming the 
service has led, in many cases, to diminishing instead of increas- 
ing their number and their salaries, but it is obvious that the 
extension of their duties and a corresponding raising of their 
status would be much more in accordance with the national 
interest. The French, with that practical sense which distin- 
guishes so much of their recent administrative work, have 
connected the two services. A consul-general can be promoted 
to a diplomatic post, and take with him to his higher office the 
practical experience a consul gains of the material interests of 
the country to which he belongs. 

There is thus still good work for diplomacy to do, and if, in the 
selection of diplomatic representatives, states followed on the 
one hand the above-mentioned French example, and on the 
other hand the American example of selecting for the heads of 
diplomatic missions men who are not necessarily de la carriere, 
diplomacy might obtain a new lease of activity, and become once 
more an extremely useful part of the administrative machinery 
by which states maintain good business relations as well as 
friendly political intercourse with one another. 

International Regulation by Treaty. It seems a truism to say 
that among the agencies which most effectively tend to the 
preservation of peace are treaties which regulate the relations 
of states in their intercourse with other states. Such treaties, 
however, are of quite recent origin. The first of a comprehensive 


character was the general act adopted at the South African 
Conference at Berlin in 1885, which laid down the principle, 
which has since become of still wider application, that " any 
Power which henceforth takes possession of a tract of land on 
the coast of the African continent outside of its present pos- 
sessions or which, being hitherto without such possessions, shall 
acquire them . . . shall accompany the act relating to it with a 
notification thereof, addressed to the other Signatory Powers 
of the present act, in order to enable them, if need be, to make 
good any claims of their own," and, furthermore, that " the 
Signatory Powers of the present act recognize the obligation 
to ensure the establishment of authority in the regions occupied 
by them on the coasts of the African continent sufficient to 
protect existing rights, and, as the case may be, freedom of trade 
and transit under the conditions agreed upon." Under these 
articles occupation of unoccupied territory to be legal had to be 
effective. This led to the creation and determination of spheres 
of influence. By fixing the areas of these spheres of influence 
rival states in western and central Africa avoided conflicts and 
preserved their rights until they were able to take a more 
effective part in their development. The idea of " spheres of 
influence " has in turn been applied even to more settled and 
civilized countries, such as China and Persia. 

Other cases of regulation by treaty are certain contractual 
engagements which have been entered into by states for the 
preservation of the status quo of other states and territories. 

The Anglo- Japanese Treaty of the i2th of August 1905 sets 
out its objects as follows: 

a. " The consolidation and maintenance of the general peace 
in the regions of Eastern Asia and India; 

6. " The preservation of the common interests of the Powers in 
China, of insuring the independence and the integrity of the Chinese 
empire, and the principle of equal opportunities for the commerce 
ana industry of all nations in China ; 

c. " The maintenance of the territorial rights of the high con- 
tracting parties in the regions of Eastern Asia and of India, and 
the defence of their special interests in such regions." 

It is a treaty for the maintenance of the status quo in certain 
parts of Asia in which the parties to it have dominant interests. 
The same principle underlies different other self-denying arrange- 
ments and declarations made by the powers with reference to 
Chinese integrity. 

The Treaty of Algeciras is essentially a generalization of the 
Franco-German agreement of the 28th of September 1905. By it 
all the powers represented agree to respect the territorial integrity 
of Morocco, subject to a possible intervention limited to the 
purpose of preserving order within it. 

Differing from these general acts in not being contractual is 
the Monroe doctrine, which is a policy of ensuring the mainte- 
nance of the territorial status quo as regards non-American 
powers throughout the American continent. If necessary, the 
leading republics of South and Central America would no doubt, 
however, further ensure respect for it by treaty. 

With these precedents and current instances of tendency to 
place the territorial relations of the powers on a permanent 
footing of respect for the existing status quo, it seems possible 
to go beyond the mere enunciation of principles, and to take 
a step towards their practical realization, by agreeing to respect 
the territorial status quo throughout still larger tracts of the world, 
neutralize them, and thus place them outside the area of possible 

A third contractual method of avoiding conflicts of interest 
has been the signing of agreements for the maintenance of the 
" open-door." The discussion on the question of the " open- 
door " in connexion with the Morocco difficulty was useful 
in calling general public attention once more to the undesir- 
ability of allowing any single power to exclude other nations 
from trading on territory over which it may be called to exercise 
a protectorate, especially if equality of treatment of foreign 
trade had been practised by the authority ruling over the 
territory in question before its practical annexation under the 
name of protectorate. The habitable parts of the world are a 
limited area, exclusion from any of which is a diminution of 

the available markets of the nations excluded. Every power, 
is, therefore, rightfully interested in the prevention of such 

The United States government in 1899 called attention to 
the subject as regards China, without, however, going into any 
question of principle. It thought that danger of international 
irritation might be removed by each power making a declaration 
respecting the " sphere of interest " in China to which it laid 
claim. Lord Salisbury informed Mr Choate that H.M. govern- 
ment were prepared to make a declaration in the sense desired. 
All the powers concerned eventually subscribed to the declara- 
tion proposed by the United States government. 

The principle of the " open-door " in fact has already been 
consistently applied in connexion with certain non-European 
areas. As these areas are practically the only areas which of 
late years have come within the scope of European regulation, 
the time seems to be approaching when the principle may be 
declared to be of general application. From the point of view 
of diminishing the possible causes of conflict among nations, 
the adoption of this principle as one of international contractual 
obligation would be of great utility. While putting an end 
to the injustice of exclusion, it would obviously reduce the danger 
of nations seeking colonial aggrandizement with a view to im- 
posing exclusion, and thus one of the chief temptations to 
colonial adventure would be eliminated. 

In the fourth place, there is the self-denying ordinance against 
employment of arms for the enforcement of contractual obliga- 
tions adopted at the Hague Conference of 1907. Under it the 
high contracting powers have agreed not to have recourse to 
armed force for the recovery of contractual debts claimed from 
the government of one country by the government of another 
country as due to its subjects. The only qualification admitted 
under the new convention is that it shall not apply when the 
debtor-state refuses or leaves unanswered an offer of arbitration, 
or in case of acceptance renders the settlement of the terms of 
arbitration impossible, or, after arbitration, fails to comply with 
the award. The theory on which this convention is based is 
known as the Drago theory, having taken a practical form during 
the administration of Dr L. M. Drago, when he filled the post 
of Argentine minister of foreign affairs. The doctrine, however, 
is not new, having already been enunciated a century before 
by Alexander Hamilton and reiterated since then by several 
American statesmen, such as Albert Gallatin, William L. Marcy 
and F. T. Frelinghuysen, as the view prevailing at Washington 
during their respective periods of office. 

Limitations of Disarmament. Disarmament, or to speak 
more correctly, the contractual limitation of armaments, has 
become, of late years, as much an economic as a humanitarian 
peace-securing object. 

" The maintenance of universal peace and a possible reduction 
of the excessive armaments which weigh upon all nations, 
represent, in the present condition of affairs all over the world, 
the ideal towards which the efforts of all governments should 
be directed," were the opening words of the Note which the 
Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, Count Mouraviev, handed 
to the diplomatic representatives of the different powers 
suggesting the first Hague Conference. 

" The ever-increasing financial burdens," the Note went on, 
" strike at the root of public prosperity. The physical and 
intellectual forces of the people, labour and capital, are diverted 
for the greater part from their natural application and wasted 
unproductively. Hundreds of millions are spent in acquiring 
terrible engines of destruction, which are regarded to-day as 
the latest inventions of science, but are destined to-morrow to 
be rendered obsolete by some new discovery. National culture, 
economic progress and the production of wealth are either 
paralysed or developed in a wrong direction. Therefore the 
more the armaments of each power increase the less they answer 
to the objects aimed at by the governments. Economic dis- 
turbances are caused in great measure by this system of excessive 
armaments; and the constant danger involved in this accumula- 
tion of war material renders the armed peace of to-day a crushing 



burden more and more difficult for nations to bear. It conse- 
quently seems evident that if this situation be prolonged it will 
inevitably result in the very disaster it is sought to avoid, and 
the thought of the horrors of which makes every humane mind 
shudder. It is the supreme duty, therefore, of all states to place 
some limit on these increasing armaments, and find some means 
of averting the calamities which threaten the whole world." 

A further Note submitting the programme proposed gave 
more precision to this item, which thereupon took the following 
form: " An understanding not to increase for a fixed period 
the present effectives of the armed military and naval forces, 
and at the same time not to increase the budgets pertaining 
thereto; and a preliminary examination of the means by which 
even a reduction might be effected in future in the forces and 
budgets above mentioned." 

When the subject came on for discussion at the conference 
the German military delegate stated his view that the question 
of effectives could not be discussed by itself, as there were many 
others to which it was in some measure subordinated, such, 
for instance, as the length of service, the number of cadres 
whether existing in peace or made ready for war, the amount 
of training received by reserves, the situation of the country 
itself, its railway system, and the number and position of its 
fortresses. In a modern army all these questions went together, 
and national defence included them all. In Germany, moreover, 
the military system " did not provide for fixed numbers annually, 
but increased the numbers each year." 

After many expressions of regret at finding no method of 
giving effect to the. proposal, the commission confined itself to 
recording its opinion that " a further examination of the question 
by the Powers would prove a great benefit to humanity." 

The Conference, however, were unanimous in the adoption 
of the following resolution: 

" The Conference is of opinion that the restriction of military 
budgets, which are at present a heavy burden on the world, is 
extremely desirable for the increase of the material and moral 
welfare of mankind;" 

and it passed also the following vceu : 

" That governments, taking into account the proposals made at 
the Conference, should examine the possibility of an understanding 
concerning the limitation of military and naval armaments, and 
of war budgets." 

The general public, more particularly in Great Britain and 
France, shows an ever-increasing distrust of the rapid growth 
of armaments as a possible cause of grave economic troubles. 
A high state of military preparedness of any one state obliges 
all the others to endeavour to be prepared on the same level. 
This process of emulation, very appropriately called by the late 
Sir H. Campbell-Bannerman " a policy of huge armaments," 
unfortunately is a policy from which it is impossible for any 
country to extricate itself without the co-operation, direct or 
indirect, of other nations. 

The subject was brought forward in view of the second Hague 
Conference in both the French and Italian parliaments. 

The declaration of the French government stated that: 

" France hoped that other nations would grow, as she had done, 
more and more attached to solutions of international difficulties 
based upon the respect of justice, and she trusted that the progress 
of universal opinion in this direction would enable nations to 
regard the lessening of the present military budgets, declared by 
the states represented at the Hague to be greatly desirable for the 
benefit of the material and moral state of humanity, as a practical 
possibility." (Chamber of Deputies, June 12, 1906.) 

In the Italian Chamber of Deputies, an interpellation was 
addressed to the minister of foreign affairs about the same time 
asking " whether the Government had knowledge of the motion 
approved by the British House of Commons, and of the under- 
taking of the British government that, in the programme of the 
coming Hague Conference, the question of the reduction of 
armaments should be inserted, and in what spirit the Italian 
government had taken or proposed to take the propositions of 
the British government, and what instructions it would give to 
the Italian representatives at the conference." 

The minister of foreign affairs, M Tittoni, in reply expressed 
the adhesion of the Italian government to the humanitarian 
ideas which had met with such enthusiasm in the historic 
House of Parliament at Westminster. " I have always believed," 
he said, " that, as far as we are concerned, it would be a national 
crime to weaken our own armaments while we are surrounded 
by strongly armed European nations who look upon the improve- 
ment of armaments as a guarantee of peace. Nevertheless, I 
should consider it a crime against humanity not to sincerely 
co-operate in an initiative having for object a simultaneous 
reduction of armaments of the great powers. Italian practice 
has always aimed at the maintenance of peace; therefore, I am 
happy to be able to say that our delegates at the coming 
Hague Conference will be instructed to further the English 

The only existing case of contractual reduction of armaments 
is that of the Disarmament Agreement of the 28th of May igoa 
between the Chilian and Argentine republics, adopted " owing 
to the initiative and good offices of His Britannic Majesty," 
which is as follows: 

Art. I. In order to remove all cause of fear and distrust between 
the two countries, the governments of Chile and of the Argentine 
Republic agree not to take possession of the warships which they 
are having built, or for the present to make any other acquisitions. 
The two governments furthermore agree to reduce their respective 
fleets, according to an arrangement establishing a reasonable 
proportion between the two fleets. This reduction to be made 
within one year from the date at which the present agreement shall 
be ratified. 

Art. II. The two governments respectively promise not to 
increase their maritime armaments during five years, unless the 
one who shall wish to increase them shall give the other eighteen 
months' notice in advance. This agreement does not include any 
armaments for the purpose of protecting the shore and ports, and 
each party will be at liberty to acquire any vessels (maquina flotante) 
intended for the protection thereof, such as submarines, &c. 

Art. III. The reductions (i.e. ships disposed of) resulting from 
this agreement will not be parted with to countries having any 
dispute with either of the two contracting parties. 

Art. IV. In order to facilitate the transfer of the pending orders 
the two governments agree to increase by two months the time 
stipulated for the beginning of the construction of the respective 
ships. They will give instructions accordingly. 

An agreement of this kind is obviously more feasible as among 
states whose navies are small and of comparatively recent 
origin than among states whose navies are composed of vessels 
of many and widely different ages. It may be difficult to agree in 
the latter case on a principle for assessment of the proportionate 
fighting value of the respective fleets. The break-up or 
sale of obsolete warships is a diminution of the paper effective 
of a navy, and their purchase by another state a paper increase 
of theirs. Even comparatively slight differences in the ages of 
ships may make great differences in their fighting value. It 
would be a hard, though probably not insurmountable, task to 
establish " a reasonable proportion," such as provided for in 
Art. II. of the Chile-Argentina Agreement, as between large 
and old-standing navies like those of Europe. 

On the other hand, as regards military power, it seems some- 
times forgotten in the discussion of the question of armaments, 
that the conditions of the present age differ entirely from those of 
the time of the Napoleonic wars. With conscription a national 
army corresponds more or less numerically to the proportion of 
males in the national population. Great Britain, without con- 
scription, has no means of raising troops in any such proportion. 
Thus, so long as she refrains from adopting conscription, she 
can only carry on defensive warfare. The object of her navy is 
therefore necessarily defensive, unless it act in co-operation 
with a foreign conscript army. As there are practically only 
three great armies available for the purpose of a war of aggression, 
the negotiation of contingent arrangements does not seem too 
remote for achievement by skilful and really well-meaning 
negotiation. The Hague Conference of 1907, owing to difficulties 
which occurred in the course of the preliminary negotiations 
for the conference, did not deal with the subject. 

Principle and Capabilities of Neutralization. Among the 
different methods which have grown up practically in our own 


1 1 

time for the exclusion of war is neutralization. We have been 
dealing hitherto with the elimination of the causes of war; 
neutralization is a curtailment of the areas of war and of the 
factors in warfare, of territory on the one hand and states on the 
other. The neutralization of territory belonging to states 
which are not otherwise neutralized includes the neutralization 
of waterways such as the Suez and Panama canals. 

Under the General Act of Berlin of the 26th of February 1885, 
" in case a power exercising rights of sovereignty or protec- 
torate " in any of the regions forming the basin of the Congo 
and its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, and extending away 
to the Indian Ocean, should be involved in a war, the parties 
to the General Act bound themselves to lend their good offices 
in order that the territories belonging to this power be placed 
during the war " under the rule of neutrality and considered 
as belonging to a neutral state, the belligerents thenceforth 
abstaining from extending hostilities to the territories thus 
neutralized, and from using them as a basis for warlike 
operations " (art. 2). 

Neutralization is not necessarily of general application. 
Thus two states can agree to neutralize specific territory as 
between them. For example between Costa Rica and Nicaragua 
by a treaty of the i5th of April 1858 the parties agreed that " on 
no account whatever, not even in case of war," should " any 
act of hostility be allowed between them in the port of San 
Juan del Norte nor on the river of that name nor on Lake 
Nicaragua " (art. 2). 1 

Again, the Straits of Magellan are neutralized as between 
Argentina and Chile under a treaty of the 23rd of July 1881. 
Article 5 provides that they are " neutralized for ever and their 
free navigation is guaranteed to the flags of all nations. To 
ensure this neutrality and freedom it is agreed that no fortifica- 
tions or military defences which might interfere therewith shall 
be erected." 

Luxemburg was declared by the Treaty of London of the nth 
of May 1867 (art. i) to be a perpetually neutral state under the 
guarantee of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia. Swit- 
zerland, by a declaration confirmed by the Treaty of Vienna, of 
1815 (art. 84), likewise enjoys perpetual neutrality. And now 
Norway has placed herself under a neutral regime of a similar 

A neutralized state does not mean a state which is forbidden 
to have fortifications or an army; in this it differs from neu- 
tralized territory of a state not otherwise neutralized. Thus 
Belgium, which is a neutralized state, not only has an army but 
has fortifications, although by the treaties of 1831 and 1839 
she was recognized as a " perpetually neutral state, bound to 
observe the same neutrality with reference to other states." 

Of waterways, international rivers have been the chief subject 
of neutralization. It has long been an established principle 
in the intercourse of nations, that where the navigable parts of 
a river pass through different countries their navigation is free 
to all. The rivers Scheldt and Meuse were opened up in this 
way to riparian states by a decree of the French Convention of 
the i6th of November 1792. By the treaty of Vienna of the gth of 
June 1815, the powers whose territories were separated or traversed 
by the same navigable river, undertook to regulate by common 
consent all that regarded its navigation, and for this purpose to 
name commissioners who should adopt as the bases of their 
proceedings the principle that the navigation of such rivers 
along their whole course " from the point where each of them 
becomes navigable to its mouth, shall be entirely free, and shall 
not in respect of commerce be prohibited to anyone." The only 
case in Europe in which this internationalization of rivers has 
been maintained is that of the Danube. On the other hand 
neutralization has made progress in respect of waterways, 

1 Under the treaty of the 2gth of March 1864, the courts of 
Great Britain, France and Russia in their character of guaranteeing 
powers of Greece declared with the assent of the courts of Austria 
and Prussia that the islands of Corfu and Paxo as well as their 
dependencies should, after their union to the Hellenic kingdom, enjoy 
the advantages of perpetual neutrality, and the king of the Hellenes 
undertook on his part to maintain such neutrality. (Art. 2). 

natural as well as artificial. Thus the Bosporus and Dardanelles 
under the Treaty of Paris of 1856 and by the Treaty of London 
1871 were and remain closed to the passage of foreign armed 
vessels in time of war, though the Porte may permit their passage 
in time of peace in certain cases. The Suez and the Panama 
canals have been permanently neutralized, the former by a 
convention among the great powers, and the latter by a treaty 
between Great Britain and the United States. 

Alongside this neutralization has grown up a collateral 
institution, the purpose of which is in some respects similar. 
We refer to "buffer" zones. "Buffer" zones are of quite 
recent origin as a political creation, 2 i.e. where their object is 
to establish upon the territory of two contiguous states a strip 
or zone on either side of the frontier which the respective states 
agree to regard as neutral, on which the parties undertake to 
erect no fortifications, and maintain no armed forces but those 
necessary to enforce the ordinary respect of government. The 
word " neutral " does not correctly describe the character of the 
zone. It is not neutral in the sense of being recognized as such 
by any third state, and it necessarily ceases to be neutral in 
case of war between the states concerned. The word " buffer " 
comes nearest to the object, but even this term implies more than 
is meant. Between Spain and Morocco a treaty of the 5th of March 
1894 established between the Camp of Melilla and Moroccan 
territory a zone within which no new roads were to be made, 
no herds to be allowed to graze, no land to be cultivated, no 
troops of either party, or even private persons carrying arms, 
to set foot, no inhabitants to dwell, and all habitations to be 
razed. The zone between Burma and Siam, established by an 
agreement between Great Britain and France dated the I5th of 
January 1896, declared " the portion of Siam which is comprised 
within the drainage basin of the Menam, and of the coast streams . 
of a corresponding longitude," neutral as between them. Within 
this area the two powers undertook not to " operate by their 
military or naval forces, except in so far as they might do so in 
concert for any purpose requisite for maintaining the indepen- 
dence of Siam." They also undertook not to acquire within 
that area any privileges or commercial facilities not extended 
to both of them. 

" Buffer " zones might fulfil a useful purpose even in Europe. 
They would obviously react against the feeling known as 
" esprit de frontiere," and diminish the danger of incidents 
arising out of this feeling, and might attenuate the rivalry of 
neighbouring counter-armaments. 

These considerations no doubt led the Swedish and Norwegian 
governments, in their settlement of September 1905, to establish 
a " buffer " zone of 15 kilometres on either side of the frontier 
between the two states in question. Within these 30 kilometres 
all existing fortresses are dismantled, 3 no new ones are to be 
erected, and no armed troops to be maintained; any question 
between the two states relative to the provisions respecting 
the " buffer " zone to be decided by arbitration. 

A rather special case of neutralization of a territorial area 

2 The institution of " buffer " zones in a more strictly correct 
sense of the term is of very ancient origin. One is mentioned in the 
annals of China two centuries before our era, between the terri- 
tories of the Huns in the west and those of the Tunguses in the 
east a vast area of some 300. to 400 m., on the opposite margin 
of which the two peoples kept watch. In Europe, bands of territory 
from time to time have been made desert to better establish sepa- 
ration. The Romans and Germans protected themselves in this 
way. In the middle ages the Teutonic Order established a frontier 
belt on the side of Lithuania. Later, Austria dealt in the same 
way in her policy in regard to Turkey in the organization of a 
" military frontier." See Nys, Droit International (Brussels, 1904), 
i. 418. 

3 It was stipulated that the dismantling should be controlled 
by a technical commission of three officers of foreign nationality, 
to be chosen, one by each of the contracting powers and the third 
by the two officers thus appointed, or, in default of an agreement 
on their part, by the president of the Swiss Confederation. The 
dismantling of the forts in question has now been carried out. The 
Commission was composed on the part of Sweden of an engineer 
on the staff of the Austrian afrmy, and on the part of Norway of 
a colonel in the German army, and, by agreement of these, of a 
colonel in the Dutch army. 



is that of the practical neutralization of the Great Lakes in 
America. In 1817, at the instance of John Quincy Adams, the 
United States and Great Britain entered into a compact wherebj 
the Great Lakes, and the waterways from them to the ocean by 
the St Lawrence river, which divide the United States from th< 
Dominion of Canada, were practically excluded from any 
possible hostilities. Through a simple agreement, " conditions 
which make for peace and prosperity, and the absence of those 
which so often lead to disastrous war, have for nearly a century 
reigned over these great inland waters, whose commerce, con- 
ducted for the benefit of the states and nations of Europe anc 
America, rivals that which passes through the Suez Canal or 
over the Mediterranean Sea, and with a result foreshadowed 
in these words of President Monroe in his communication to the 
Senate commending the proposed agreement: ' In order to 
avoid collision and save expense.' Forts which had been erected 
at salient points on either side of the lakes and rivers dividing 
the United States from Canada, which but for this agreement 
would, in the natural course of events, have been enlarged, 
increasingly garrisoned, and provided with modern implements 
of destruction, at large expense, have remained substantially 
as when the agreement was made, or now constitute but inter- 
esting or picturesque ruins; and the great cost of constructing 
and maintaining, through a long series of years, naval armaments 
of ever-increasing power has been avoided." 1 

As we have already said, the Monroe doctrine is a means of 
excluding European warfare from the American continent and 
therefore is in the nature of a form of neutralization. A sort of 
Monroe doctrine is growing into popular favour also throughout 
the Australian Commonwealth, where it is felt that a continent 
so far removed from European rivalries ought not to be exposed 
to complications on account of them. 

From time to time questions of adding to existing neutralized 
areas are raised. When it was announced in 1905 that a British 
fleet was about to manoeuvre in the Baltic Sea, several German 
newspapers suggested that Germany should combine with other 
Baltic powers to assure its neutralization. 2 No official observa- 
tion on the subject, however, was made on the part of any 
Baltic power. The Baltic is still an open sea for the whole 
world, without restriction of any kind; and even hostilities 
between any two non-Baltic powers could be carried on in the 
Baltic, as elsewhere on the high sea, under the existing practice. 
When the Dogger Bank incident occurred, the possibility 
of operations of war being carried on within a few miles of 
British home ports, and amid the busy traffic of the North Sea, 
was brought vividly home to British minds. 

A movement set on foot at the instance of Edward Atkinson, 
the well-known Boston economist, and warmly supported by 
the Massachusetts State Board of Trade, seeks to establish by 
treaty neutral zones from the ports of North America to the 
ports of Great Britain and Ireland and the continent of Europe, 
within which zones steamship and sailing vessels in the conduct 
of lawful commerce should be free to pass without seizure or 
interruption in time of war. There is however no precedent of 
neutralization of any such area of the high sea, and international 
rivers, ocean canals and neutralized states are obviously no 
criterion in discussing a proposal to neutralize a strip of the 
ocean, which may be defined accurately enough on the map 
and which skilful navigators could approximately determine, 
but which might be violated without any practical means of 
detection by a belligerent commander whenever he misread, 
or it suited him to misread, his bearings. 

Connected with the principle of neutralization is that of 
guaranteeing the integrity of states. Several such guarantees 
have been given in quite recent times. In November 1907 a 
treaty was concluded between France, Germany, Great Britain 
and Russia on the one part and Norway on the other, for the 
maintenance of the integrity of Norway. This treaty differed 

1 Memoir of Massachusetts State Board of Trade (Feb. 13, 1905). 

This was merely reviving an idea which had come and gone 
many times before. See Barclay, Problems of International Practice 
and Diplomacy (1907). 

from the older one of 1855 in which France and Great Britain 
guaranteed the integrity of Norway and Sweden, in the fact that 
whereas the older treaty was for the protection of these two 
states against Russia, the new treaty is intended, if it is to serve 
at all as a protection against invasion, to protect Norway against 

Another such guarantee of a vaguer character is that which 
the North Sea powers recently entered into for the maintenance 
of the status quo of their respective North Sea territories; and 
the similar one entered into by the Mediterranean powers for 
the same objects in the Mediterranean. Lastly in the same 
order of ideas Austria-Hungary and Russia are said to have 
concluded an arrangement between them for the maintenance 
of the status quo in the Balkans. 

The future has no doubt still other extensions of the principle 
of neutralization in store for us. Not the least interesting of 
existing possibilities is the limitation of the area of visit and search 
in time of war itself, as a restriction of belligerent right. It seems 
contrary to common sense that neutral ships should be exposed 
to being detained, taken out of their course, and overhauled 
on mere suspicion of carrying contraband, when they are so far 
from the seat of war that there can be no presumption as to their 
destination. Neutrals have a right to carry on their ordinary 
business unmolested in so far as they do nothing to assist either 
belligerent. When they are beyond a certain distance from the 
seat of war it seems reasonable that the presumption that they 
are merely carrying on their legitimate business should be 
considered absolute. Such a limitation of the area of hostilities 
is not only feasible, but it was actually put in practice by the 
British government during the Boer War. 3 

In the course of the Russo-Japanese War the question came 
up again, being raised this time by Great Britain. Lord Lans- 
downe called the attention of the Russian foreign office to the 
extreme inconvenience to neutral commerce of the Russian 
search for contraband not only in the proximity of the scene of war, 
but over all the world, and especially at places at which neutral 
commerce could be most effectually intercepted. H.M. Govern- 
ment had become aware that a large addition was likely to be 
made to the number of Russian cruisers employed in this manner, 
and they had, therefore, to contemplate the possibility that 
such vessels would shortly be found patrolling the narrow seas 
which lie on the route from Great Britain to Japan in such a 
manner as to render it virtually impossible for any neutral 
vessel to escape their attention. The effect of such interference 
with neutral trade, he said, would be disastrous to legitimate 
commerce passing from a British port in the United Kingdom 
:o a British port in the Far East. The British government 
lad no desire to place obstacles in the way of a belligerent 
desiring to take reasonable precautions in order to prevent the 
enemy from receiving supplies, but they insisted that the right 
of taking such precautions did not imply a " consequential right 
o intercept at any distance from the scene of operations and 
without proof that the supplies in question were really destined 
or use of the enemy's forces, any articles which that belligerent 
might determine to regard as contraband of war." 

1 In January 1900 it was reported that the British government 
lad issued instructions to British naval commanders not to stop 
>r search German merchant vessels at any places not in the vicinity 
if the seat of war. There is no proper statement of the British 
xjsition on this subject, the only official information having been 
;iven by the German chancellor in a speech to the Reichstag. 

According to this information, the area was ultimately limited as 
lorth of Aden, and afterwards it was agreed that the immunity 
rom search should be extended to all places beyond a distance 
rom the seat of war equal to the distance from it of Aden. This 

was substantially correct, though the telegrams sent by the Admiralty 
an hardly be said to have fixed any precise area. As a fact, the 
ommanders-in-chief on the East Indies and Cape of Good Hope 
tations were instructed that in consequence of the great practical 
lifficulty of proving at ports so remote from the scene of war 
perations as Aden and Perim the real destination of contraband 
if war carried by vessels visiting those parts, directions were to be 
[iven to the officers concerned to cease to search such vessels, and 
o merely report to the commander-in-chief at the Cape the names 
)f ships suspected of carrying contraband, and the date of clearance. 


The position thus assumed is not clear. On the one hand 
the British claim did not, it is seen, go the length of the 
restriction Great Britain consented to place on her own 
right of search during the Boer War, seeming to apply only 
to the case of ships carrying conditional contraband. On the 
other, the complaint is based on the " interference " with 
neutral trade, which means the stoppage and search of vessels 
to ascertain whether they have contraband of any kind on 
board or not. 

It must not be forgotten in this connexion that restriction 
of the rights of the belligerent necessarily entails extension of 
the duties of the neutral. The belligerent has an unquestioned 
right to " interfere " with all neutral vessels navigating in 
the direction of the seat of war, for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether they are carrying any kind of contraband or not. 
Under the Declaration of London of the 26th of February 1909 
it is provided under arts. 32 and 35 that a ship's papers are 
conclusive proof as to the voyage on which she is engaged 
unless she is clearly out of the course indicated by her papers 
and is unable to give adequate reasons to justify her deviation. 
Thus the interference, if the declaration is ratified, will be 
confined to an examination of the ship's papers where the ship 
is not bound for a belligerent port (cf. art. 30 of the same 

Standing Peace Agreements. Foremost among standing peace 
agreements are, of course, the International Hague Conventions 
relating directly to peace, agreements which have not only created 
a special peace jurisdiction for the settlement of international 
difficulties by judicial methods but also a written law to apply 
within the scope of this jurisdiction. 

Alongside the Hague Peace Conventions and more or less 
connected with them are standing treaties of arbitration which 
have been entered into by different nations for terms of years 
separately. The first of what may be called a new series was 
that between Great Britain and France. It has now been followed 
by over a hundred others forming a network of international 
relationships which shows that, at any rate, the wish for peace 
is universal among mankind. 1 

1 The following list of standing arbitration treaties concluded 
after the signing of the Anglo-French treaty of October I4th 1903 
is as complete as possible down to June 1910: 

Argentina-Brazil, September 7, 1905. 
Portugal, August 27, 1909. 
Austria-Hungary-Switzerland, December 3, 1904. 
Belgium-Denmark, April 26, 1905. 
Greece, May 2, 1905. 
Norway and Sweden, November 30, 1904. 
Rumania, May 27, 1905. 
Russia, October 30, 1904. 
Spain, January 23, 1905. 
Switzerland, November 15, 1904. 
Brazil-Portugal, March 25, 1909. 

Spain, April 8, 1909. 

Mexico, April II, 1909. 

,, Honduras, April 26, 1909. 

,, Venezuela, April 30, 1909. 

,, Panama, May I, 1909. 

Ecuador, May 13, 1909. 

Costa Rica, May 18, 1909. 

,, Cuba, June 19, 1909. 

Bolivia, June 25, 1909. 

Nicaragua, June 28, 1909. 

,, Norway, July 13, 1909. 

,, China, August 3, 1909. 

Salvador, September 3, 1909. 

Peru, December 7, 1909. 

,, Sweden, December 14, 1909. 
Colombia-Peru, September 12, 1905. 

,, France, December 16, 1908. 

Denmark France, September 15, 1905. 

Italy, December 16, 1905. 

Netherlands, February 12, 1904. 

Russia, March I, 1905. 

,, Spain, December I, 1905. 

Norway, October 8, 1908. 

France-Italy, December 26, 1903. 

,, Netherlands, April 6, 1904. 

,, Norway and Sweden, July 9, 1904. 

,, Spain, February 26, 1904. 

There are, however, a large number of conventions which, 
although not concluded with the direct object of assuring peace 
where difficulties have arisen, tend in a very practical manner 
to contract the area of possible difficulties. These are conventions 
for the regulation of intercourse between the subjects and citizens 
of different states. Such conventions obviously remove occasions 
for friction and are therefore among the most effective agencies 
contributing to the preservation of peace among civilized 
peoples. In most cases such conventions have created inter- 
national unions of states for all matters which lend themselves 
to international co-operation. The first in order of date was 
the postal union. The system it inaugurated has now extended 
its scope to telegraphs, copyright, industrial property, railway 
traffic, the publication of customs tariffs, metric measures, 
monetary systems and agriculture. Berne, being the capital 
of the most central of the neutral European states, is the adminis- 
trative centre of most of these unions. Customs tariffs and 
the monetary unions, however, are centralized at Brussels, 

France Sweden and Norway, July 9, 1904. 
Switzerland, December 14, 1904. 
Brazil, April 7, 1909. 
Great Britain France, October 14, 1903. 
Germany, July 12, 1904. 
Italy, February i, 1907. 
Austria-Hungary, January II, 1905. 
Netherlands, February 15, 1905. 
Colombia, December 30, 1908. 
Sweden and Norway, August n, 1904. 
Denmark, October 25, 1904. 
Portugal, November 16, 1904. 
Spain, February 27, 1904. 
Switzerland, November 16, 1904. 
United States, April 4, 1908. 
Brazil, June 18, 1909. 
Honduras-Spain, May 13, 1905. 
Italy Argentine, September 18, 1907. 
Mexico, October i, 1907. 
Peru, April 18, 1907. 
Portugal, May II, 1905. 
Switzerland, November 23, 1904. 
Netherlands, November 21, 1909. 
Netherlands-Portugal, October 26, 1905. 
Norway Sweden, October 26, 1905. 
Norway and Sweden-Russia, December 9, 1904. 
Spain, January 23, 1905. 

,, Switzerland, December 17, 1904. 

Portugal-Spain, May 31, 1904. 

Austria-Hungary, February 13, 1906. 

Denmark, March 20, 1907. 

France, June 29, 1906. 

Italy, May n, 1905. 

Netherlands, October I, 1904. 

Norway and Sweden, May 6, 1905. (Suspended for 

Norway by a new one dated December 8, 1908.) 
Spain, May 31, 1904. 
Switzerland, August 18, 1905. 
Nicaragua, July 17, 1909. 

Russia Norway and Sweden, November 26, 1904. 
Spain-Greece, December 3-16, 1909. 

Switzerland, May 14, 1907. 
United States-Spain, April 20, 1908. 

Denmark, May 18, 1908. 
Italy, March 28, 1908. 
Japan, May 5, 1908. 
Netherlands, May 2, 1908. 
Portugal, April 6, 1908. 
Sweden, May 2, 1908. 
Switzerland, February 29, 1908. 
Argentina, December 23, 1908. 
Peru, December 3, 1908. 
Salvador, December 21, 1908. 
Norway, April 4, 1908. 
Mexico, March 24, 1908. 
France, February 2, 1908. 
Ecuador, January 7, 1909. 
Bolivia, January 7, 1909. 
Haiti, January 7, 1909. 
Uruguay, January 9, 1909. 
Chile, January 13, 1909. 
Costa Rica, January 13, 1909. 
Austria-Hungary, January 15, 1909. 
Brazil, January 23, 1909. 
Paraguay, March 13, 1909. 
China, October 8, 1908. 


the weights and measures union in Paris and the agricultural 
institute at Rome. 

The general postal union was c-eated by a convention signed 
at Berne in 1874. A convention for a similar union for telegraphs 
was signed in Paris in 1875 (revised at St Petersburg and replaced 
by another the same year). Both unions issue monthly bulletins 
and other publications giving useful information about these 
two services. 1 

The international bureau of weights and measures at Paris 
was created by a convention signed there in 1875, for the purpose 
of comparing and verifying weights and measures on the metric 
system, and preserving their identity for the contracting states. 

The double-standard Latin union monetary system was 
founded by a convention of 1865, between Belgium, France, 
Italy and Switzerland. In 1868 it was joined by Greece. A 
single standard union exists between Sweden, Norway and 
Denmark under a convention of 1873. 

The copyright union was created by an international con- 
vention signed in 1874. The official bureau of the union is 
at Berne. It issues a periodical publication called Le Droit 
d'auteur giving information respecting the laws of different 
states relating to published matter of all kinds. 

The term " industrial property " covers patents, trade marks, 
merchandise marks, trade names, designs and models. The 
convention dealing with them signed in 1883 created a union 
with its central office at Berne. It, too, issues a bulletin and 
other publications which help to prevent misunderstandings. 

The railway traffic union was formed by a convention of 
1890. The central bureau at Berne issues a monthly bulletin. 
A subsequent convention was signed at Berne in 1886 relating 
to matters of technical unification. 

1 A subsidiary convention not quite falling within the scope of 
the above convention is the submarine telegraphs convention, 
which was signed in 1884. It applies outside territorial waters 
to all legally established submarine cables landed on the territories, 
colonies or possessions of one or more of the high contracting 
parties. Under its provisions it is a punishable offence " to break 
or injure a submarine cable wilfully or by culpable negligence in 
such manner as might interrupt or obstruct telegraphic communi- 
cation either wholly or partially, such punishment being without 
prejudice to any civil action for damages. It also provides that: 

" Vessels engaged in laying or repairing submarine cables shall 
conform to the regulations as to signals which have been, or may 
be, adopted by mutual agreement among the high contracting 
parties with the view of preventing collisions at sea. When a 
ship engaged in repairing a cable exhibits the said signals, other 
vessels which see them or are able to see them shall withdraw to 
or keep beyond a distance of one nautical mile at least from the 
ship in question so as not to interfere with her operations " (art. 5). 
" Owners of ships or vessels who can prove that they have sacrificed 
an anchor, a net or other fishing-gear in order to avoid injuring a 
submarine cable shall receive compensation from the owner of the 
cable," and " in order to establish a claim to such compensation 
a statement supported by the evidence of the crew should whenever 
possible be drawn up immediately after the occurrence and the 
master must within twenty-four hours after his return to or next 
putting into port make a declaration to the proper authorities " 
(art. 7). " The tribunals competent to take cognizance of infractions 
of the present convention are those of the country -to which the 
vessel on board of which the offence was committed belongs " 
(art. 8). By art. 15 it is provided that the stipulations of the con- 
vention do not in any way restrict the action of belligerents. It 
may be remarked that the British representative at the time of 
signing the convention declared that his government understood 
that in the time of war a belligerent would be free to act in regard 
to submarine cables as though the convention did not exist. The 
act to carry into effect the above convention is the Submarine 
Telegraph Act 1885 (48 & 49 Viet. c. 49) which was slightly 
modified by 50 Viet. c. 3. Section 3 of the earlier act provides that 
a person who injures the cable either wilfully or by culpable negli- 
gence is " guilty of a misdemeanour and on conviction: (a) if he 
acted wilfully, shall be liable to penal servitude for a term not 
exceeding five years, or to imprisonment with or without hard 
abour for a term not exceeding two years, and to a fine either in 
lieu of or in addition to such penal servitude or imprisonment; 
and (ft) if he acted by culpable negligence shall be liable to im- 
prisonment for a term not exceeding three months without hard 
labour, and to a fine not exceeding 100 either in lieu of or in addition 
to such imprisonment." 

See Board of Trade Correspondence on Protection of Submarine 
Cables, printed on the 24th of July 1882; and Parliamentary Paper 
C. 5910: 1890. 

Under the convention creating the customs tariffs union, 
signed in 1890, thirty states, including Great Britain and 
most British colonies, are associated for the purpose of prompt 
publication of custom tariffs and their modifications. 

The agricultural institute, created by a convention of 1905 
w ; th its seat at Rome, as the ktest in date is perhaps the most 
interesting of the series. It shows how deep and widespread 
the sense of the utility of international state co-operation has 
become. The convention sets out the scope and objects of the 
institute, which a recent British official publication states has 
been joined by 38 states, including Great Britain and all other 
great powers, as follows:- 

Whilst limiting its action to international questions, it shall be 
the duty of the institute: (a) To collect, elaborate and publish, 
with as little delay as possible, statistical, technical, or economic 
information regarding the cultivation of the soil, its productions, 
whether animal or vegetable, the trade in agricultural products, 
and the prices obtained on the various markets. (6) To communi- 
cate to interested parties, also without delay, full information of 
the nature above mentioned, (c) To indicate the wages of rural 
labour, (d) To notify all new diseases of plants which may appear 
in any part of the world, indicating the districts affected, the spread 
of the disease, and, if possible, the efficacious means of resistance. 
(e) To consider questions relating to agricultural co-operation, 
insurance and credit, in all their forms, collecting and publishing 
information which may be useful in the various countries for the 
organization of undertakings relating to agricultural co-operation, 
insurance and credit, (f) To present, if expedient, to the govern- 
ments, for their approval, measures for the protection of the common 
interests of agriculturists and for the improvement of their con- 
dition, after having previously taken every means of obtaining 
the necessary information, e.g. resolutions passed by international 
congresses or other congresses relating to agriculture or to sciences 
applied to agriculture, agricultural societies, academies, learned 
societies, &c. 

All questions relating to the economic interests, the legislation 
and administration of any particular state, must be excluded from 
the sphere of the institute. (Art. 9). 

Lastly, there is a class of difficulties which might arise from 
preferential treatment of trade from different countries. To 
obviate them statesmen have been led to adopt the principle 
of the " most-favoured-nation-clause " that is to say, a clause 
providing that if any reductions of tariff or other advantages are 
granted by either contracting state to any third state, the others 
shall have the benefit of it. In Europe this clause has been 
uniformly treated as applying to all reductions of tariff without 
distinction. The United States interpretation, on the other 
hand, distinguishes between reductions of a general character 
and reductions made specifically in return for reductions by 
some other state. The latter do not come within the operation 
of the clause, and a co-contracting state is only entitled to 
obtain extension of them to itself on granting similar concessions. 
In other words, concessions to any co-contracting state are 
only allowed gratuitously to a third co-contracting state when 
nothing has been given for them, the clause not covering advan- 
tages granted in return for advantages. It is to be hoped that 
this special view of the meaning of the clause will be met in the 
future, as in some recent treaties, by specifically dealing with the 
exceptions. 2 

The Utility of Popular Effort. Until quite recently'it had been 
a distinctive mark of practical wisdom to treat private efforts for 
the improvement of international relations for the preservation 
of peace, with the patronizing tolerance courteous people of the 
world extend to half-crazy idealists. Since the opening of the 
century, an immense change has taken place in the attitude of 
the leaders of popular opinion towards the advocacy of peace. 
This new attitude has been contemporary with the greater 
interest displayed by the mercantile classes of England and the 
United States in the improvement of their political relations with 
their neighbours. It may be said to have begun with the visit 
of the Association of British Chambers of Commerce to Paris 
in 1900, at a time when France was still smarting from the 
humiliation of the Fashoda affair, and the Boer War was exciting 
hostile demonstrations against Great Britain throughout the conti- 
nent of Europe. That some four hundred British manufacturers 

J See Barclay, Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy 
(1907), p. 137 seq. 


and merchants, representing about eighty chambers of commerce 
of the United Kingdom, should have swept aside all political 
objections and have boldly trusted to the efficacy of friendly 
advances as between man and man, appealed to the French 
people. It seems to have been the first great popular effort 
ever made deliberately by a representative body of the middle 
class of a nation for the promotion of international friendship 
without the aid of diplomacy and without official assistance or 
even countenance of any kind. 

Otherwise, private agencies of a standing character which 
contribute towards the promotion of peace may be divided into 
four classes, viz. (i) those which, without having peace for their 
direct object, promote friendship among men of different races 
and nationalities; (2) those which directly address themselves 
to the promoting of friendship and goodwill among peoples; 
(3) those which regarding peace as the immediate object of their 
efforts, endeavour to educate democracy in this sense 5(4) those 
which endeavour to remove the causes of international friction 
by the codification of International law and the promotion of the 
international regulation of common interests. Lastly, there are 
two agencies which cannot be classed among the foregoing; 
one is the International Parliamentary Union and the other the 
Nobel Prize Committee. 

1. Agencies which are indirectly making for peace are of 
many kinds. Science and medicine now bring men of all nations 
together in periodical congresses. Technology, electricity, 
mining, railways, navigation and many other subjects are now 
dealt with in international congresses. International exhibitions 
are always used as an occasion for holding many such meetings. 

2. One of the most notable efforts directed to the deliberate 
cementing of friendship has been the interchange of official 
visits by municipal bodies. In the course of the Anglo-French 
agitation which culminated in March 1903 with the visit of King 
Edward to Paris, the French municipal councils passed many 
resolutions in favour of the entente. After the conclusion of the 
Anglo-French standing treaty of arbitration (Oct. 14, 1903) 
and the arrangements for the general settlement of outstanding 
difficulties with France (April 8, 1904), the municipal bodies in 
France were prepared to go a step farther, and in 1906 the Muni- 
cipal Council of Paris was invited by the London County Council 
to pay an official visit to England. This visit was followed by 
a return visit to Paris and a similar exchange of visits between 
the London City Corporation and the Paris Municipal Council, 
exchange visits of the city corporations of Manchester, Glasgow 
and Edinbuigh and Lyons, and a visit of the Manchester Corpora- 
tion to Dusseldorf, Barmen and Cologne. A society, numbering 
many thousands of working men among its members, which has 
set itself the more special task of promoting the interchange of 
visits between working men of different nations, is called the 
" International Brotherhood Alliance," or, after the initials of its 
motto, Fraternitas inter gentes, the F.I.G. Another agency, 
called the " American Association for International Concili- 
ation," seeks by the publication of essays on the different aspects 
of international friendship to promote the same cause. 

3. The " peace societies," which are scattered over the whole 
world, number several hundreds. 1 Their first International 
Congress was held in London at the suggestion of Joseph Sturge 
in 1843. In J 848 a second congress was held at Brussels. The 
third in 1849 took place in Paris, and was presided over by Victor 
Hugo. Other congresses were held at Frankfurt, again in London, 
and in 1853 at Manchester, where Richard Cobden and John 
Bright took part in the discussions. Then followed an interval 
of wars during which the Pacifists were unable to raise their 
voices. At length in 1878 a congress was held at the Paris 
International Exhibition of that year, but it was not till the next 
Paris International Exhibition of 1889 that these international 
peace congresses became periodical. Since then numerous con- 
gresses have been held, the seventeenth having sat in London 
in 1908, and the eighteenth at Stockholm in 1910. These 
congresses have been supplemented by national congresses in 

1 See Annuaire du mouvement pacifiste pour Vannee iQio, published 
by the Bureau International de la Paix, at Bern. 

both Great Britain and France. Such congresses are doing 
admirable work in the popularizing of thought upon the 
numerous questions which are discussed at the meetings, 
such as compulsory arbitration, the restriction of armaments, 
private property at sea in time of war, the position of subject 
races, airships in war, &c. 2 

4. First among the bodies which try to remove the causes 
of international friction is the Institute of International Law. 
This is a body of international lawyers, consisting of sixty mem- 
bers and sixty associates recruited by election the members from 
those who " have rendered services to international law in the 
domain of theory or practice," and associates from those " whose 
knowledge may be useful to the Institute." It was formed 
in 1873, chiefly through the efforts of M. Rolin-Jaequemyns. 
The official language of the Institute is French, and its annual 
meetings are held wherever the members at the previous meeting 
decide to assemble. Its mode of operation is to work out tht 
matters it deals with during the intervals between the sessions, 
in permanent commissions, among which the whole domain of 
international law is divided up. The commissions, under the 
direction of their rapporteurs or conveners, prepare reports 
and proposals, which are printed and distributed among the 
members some time before the plenary sittings at which they 
are to be discussed. If the members are not agreed, the subject 
is adjourned to another session, and still another, until they do 
agree. Thus the resolutions of the Institute have the authority 
attaching to a mature expression of the views of the leading 
international jurists of Europe. Another body having a more or 
less similar purpose is the International Law Association, which 
was founded in 1873 as the " Association for the Reform and 
Codification of the Law of Nations," with practically the same 
objects as those which led to the constitution of the Institute 
of International Law. It also meets in different countries, but 
it differs from the Institute in the number of its members being 
unlimited and in all respectable persons being eligible for mem- 
berchip. A report is published after each meeting. There are now 
numerous volumes of such reports, many of them containing most 
valuable materials for international jurists. In 1895 the name 
was changed to International Law Association. 

A new society was recently (1906) formed in America called the 
American Society of International Law, " to foster the study of 
international law and piomote the establishment of international 
relations on the basis of law and justice." " Membership in the 
society is not restricted to lawyers, and any man of good moral 
character interested in the objects of the society may be admitted 
to membership." The publications of this society have already 
taken an important place among the literature of international 

Still more recently yet another society came into being in 
Switzerland with objects which seem to be similar to those of the 
Institute of International Law. 

The Inter-Parliamentary Union, which dates back to 1887, 
owes its origin to the initiative of the late Sir W. R. Cremer. 
It is composed of groups of the different parliaments of the 
world, who meet periodically to " bring about the acceptance 
in their respective countries, by votes in parliament and by means 
of arbitration treaties, of the principle that differences between 
nations should be submitted to arbitration and to consider 
other questions of international importance." 3 The sixteenth 
conference was held at Brussels in August-September, 1910. 

2 At the third congress of the new series, held at Rome in 1891, 
was created the Bureau International de la Paix. This most useful 
institution, which has its office at Bern, serves as a means of bringing 
and keeping together all the known peace societies. Its Corre- 
spondance bimensuelle and Annuaire du mouvement pacifiste are well 
known, and its obliging hon. secretary, Dr A. Gobat, is always ready 
to supply information from the now considerable archives of the 
Bureau. In this connexion we may mention that the secretary 
of the London Peace Society, Dr Evans Darby, has edited an 
exhaustive collection of materials called International Tribunals. 
His statements every two years on the progress of arbitration at 
the International Law Association meetings also form an excellent' 
source of materials for reference. 

3 Art. I of Statutes revised Sept. 1908. 


The Nobel Committee owes its existence to the will of the 
late Alfred B. Nobel (1833-1896), the inventor of dynamite, who 
left a considerable fortune for the encouragement of men who 
work for the benefit of humanity. The interest of this money 
was to be divided into five equal parts, to be distributed every 
year as rewards to the persons who had deserved best of mankind 
in five departments of human activity. The clauses of the will 
governing the distribution of these prizes are as follows:- 

" The entire sum shall be divided into five equal parts, one to 
go to the man who shall have made the most important discovery 
or invention in the domain of physical science; another to the man 
who shall have made the most important discovery or introduced 
the greatest improvement in chemistry; the third to the author 
of the most important discovery in the domain of physiology or 
medicine; the fourth to the man who shall have produced the 
most remarkable work of an idealistic nature; and, finally, t 
fifth to the man who shall have done the most or best work for the 
fraternity of nations, the suppression or reduction of standing 
armies, and the formation and propagation of peace congresses. 
The prizes shall be awarded as follows: For physical science and 
chemistry, by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; for physiological 
or medical work, by the Caroline Institutional Stockholm; for litera- 
ture, by the Stockholm Academy, and for peace work, by a com- 
mittee of five members elected by the Norwegian Storthing. It 
is my express desire that, in awarding the prizes, no account shall 
be taken of nationality, in order that the prize may fall to the lot 
of the most deserving, whether he be Scandinavian or not. 

Peace v. War. Peace is the ultimate object of all statecraft 
peace in the development of the domestic activities of the 
nation administered, and peace in the relations of states with 
one another. For the purpose of ensuring peace an expensive 
diplomacy is maintained by all states, and to perpetuate it 
treaties are entered into by states with one another. Even war 
has no other avowed purpose than that of placing specific 
international relations on a definite footing. Ultimate peace 
is uniformly proclaimed by every dictator at home, by every 
conqueror abroad, as the goal to which he is directing his efforts. 
And yet dissentient voices are sometimes heard defending war 
as if it were an end in itself. Without going back to the well- 
known reply of Count Moltke to Professor Bluntschli respecting 
the Manual of the Laws of War drawn up by the Institute of 
International Law in iSSo, 1 we need only quote that highly 
up-to-date philosopher, Nietzsche : " It is mere illusion and pretty 
sentiment," he observes, " to expect much (even anything at 
all) from mankind if it forgets how to make war. As yet no 
means are known which call so much into action as a great war, 
that rough energy born of the camp, that deep impersonality 
born of hatred, that conscience born of murder and cold-blooded- 
ness, that fervour born of effort in the annihilation of the enemy, 
that proud indifference to loss, to one's own existence, to that 
of one's fellows, to that earthquake-like soul-shaking which a 
people needs when it is losing its vitality." 2 

It is pleasant to contrast this neurotic joy of one onlooker 
with the matter-of-fact reflexions of another, the late W. E. H. 
Lecky. " War " he says " is not, and never can be a mere 
passionless discharge of a painful duty. It is in its essence, 
and it is a main condition of its success, to kindle into fierce 
exercise among great masses of men the destructive and com- 
bative passions passions as fierce and as malevolent as that 
with which the hound hunts the fox to its death or the tiger 
springs upon its prey. Destruction is one of its chief ends. 
Deception is one of its chief means, and one -of the great arts 
of skilful generalship is to deceive in order to destroy. Whatever 
other elements may mingle with and dignify war, this at least 
is never absent; and however reluctantly men may enter into 
war, however conscientiously they may endeavour to avoid it, 
they must know that when the scene of carnage has once opened, 
these things must be not only accepted and condoned, but 
stimulated, encouraged and applauded. It would be difficult 
to conceive a disposition more remote from the morals of 
ordinary life, not to speak of Christian ideals, than that with 
" Perpetual peace," he said, " is a dream, and it is not even 
a beautiful dream. War is an element in the order of the world 
ordained by God . . . Without war the world would stagnate 
and lose itself in materialism." 

2 Menschliches, AttzumensMiches, No. 477. 

which the soldiers most animated with the fire and passion that 
lead to victory rush forward to bayonet the foe. ... It is allow- 
able to deceive an enemy by fabricated despatches purporting 
;o come from his own side; by tampering with telegraph mes- 
sages; by spreading false intelligence in newspapers; by sending 
pretended spies and deserters to give him untrue reports of the 
lumbers or movements of the troops; by employing false signals 
.o lure him into an ambuscade. On the use of the flag and 
uniform of an enemy for purposes of deception there has been 
some controversy, but it is supported by high military authority. 
Hardly any one will be so confident of the virtue of his 
rulers as to believe that every war which his country wages in 
very part of its dominions with uncivilized as well as civilized 
Deputations, is just and necessary, and it is certainly prima 
acie not in accordance with an ideal morality that men should 
jind themselves absolutely for life or for a term of years to kill 
without question, at the command of their superiors, those who 
lave personally done them no -wrong." 3 

Surely with all the existing activity in the removal of causes 
of war, in the reduction to precise expression of the rules of law 
governing the relations of states with one another, in the creation 
of international judicatures for the application of these rules, in 
the concluding of treaties specifically framed to facilitate the 
Dacific settlement of difficulties diplomacy may have failed to 
adjust, in the promotion of democratic civilian armies with 
everything to lose by war, and all the other agencies which have 
seen described above, the hope seems warranted that, in 
no distant future, life among nations will become still more 
closely assimilated to life among citizens of the same nation, 
with legislation, administration, reform all tending to the one 
real object of law, order and peace among men. (T. BA.) 

PEACE, BREACH OF THE. Theoretically all criminal offences 
cognizable by English law involve a breach of the king's peace, 
and all indictments whether for offences against the common 
law or by statute conclude " against the peace of our lord the 
king, his crown and dignity." Historically this phrase, now 
legally superfluous, represents the last trace of the process by 
which the royal courts assume jurisdiction over all offences, and 
gradually extruded the jurisdiction of the sheriff and of lords 
of manors and franchises, making crime a matter of national 
concern as distinguished from civil wrongs or infractions of the 
rights of local magnates, or of the rights of the tribal chiefs of 
the Teutonic conquerors of Britain. The peace of the king was 
sworn on his accession or full recognition, and the jurisdiction of 
his courts to punish all violations of that peace was gradually 
asserted. The completion of this process is marked by the 
institution of the office of justice of the peace. 

In modern times the expression "breach of the peace" is usually 
limited to offences involving actual tumult, disturbances or dis- 
order. As regards such offences, although they do not fall into 
the class of grave crimes described as felonies, officers of police 
and even private persons have larger powers and duties, as to 
immediate arrest without waiting for judicial warrant, than they 
possess as to other minor offences (see ARREST). Justices of the 
peace have under early statutes and the commission of the 
peace power to take sureties of the peace from persons who are 
threatening to commit a breach of the peace, and it is within 
the power of any court on conviction of any misdemeanour 
and of many felonies to require the offender to enter into a 
recognizance (q.t>.) to keep the peace. 

PEACE CONFERENCES, the official title of the two inter- 
national conferences held at the Hague in 1899 and 1907. Both 
were organized at the instance of the emperor Nicholas II. of 
Russia. The chief object of the first conference, as set out in the 
note of Count Mouraviev, the Russian minister of foreign affairs 
(Jan. n, 1899), was to arrive at an "understanding not 
to increase for a fixed period the present effectives of the 
armed military and naval forces, and at the same time not to 
increase the budgets pertaining thereto; and a preliminary 
examination of the means by which even a reduction 
might be effected in future in the forces and budgets above 
3 The Map of Life, 1902, pp. 92-97. 


mentioned." 1 The conference, which was attended by repre- 
sentatives of 26 states, sat from the i8th of May to the 2pth 
of July 1899. 

When the subject of excessive armaments came up for dis- 
cussion, the objections of the German military delegate led to 
its abandonment. Other very important matters, however, were 
dealt with, and three momentous conventions were adopted, viz. 

I. A convention for the pacific settlement of international 

II. A convention relating to the laws and customs of war by land. 

III. A convention for the adaptation to maritime warfare of the 
principles of the Geneva Convention of the 22nd of August 1864. 

Three declarations on the following matters were also adopted : 

a. Prohibition of the launching of projectiles and explosives from 

balloons or by other similar new methods. 2 

b. Prohibition of the use of projectiles the only object of which 

is the diffusion of asphyxiating or deleterious gases. 

c. Prohibition of the use of bullets which expand or flatten easily 

in the human body, such as bullets with a hard envelope, of 
which the envelope does not entirely cover the corej or is 
pierced with incisions. 

The conference furthermore passed the following resolutions: 

" The Conference is of opinion that the restriction of military 
budgets, which are at present a heavy burden on the world, is 
extremely desirable for the increase of the material and moral welfare 
of mankind." 

" The Conference, taking into consideration the preliminary 
steps taken by the Swiss Federal Government for the revision of 
the Geneva Convention, expresses the wish that steps may be shortly 
taken for the assembling of a special Conference, having for its 
object the revision of that Convention." 

The following vasux were adopted, but not unanimously: 

" I. The Conference expresses the wish that the question of the 
rights and duties of neutrals may be inserted in the programme of a 
conference in the near future. 

" 2. The Conference expresses the wish that the questions with 
regard to rifles and naval guns, as considered by it, may be studied 
by the Governments with the object of coming to an agreement 
respecting the employment of new types and calibres. 

3. The Conference expresses the wish that the Governments, 
taking into consideration the proposals made at the Conference, 
may examine the possibility of an agreement as to the limitation of 
armed forces by land and sea, and of war budgets. 

" 4. The Conference expresses the wish that the proposals which 
contemplate the declaration of the inviolability of private property 
in naval warfare may be referred to a subsequent conference for 

" 5. The Conference expresses the wish that the proposal to settle 
the question of the bombardment of ports, towns and villages by 
naval forces may be referred to a subsequent conference for 

Great Britain signed and became a party to the three 
Conventions, but not to all the declarations, &c. 

The Conference of 1907, which was attended by representatives 
of forty-four states, sat from the isth of June to the i8th of 
October. Again, in spite of the resolution and vceu on arma- 
ments handed down from the Conference of 1899 this subject 
was waived, but still more important conventions than in 1899 
were adopted on other matters. These were as follows: 

I. Convention for the pacific settlement of international 
disputes. 3 

II. Convention respecting the limitation of the employment of 
force for the recovery of contract debts. 

III. Convention relative to the commencement of hostilities. 

IV. Conventions concerning the laws and customs of war on 

V. Convention respecting the rights and duties of neutral powers 
and persons in war on land. 

VI. Convention relative to the status of enemy merchant-ships 
at the outbreak of hostilities. 

1 At the Conference the Russian government, further developing 
the proposal, submitted the following details: 

" I. Establishment of an international understanding for a term 
of five years, stipulating non-increase of the present figures of the 
peace effective of the troops kept up for home use. 

" 2. Fixation, in case of this understanding being arrived at, 
and, if possible, of the figures of the peace effective of all the powers 
excepting colonial troops. 

" 3. Maintenance for a like term of five years of the amount of 
the military budgets at present in force." 

3 This Conference was held at Geneva in June-July 1906. The 
revised Convention, composed of 33 articles, is dated July 6, 1906. 

3 This is an amended edition of that of 1899. 

VII. Convention relative to the conversion of merchant-ships 
into war-ships. 

VIII. Convention relative to the laying of automatic submarine 
contact mines. 

IX. Convention respecting bombardment by naval forces in 
time of war. 

X. Conventions for the adaptation of the principles of the Geneva 
Convention to maritime war. 4 

XI. Convention relative to certain restrictions on the exercise 
of the right of capture in maritime war. 4 

XII. Convention relative to the establishment of an international 
prize court. 

XIII. Convention respecting the rights and duties of neutral 
powers in maritime war. 

XIV. Declaration prohibiting discharge of projectiles, &c., from 
balloons. 6 

A draft Convention relative to the creation of a judicial 
arbitration court was also drawn up in connexion with the first 
of the four following vosux: 

I. The Conference calls the attention of the signatory powers 
to the advisability of adopting the annexed draft convention for 
the creation of a judicial arbitration court, and of bringing it into 
force as soon as an agreement has been reached respecting the selec- 
tion of the judges and the constitution of the court. 

2. The Conference expresses the opinion that, in case of war, the 
responsible authorities, civil as well as military, should make it 
their special duty to ensure and safeguard the maintenance of pacific 
relations, more especially of the commercial and industrial relations 
between the inhabitants of the belligerent states and neutral 

3. The Conference expresses the opinion that the powers should 
regulate, by special treaties, the position, as regards military charges, 
of foreigners residing within their territories. 

4. The Conference expresses the opinion that the preparation 
of regulations relative to the laws and customs of naval war should 
figure in the programme of the next conference, 6 and that in any 
case the powers may apply, as far as possible, to war by sea the 
principles of the Convention relative to the laws and customs of 
war on land. 

Finally, the Conference recommended to the powers the 
assembly of a Third Peace Conference, and it called their atten- 
tion to the necessity of preparing the programme of this Third 
Conference a sufficient time in advance to ensure its deliberations 
being conducted with the necessary authority and expedition. 

In order to attain this object the Conference considered that it 
" would be very desirable that, some two years before the probable 
date of the meeting, a preparatory committee should be charged 
by the governments with the task of collecting the various 
proposals to be submitted to the Conference, of ascertaining what 
subjects are ripe for embodiment in an international regulation, 
and of preparing a programme which the governments should 
decide upon in sufficient time to enable it to be carefully examined 
by the countries interested," and that this committee should 
further be entrusted with the task of proposing a system of 
organization and procedure for the Conference itself. (T. BA.) 

PEACH, CHARLES WILLIAM (1800-1886), British naturalist 
and geologist, was born on the 3oth of September 1800 at Wans- 
ford in Northamptonshire; his father at the time was a saddler 
and harness-maker, and afterwards became an innkeeper 
farming about 80 acres of land. He received an elementary 
education at Wansford and at Folkingham in Lincolnshire; and 
assisted for several years in the inn and farm. In 1824 he was 
appointed riding officer in the Revenue Coast-guard at Weybourn 
in Norfolk. Sea-weeds and other marine organisms now 
attracted his attention, and these he zealously collected. His 
duties during the next few years led him to remove successively 
to Sheringharrf, Hasboro (Happisburgh), Cromer and Cley, all in 
Norfolk. In the course of his rambles he met the Rev. James 
Layton, curate at Catfield, who lent him books and assisted in 
laying the foundations of accurate knowledge About the year 
1830 he was transferred to Charmouth in Dorset, thence to Beer, 
and Paignton in Devon, and to Gorran Haven near Mevagissey 
in Cornwall. Here he continued to pursue his zoological studies 

4 This is an amended edition of that of 1899. 

6 This was practically a re-enactment of that of 1899. 

6 This has since been done to a large extent by the Conference of 



and supplied many specimens to G. Johnston, who was then 
preparing his History of the British Zoophytes (1838). It was 
here too that he first found fossils in some of the older rocks 
previously regarded as unfossiliferous the discovery of which 
proved the presence of Bala Beds (Ordovician or Lower Silurian) 
in the neighbourhood of Gorran Haven. In 1841 he read a paper 
before the British Association at Plymouth " On the Fossil 
Organic Remains found on the south-east coast of Cornwall," 
and in 1843 he brought before the Royal Geological Society of 
Cornwall an account of his discovery of fish remains in the Devo- 
nian slates near Polperro. Peach was transferred for a time 
to Fowey; and in 1849 to Scotland, first to Peterhead and then to 
Wick (1853), where he made acquaintance with Robert Dick of 
Thurso. He collected the old red Sandstone fishes; and during 
a sojourn at Durness he first found fossils in the Cambrian 
limestone (1854). Peach retired from the government service in 
1 86 1, and died at Edinburgh on the a8th of February 1886. 

Biographical notice, with portrait, in S. Smiles's Robert Dick, 
Baker, of Thurso, Geologist and Botanist (1878). 

PEACH, the name of a fruit tree which is included by Bentham 
and Hooker (Genera plantarum, i. 610) under the genus Prunus 
(Prunus persica); its resemblance to the plum is indeed obvious. 
Others have classed it with the almond as a distinct genus, 
Amygdalus; while others again have considered it sufficiently 
distinct to constitute a separate genus, Persica. 

In general terms the peach may be said to be a medium-sized 
tree, with lanceolate, stipulate leaves, borne on long, slender, 
relatively unbranched shoots, and with 
the flowers arranged singly, or in groups 
of two or more, at intervals along the 
shoots of the previous year's growth. 
The flowers have a hollow tube at the 
base bearing at its free edge five sepals, 
an equal number of petals, usually con- 
cave or spoon-shaped, pink or white, 
and a great number of stamens. The 
pistil consists of a single carpel with its 

ovary, style, stigma and solitary ovule 
Qr twin ^^ Thfi fmit j g & drupe 

(fig. i) having a thin outer skin (epi- 
carp) enclosing the flesh of the peach 

Stone or endpcarp, (mesocarp) , the inner layers of the carpel 
within which is the becoming woody to form the stone, 
while the ovule ripens into the kernel 
or seed. This is exactly the structure of 
the plum or apricot, and differs from that of the almond, which is 
identical in the first instance, only in the circumstance that the 
fleshy part of the latter eventually becomes dry and leathery and 
cracks open along a line called the suture. 

The nectarine is a variation from the peach, mainly charac- 
terized by the circumstance that, while the skin of the ripe 
fruit is downy in the peach, it is shining and destitute of hairs in 
the nectarine. That there is no essential difference between the 
two is, however, shown by the facts that the seeds of the peach 
will produce nectarines, and vice versa, and that it is not very 
uncommon, though still exceptional, to see peaches and 
nectarines on the same branch, and fruits which combine in them- 
selves the characteristics of both nectarines and peaches. The 
blossoms of the peach are formed the autumn previous to their 
expansion, and this fact, together with the peculiarities of their 
form and position, requires to be borne in mind by the gardener 
i n his pruning and training operations. The only point of practical 
interest requiring mention here is the very singular fact attested 
by all peach-growers, that, while certain peaches are liable to the 
attacks of mildew, others are not. In the case of the peach this 
peculiarity is in some way connected with the presence of small 
glandular outgrowths on the stalk, or at the base of the leaf. 
Some peaches have globular, others reniform glands, others none 
at all, and these latter trees are much more subject to mildew 
than are those provided with glands. 

The history of the peach, almond and nectarine is interesting 
and important as regards the question of the origin of species and 

FIG. I. Fruit (drupe) 
of Peach cut lengthwise. 
e, Skin or cpicarp. 
wz.Flesh or mesocarp. 

seed or kernel, 
(f nat. size.) 

the production and perpetuation of varieties. As to the origin of 
the peach two views are held, that of Alphonse de Candolle, who 
attributes all cultivated varieties to a distinct species, probably of 
Chinese origin, and that adopted by many naturalists, but more 
especially by Darwin, who looks upon the peach as a modification 
of the almond. 

In the first place, the peach as we now know it has been nowhere 
recognized in the wild state. In the few instances where it is said 
to have been found wild the probabilities are that the tree was an 
escape from cultivation. Aitchison, however, gathered in the 
Hazardarakht ravine in Afghanistan a form with different-shaped 
fruit from that of ^he almond, being larger and flatter. " The 
surface of the fruit," he observes, " resembles that of the peach in 
texture and colour; and the nut is quite distinct from that of the 
wild almond. The whole shrub resembles more 'what one might 
consider a wild form of the peach than that of the almond." It is 
admitted, however, by all competent botanists that the almond 
is wild in the hotter and drier parts of the Mediterranean and Levan- 
tine regions. Aitchison also mentions the almond as wild in some 
parts of Afghanistan, where it is known to the natives as " bedam," 
the same word that they apply to the cultivated almond. The 
branches of the tree are carried by the priests in religious ceremonies. 
It is not known as a wild plant in China or Japan. As to the necta- 
rine, of its origin as a variation from the peach there is abundant 
evidence, as has already been mentioned ; it is only requisite to add 
the very important fact that the seeds of the nectarine, even when 
that nectarine has been produced by bud-variation from a peach, 
will generally produce nectarines, or, as gardeners say, " come 
true. Darwin brings together the records ofseveral cases, not only 
of gradations between peaches and nectarines, but also of inter- 
mediate forms between the peach and the almond. So far as we 
know, however, no case has yet been recorded of a peach or a necta- 
rine producing an almond, or vice versa, although if all have had a 
common origin such an event might be expected. Thus the botanical 
evidence seems to indicate that the wild almond is the source of 
cultivated almonds, peaches and nectarines, and consequently that 
the peach was introduced from Asia Minor or Persia, whence the 
name Persica given to the peach; and Aitchison's discovery in 
Afghanistan of a form which reminded him of a wild peach lends 
additional force to this view. 

On the other hand, Alphonse de Candolle, from philological and 
other considerations, considers the peach to be of Chinese origin. 
The peach has not, it is true, been found wild in China, but it has 
been cultivated there from time immemorial ; it has entered into 
the literature and folk-lore of the people; and it is designated by 
a distinct name, " to " or " tao," a word found in the writings of 
Confucius five centuries before Christ, and even in other writings 
dating from the loth century before the Christian era. Though now 
cultivated in India, and almost wild in some parts of the north- 
west, and, as we have seen, probably also in Afghanistan, it has no 
Sanskrit name; it is not mentioned in the Hebrew text of the 
Scriptures, nor in the earliest Greek times. Xenophon makes no 
mention of the peach, though the Ten Thousand must have traversed 
the country where, according to some, the peach is native; but 
Theophrastus, a hundred years later, does speak of it as a Persian 
fruit, and De Candolle suggests that it might have been introduced 
into Greece by Alexander. According to his view, the seeds of the 
peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the 
Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of 
the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period. Once 
established, its cultivation would readily extend westward, or, on 
the other hand, by Cabul to north-western India, where its cultiva- 
tion is not ancient. While the peach has been cultivated in China 
for thousands of years, the almond does not grow wild in that country 
and its introduction is supposed not to go back farther than the 
Christian era. 

On the whole, greater weight is due to the evidence from botanical 
sources than to that derived from philology, particularly since the 
discovery both of the wild almond and of a form like a wild peach 
in Afghanistan. It may, however, well be that both peach and 
almond are derived from some pre-existing and now extinct form 
whose descendants have spread over the whole geographic area 
mentioned ; but this is a mere speculation, though indirect evidence 
in its support might be obtained from the nectarine, of which no 
mention is made in ancient literature, and which, as we have 
seen, originates from the peach and reproduces itself by seed, thus 
offering the characteristics of a species in the act of developing 

The treatment in horticulture of the peach and nectarine is the 
same in every respect. To perpetuate and multiply the choicer 
varieties, peaches and nectarines are budded upon plum or 
almond stocks. For dry situations almond stocks are preferable, 
but they are not long-lived, while for damp or clayey loams it is 
better to use certain kinds of plums. Double-working is some- 
times beneficial ; thus an almond budded on a plum stock may be 
rebudded with a tender peach, greatly to the advantage of the 
latter. The peach border should be composed of turfy mellow 


loam, such as is suitable for the vine and the fig; this should be 
used in as rough a state as possible, or not broken small and fine. 
The bottom should slope towards the outer edge, where a drain 
should be cut, with an outlet, and on this sloping bottom should 
be laid a thickness of from 9 in. to 12 in. of rough materials, 
such as broken bricks or mortar rubbish, over which should be 
placed a layer of rough turf with the grassy side downwards, and 
then the good loamy soil to form the border, which should have a 
depth of about 2 ft. 6 in. The peach-tree is most productive 
when the roots are kept near the surface, and the borders, which 
should be from 8 ft. to 12 ft. wide, should not be cropped heavily 
with culinary vegetables, as deep trenching is very injurious. 
Sickly and unfruitful trees may often be revived by bringing up 
their roots within 5 or 6 in. of the surface. It is questionable 
whether it is not better, in cold soils and bleak situations, to 
abandon outdoor peach culture, and to cover the walls with a 
casing of glass, so that the trees may be under shelter during the 
uncongenial spring weather. 

The fruit of the peach is produced on the ripened shoots of the 
preceding year. If these be too luxuriant, they yield nothing but 
leaves; and if too weak, they are incapable of developing flower 
buds. To furnish young shoots in sufficient abundance, and of 
requisite strength, is the great object of peach training and pruning. 
Trees of slender-growing, twiggy habit naturally fall most readily 
into the fan form of training, and accordingly this has generally been 

adopted in the culture of 
peaches and nectarines (fig. 
2). The young tree is, in 
many cases, procured when 
it has been trained for 
two or three years in the 
nursery; but it is gener- 
ally better to begin with a 
maiden plant that is, a 
plant of the first year after 
it has been budded. It is 

FIG. 2. Montreuil Fan Training. he " j. n rdinar y practice 

headed down to five or 

six buds, and in the following summer from two to four shoots, 
according to the vigour of the plant, are trained in, the laterals 
from which, if any, are thinned out and nailed to the wall. If there 
are four branches, the two central ones are shortened back at the 
subsequent winter pruning so as to produce others, the two lower 
ones being laid in nearly at full length. In the following season 
additional shoots are sent forth ; and the process is repeated till 
eight or ten principal limbs or mother branches are obtained, forming, 
as it were, the frame-work of the future tree. The branches may be 
depressed or elevated, so as to check or encourage them, as occasion 
may arise; and it is highly advantageous to keep them thin, without 
their becoming in any part deficient of young shoots. Sometimes 
a more rapid mode of formation is now adopted, the main shoots 
being from the first laid in nearly at full length, instead of being 
shortened. The pruning for fruit consists in shortening back the 
laterals which had been nailed in at the disbudding, or summer 
pruning, their length depending on their individual vigour and the 
luxuriance of the tree. In well-developed shoots the buds are 
generally double, or rather triple, a wood bud growing between two 
fruit buds; the shoot must be cut back to one of these, or else 
to a wood bud alone, so that a young shoot may be produced to 
draw up the sap beyond the fruit, this being generally desirable 
to secure its proper swelling. The point of this leading shoot 
is subsequently pinched off, that it may not draw away too 
much of the sap. If the fruit sets too abundantly, it must be 
thinned, first when as large as peas, reducing the clusters, and then 
when as large as nuts to distribute the crop equally; the ex- 
tent of the thinning must depend on the vigour of the tree, 
but one or two fruits ultimately left to each square foot of wall 
is a full average crop. The final thinning should take place after 

The best-placed healthy young shoot produced from the wood 
buds at the base of the bearing branch is to be carefully preserved and 
in due time nailed to the wall. In the following winter this will 
take the place of the branch which has just borne, and which is to 
be cut put. If there be no young shoot below, and the bearing 
branch is short, the shoot at the point of the latter may sometimes 
be preserved as a fruit bearer, though if the bearing branch be long 
it is better to cut it back for young wood. It is the neglect of this 
which constitutes the principal fault in carrying out the English 
fan system, as it is usually practised. Several times during summer 
the trees ought to be regularly examined, and the young shoots 
respectively topped or thinned out; those that remain are to be 
nailed to the wall, or braced in with pieces of slender twigs, and the 
trees ought occasionally to be washed with the garden engine or 
thoroughly syringed, especially during very hot summers. After 
gathering the fruit all the wood not needed for extending the tree 

or for fruit bearing next season should be cut out so as to give the 
shoots left full exposure to air and light. 

The Montreuil form of training is represented by fig. 2. The 
principal feature is the suppression of the direct channel of the sap, 
and the substitution of four, or more commonly two, mother branches, 
so laid to the wall that the central angle contains about 90. The 
other branches are all treated as subordinate members. This form 
is open to the objection that, if the under branch should die, the 
upper one cannot be brought down into its place. 

The form a la Dumoutier (fig. 3), so called from its inventor, is 
merely a refinement on the Montreuil method. The formation 

FlG. 3. Dumoutier's Fan Training. 

of the tree begins with the inferior limbs and proceeds towards 
the centre, the branches being lowered from time to time as the 
tree acquires strength. What is most worthy of notice in. this 
method is the management of the 
subordinates in the pruning for 
fruit. When a shoot promises 
blossom, it is generally at some 
distance from the point of insertion 
into the old wood, and the inter- 
mediate space is covered with wood 
buds. All the latter, therefore, 
which are between the old wood a 
and the blossoms c in fig. 4, except 
the lowest b, are carefully removed 
by rubbing them off with the 
finger. This never fails to produce 
a shoot d, the growth of which is 
favoured by destroying the useless spray e above the blossoms, and 
pinching off the points of those which are necessary to perfect the 
fruit. A replacing shoot is thus obtained, to which the whole is 
invariably shortened at the end of the year. 

Seymour's form (fig. 5) approaches more nearly to the French 
method than any other practised in England ; but the direct channel 

FIG. 4. Pruning a la 

FIG. 5. Seymour's Fan Training. 

of the sap is not suppressed, and this results in the production of 
branches of unequal vigour, which is very undesirable. 

For cold and late situations, Thomas Andrew Knight recommended 
the encouragement of spurs on the young wood, as such spurs, when 
close to the wall, generate the best organized and most vigorous 
blossoms, and generally ensure a crop of fruit. They may be pro- 
duced, by taking care, during the summer pruning or disbudding, 
to preserve a number of the little shoots emitted by the yearly 
wood, only pinching off the minute succulent points. On the spurs 
thus formed blossom buds will be developed early in the following 
season. This practice is well adapted to cold situations. Peach- 
trees require protection, especially at the period of blossoming, 
particularly in the north of England and in Scotland. Canvas or 
bunting screens are most effectual. By applying these early in the 
season, great benefit may be derived from retarding the blossom 
till the frosty nights of spring have passed. Wooden and glass 
copings are also very useful in warding off frosts. Care must be 
taken that the roots always have a sufficient supply of moisture 
and that the soil is moist wherever the roots run. 

Forcing. The pruning and training of the trees in the peach 
house do not differ materially from the methods practised out of 
doors. It may also be stated here that when occasion arises peach- 
trees well furnished with buds may be transplanted and forced 
immediately without risking the crop of fruit, a matter of some 
importance when, as sometimes happens, a tree may accidentally 
fail. In the forcing of peaches fire heat is commonly applied about 
December or January ; but it may, where there is a demand, begin 
a month sooner. The trees must be got to start growth very 


gradually, and at first the house should be merely kept closed at a 
temperature of about 4 5- but the heat should gradually increase , to 
10 at night by the time the trees are in flower, and to 60 when the 
fruit is set, after which the house should be kept moist by sprinkling 
the walls and paths, or by placing water troughs on the return pipes, 
and the temperature should range from 65 'by day to 70 or more 
with sun heat. After the fruit has set, the foliage should be refreshed 
and cleansed by the daily use of the syringe or garden engine. 
When the fruit has stoned that is, as soon as the kernels have b 
formed the temperature should be raised to about 65 as a minimum, 
and to 70, with 75 by sun heat, as a maximum. Water must now 
be copiously supplied to the border, and air admitted in abundance, 
but cold draughts which favour the attack of mildew must be 
avoided. After the end of April little fire heat is required. When 
the fruit begins to ripen, syringing must be discontinued till the 
crop is gathered, after which the syringe must be again occasionally 
used If the leaves should happen to shade the fruit, not only 
during the ripening process but at any time after the stoning 
period, they should be gently turned aside, for, in order that the 
fruit may acquire good colour and flavour, it should be freely 
exposed to light and air when ripening; it will bear the direct rays 
of the sun, even if they should rise to 100, but nectarines are much 
more liable to damage than peaches. The trees often suffer from 
mildew, which is best prevented by keeping the borders of the 
peach house clear and sufficiently moist and the house well ventilated, 
and if it should appear the trees should be sprayed with I oz. potas- 
sium sulphide dissolved in 3 gallons of water. Care must be taken in 
using this fungicide not to wet the painted wood, as it is sure to 
become discoloured. . 

Peaches and nectarines are frequently cultivated in well-drained 
pots, and are then usually trained as pyramids, and in some cases 
as half-standards. The potting must be done very firmly, using 
turfy loam with which a little mortar rubble has been mixed. 
The trees are to be top-dressed from time to time with well-decayed 
manure and turfy loam, and considerable space must be left in the 
pots for this and the watering. 

The following are some of the best_ peaches and nectarines, 
arranged in the order of the times of their ripening: 



Early Beatrice . . m 
Early Louise . . e. 


Royal George . . j 

b. Sept. 

Hales's Early . . b. 


Bellegarde . . . 


Rivers's Early York b. 


Belle Bauce 

m. Sept. 

A'bec . . . . m 



m. Sept. 

Crimson Galande . e. 


Late Admirable 

m.e. Sept. 

Crawford's Early . 



Sea Eagle 
Walburton Admirable \ 

e. Sept. 

Grosse Mignonne . 




Salwey . j 

e.' OcV. 

Noblesse . . . | 


Princess of Wales . 

e. Oct. 


Cardinal (under glass) c. 
Lord Napier . . b 


Pitmaston Orange . j 

b. Sept. 

Darwin m. Aug. 
Early Rivers . . m. Aug. 

Violette Hative . . j 

e. Aug. 





Victoria (under glass) 

b. Sept. 

Elruge .... 



Stanwick Elruge 

b. Sept. 
m. Sept. 

Stanwick (under glass) m.e. Sept. 

PEACHAM, HENRY (c. i576-c. 1643), English writer, was 
the son of Henry Peacham, curate of North Mimms, Hertford- 
shire, and author of a book on rhetoric called the Garden of 
Rhetoric (1577)- The elder Peacham became in 1597 rector of 
Leverton, Lincolnshire. The son was educated at Trinity 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. in 1594-1595 and 
M. A. in 1 598. He was for some time a schoolmaster at Wymond- 
ham, Norfolk, but settled in London in 1612, earning his living 
as tutor to young men preparing for the universities. His first 
book was Graphice (1606), a treatise on pen and water-colour 
drawing, which, as The Gentleman's Exercise, passed through 
three editions. The years 1613-1614 he spent abroad, part of 
the time as tutor to the three young sons of Thomas Howard 
(1585-1646), earl of Arundel, and partly on his own account. He 
travelled in Italy, France, Westphalia and the Netherlands. 
The table of Sir John Ogle, English governor of Utrecht, was, he 
says, a " little academy," where he met soldiers and scholars of all 
nationalities. When he returned to London he was accused of 
libel on the king. Incriminating papers had been discovered in 
the house of Edmond Peacham, rector of Hinton Saint George, 
who, on being charged with an attack on the king denied the 

authorship, stating that they were written by a namesake, " a 
divine, a scholar and a traveller." The change was, however, 
easily rebutted. Peacham had many friends in London, among 
them Thomas Dowland the musician, Inigo Jones, and Edward 
Wright the mathematician. In 1622 appeared Peacham's 
magnum opus, the Compleat Gentleman. Enlarged editions 
appeared in 1626 and 1627. The 1627 edition was reprinted in 
1634, and a third, with additional notes on blazonry by Thomas 
Blount (1617-1679), appeared in 1661. The book is a text-book 
of manners and polite learning; it includes chapters on cosmo- 
graphy, geometry, poetry, music, antiquities, painting, the lives 
of the painters, the " art of limming " (Peacham himself was a 
proficient engraver), and the military art, including the order of 
" a maine battaile or pitched field in eight severall wayes." 
The book differs from the Courtier of Castiglione, which had been 
the guide of an earlier generation. Peacham was a Cavalier, 
even an ardent polemist in the royal cause, but the central point 
of his book is a more or less Puritan sentiment of duty. In his 
later years Peacham was reduced to extreme poverty, and is said 
to have written children's books at a penny each. His last book 
was published in 1642, and it may be concluded that he died soon 

His other works include: Minerva Britanna (1612), dedicated to 
Henry, prince of Wales; The Period of Mourning (1613), in honour 
of the same prince; Thalia's Banquet (1620), a book of epigrams; 
The Art of Living in London (1642), and The Worth of a Peny 
(1641), &c. There is a nearly complete collection of Peacham's 
works in the Bodleian, Oxford. Harleian MS. 6855 contains a 
translation by Peacham of James I.'s Basilicon doron into Latin 
verse, written in his own hand and ornamented with pen and ink 
drawings. His Compleat Gentleman was edited by G. S. Gordon 
in 1906 for the Clarendon Press; the Art of Living is reprinted 
in the Harleian Misc. ix. ; The Worth of a Peny in E. Arber's English 
Garner (vol. vi. 1883). 

PEACOCK, SIR BARNES (1810-1890), English judge, was born 
in 1810, the son of Lewis Peacock, a solicitor. After practising 
as a special pleader, he was called to the bar in 1836, and in 
1844 obtained great reputation by pointing out the flaw which 
invalidated the conviction of Daniel O'Connell and his fellow 
defendants. In 1852 he went to India as legal member of the 
governor-general's council. He here displayed great activity as a 
law reformer, but sometimes manifested too little consideration 
for native susceptibilities. The legislative council was established 
soon after his arrival, and although no orator, he was so frequent 
a speaker that legislation enjoining councillors to deliver their 
speeches sitting was said to have been devised with the sole 
object of restraining him. As a member of Lord Dalhousie's 
council he supported the annexation of Oudh, and he stood by 
Lord Canning all through the Mutiny. In 1859 he became chief 
justice of the Supreme Court. He returned to England in 1870, 
and in 1872 was placed upon the judicial committee of the privy 
council, where his Indian experience rendered him invaluable. 
He died on the 3rd of December 1890. 

PEACOCK, GEORGE (1791-1858), English mathematician, 
was born at Thornton Hall, Denton, near Darlington, on the 
9th of April 1791. He was educated at Richmond, Yorkshire, 
and entered Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1809. He was second 
wrangler in 1812 (Sir J. F. W. Herschel being senior), was elected 
fellow of his college in 1814, became assistant tutor in 1815 and 
full tutor in 1823. While still an undergraduate he formed a 
league with John Herschel and Charles Babbage, to conduct the 
famous struggle of " d-ism versus dot-age," which ended in the 
introduction into Cambridge of the continental notation in the 
infinitesimal calculus to the exclusion of the fluxional notation 
o'f Sir Isaac Newton. This was an important reform, not so 
much on account of the mere change of notation (for mathe- 
maticians follow J. L. Lagrange in using both these notations), 
but because it signified the opening to the mathematicians of 
Cambridge of the vast storehouse of continental discoveries. 
The analytical society thus formed in 1813 published various 
memoirs, and translated S. F. Lacroix's Differential Calculus in 
1816. Peacock powerfully aided the movement by publishing in 
1820 A Collection of Examples of the Application of the Differential 
and Integral Calculus. In 1841 he published a pamphlet on the 



university statutes, in which he indicated the necessity for 
reform; and in 1850 and 1855 he was a member of the commission 
of inquiry relative to the university of Cambridge. In 1837 he 
was appointed Lowndean professor of astronomy. In 1839 he 
took the degree of D.D., and the same year was appointed by 
Lord Melbourne to the deanery of Ely. Peacock threw himself 
with characteristic ardour into the duties of this new position. 
He improved the sanitation of Ely, published in 1840 Observations 
on Plans for Cathedral Reform, and carried out extensive works 
of restoration in his own cathedral. He was twice prolocutor of 
the lower house of convocation for the province of Canterbury. 
He was also a prime mover in the establishment of the Cambridge 
Astronomical Observatory, and in the founding of the Cambridge 
Philosophical Society. He was a fellow of the Royal, Royal 
Astronomical, Geological and other scientific societies. In 1838, 
and again in 1843, he was one of the commissioners for standards 
of weights and measures; and he also furnished valuable infor- 
mation to the commissioners on decimal coinage. He died on 
the 8th of November 1858. 

Peacock's original contributions to mathematical science were 
concerned chiefly with the philosophy of its first principles. He 
did good service in systematizing the operational laws of 
algebra, and in throwing light upon the nature and use of 
imaginaries. He published, first in 1830, and then in an enlarged 
form in 1842, a Treatise on Algebra, in which he applied his 
philosophical ideas concerning algebraical analysis to the eluci- 
dation of its elements. A second great service was the publica- 
tion in the British Association Reports for 1833 of his " Report 
on the Recent Progress and Present State of certain branches of 
Analysis." Modern mathematicians may find on reading this 
brilliant summary a good many dicta which they will call in 
question, but, whatever its defects may be, Peacock's report 
remains a work of permanent value. In 1855 he published a 
memoir of Thomas Young, and about the same time there 
appeared Young's collected works in three volumes, for the first 
two of which Peacock was responsible. 

PEACOCK, THOMAS LOVE (1785-1866), English novelist and 
poet, was born at Weymouth on the i8th of October 1785. He 
was the only son of a London glass merchant, who died soon after 
the child's birth. Young Peacock was educated at a private 
school at Englefield Green, and after a brief experience of business 
determined to devote himself to literature, while living with his 
mother (daughter of Thomas Love, a naval man) on their private 
means. His first books were poetical, The Monks of St Mark 
(1804), Palmyra (1806), The Genius of the Thames (1810), The 
Philosophy of Melancholy (1812) works of no great merit. He 
also made several dramatic attempts, which were never acted. 
He served for a short time as secretary to Sir Home Popham at 
Flushing, and paid several visits to Wales. In 1812 he became 
acquainted with Shelley. In 1815 he evinced his peculiar power 
by writing his novel Headlong Hall. It was published in 1816, 
and Melincourt followed in the ensuing year. During 1817 he 
lived at Great Marlow, enjoying the almost daily society of 
Shelley, and writing Nightmare Abbey and Rhododaphne, by far 
the best of his long poems. In 1819 he was appointed assistant 
examiner at the India House. Peacock's nomination appears to 
have been due to the influence of his old schoolfellow Peter 
Auber, secretary to the East India Company, and the papers he 
prepared as tests of his ability were returned with the comment, 
" Nothing superfluous and nothing wanting." This was char- 
acteristic of the whole of his intellectual work; and equally 
characteristic of the man was his marriage about this time to 
Jane Griffith, to whom he proposed by letter, not having seen 
her for eight years. They had four children, only one of whom, 
a son, survived his father; one daughter was the first wife of 
George Meredith. His novel Maid Marian appeared in 1822, 
The Misfortunes of Elphin in 1829, and Crotchet Castle in 1831; 
and he would probably have written more but for the death in 
1833 of his mother. He also contributed to the Westminster 
Review and the Examiner. His services to the East India Com- 
pany, outside the usual official routine, were considerable. He 
defended it successfully against the attacks of James Silk 

Buckingham and the Liverpool salt interest, and made the subject 
of steam navigation to India peculiarly his own. He represented 
the company before the various parliamentary committees on 
this question; and in 1839 and 1840 superintended the con- 
struction of iron steamers, which not only made the voyage round 
the Cape successfully, but proved very useful in the Chinese War. 
He also drew up the instructions for the Euphrates expedition 
of 1835, subsequently pronounced by its commander, General 
F. R. Chesney, to be models of sagacity. In 1836 he succeeded 
James Mill as chief examiner, and in 1856 he retired upon a 
pension. During his later years he contributed several papers to 
Fraser's Magazine, including reminiscences of Shelley, whose 
executor he was. He also wrote in the same magazine his last 
novel, Gryll Grange (1860), inferior to his earlier writings in 
humour and vigour, but still a surprising effort for a man of his 
age. He died on the 23rd of January 1866 at Lower Halliford, 
near Chertsey, where, so far as his London occupations would 
allow him, he had resided for more than forty years. 

Peacock's position in English literature is unique. There was 
nothing like his type of novel before his time; though there 
might have been if it had occurred to Swift to invent a story as a 
vehicle for the dialogue of his Polite Conversation. Peacock speaks 
as well in his own person as through his puppets; and his pithy 
wit and sense, combined with remarkable grace and accuracy 
of natural description, atone for the primitive simplicity of plot 
and character. Of his seven fictions, Nightmare Abbey and 
Crotchet Castle are perhaps on the whole the best, the former 
displaying the most vis comica of situation, the latter the fullest 
maturity of intellectual power and the most skilful grouping of 
the motley crowd of " perfectibilians, deteriorationists, statu- 
quo-ites, phrenologists, transcendentalists, political economists, 
theorists in all sciences, projectors in all arts, morbid visionaries, 
romantic enthusiasts, lovers of music, lovers of the picturesque 
and lovers of good dinners," who constitute the dramatis personae 
of the Peacockian novel. Maid Marian and The Misfortunes of 
Elpkin are hardly less entertaining. Both contain descriptive 
passages of extraordinary beauty. Melincourt is a comparative 
failure, the excellent idea of an orang-outang mimicking humanity 
being insufficient as the sole groundwork of a novel. Headlong 
Hall, though more than foreshadowing the author's subsequent 
excellence, is marred by a certain bookish awkwardness char- 
acteristic of the recluse student, which reappears in Gryll Grange 
as the pedantry of an old-fashioned scholar, whose likes and 
dislikes have become inveterate and whose sceptical liberalism, 
always rather inspired by hatred of cant than enthusiasm for 
progress, has petrified into only too earnest conservatism. The 
book's quaint resolute paganism, however, is very refreshing in 
an age eaten up with introspection ; it is the kindliest of Peacock's 
writings, and contains the most beautiful of his poems, " Years 
Ago," the reminiscence of an early attachment. In general the 
ballads and songs interspersed through his tales are models of 
exact and melodious diction, and instinct with true feeling. His 
more ambitious poems are worth little, except Rhododaphne, 
attractive as a story and perfect as a composition, but destitute 
of genuine poetical inspiration. His critical and miscellaneous 
writings are always interesting, especially the restorations of 
lost classical plays in the Horae dramaticae, but the only one of 
great mark is the witty and crushing exposure in the Westminster 
Review of Thomas Moore's ignorance of the manners and belief 
he has ventured to portray in his Epicurean. Peacock resented 
the misrepresentation of his favourite sect, the good and ill of 
whose tenets were fairly represented in his own person. Some- 
what sluggish and self-indulgent, incapable of enthusiasm or self- 
sacrifice, he yet possessed a deep undemonstrative kindliness of 
nature; he could not bear to see anyone near him unhappy 
or uncomfortable; and his sympathy, no less than his genial 
humour, gained him the attachment of children, dependants, 
and friends. In official life he was upright and conscientious; his 
judgment was shrewd and robust. What Shelley justly termed 
" the lightness, strength and chastity " of his diction secures him 
an honourable rank among those English writers whose claims to 
remembrance depend not only upon matter but upon style. 


Peacock's works were collected, though not completely, and pub- 
lished in three volumes in 1875, at the expense of his friend and 
former protege, Sir Henry Cole, with an excellent memoir by his 
granddaughter Mrs Clarke, and a critical essay by Lord Hougnton. 
His prose works were collected by Richard Garnett in ten volumes 
(1891) Separate novels are included in " Macmillan s Illustrated 
Standard Novels," with introductions by Mr Saintsbury. For an 
interesting personal notice, see A Poet's Sketch Book, by K, W. 
Buchanan (1884). 

PEACOCK (Lat. Paw, O. Eng. Pawe, Du. pauuiv, Ger. Pfau, 
Fr. Paon), the bird so well known from the splendid plumage of 
the male, and as the proverbial personification of pride. It is a 
native of the Indian peninsula, and Ceylon, in some parts of which 
it is very abundant. Setting aside its importation to Palestine 
by Solomon (i Kings x. 22; 2 Chron. ix. 21), its assignment in 
classical mythology as the favourite bird of Hera testifies to the 
early acquaintance the Greeks must have had with it; but, 
though it is mentioned by Aristophanes and other older writers, 
their knowledge of it was probably very slight until after the 
conquests of Alexander. Throughout all succeeding time, 
however, it has never very freely rendered itself to domestication, 
and, though in earlier days highly esteemed for the table, 1 it is no 
longer considered the delicacy it was once thought; the young of 
the wild birds are, however, still esteemed in the East. 


Japan or " black-shouldered " Peafowls. 

As in most cases of domestic animals, pied or white varieties 
of the ordinary peacock, Pavo crislatus, are not infrequently to 
be seen, and they are valued as curiosities. Greater interest, 
however, attends what is known as the Japanese or Japan 
peacock, a form which has received the name of P. nigripennis, 
as though it were a distinct species. In this form the cock, 
besides other less conspicuous differences, has all the upper 
wing-coverts of a deep lustrous blue instead of being mottled 
with brown and white, while the hen is of a more or less grizzled- 
white. It " breeds true "; but occasionally a presumably pure 
stock of birds of the usual coloration throws out one or more 
having the Japan plumage. It is to be observed that the male 
has in the coloration of the parts mentioned no little resemblance 
to that of the second indubitably good species, the P. muticus 
(or P. spicifer of some writers) of Burma and Java, though the 
character of the latter's crest the feathers of which are barbed 
along their whole length instead of at the tip only and its 

1 Classical authors contain many allusions to its high appreciation 
at the most sumptuous banquets; and medieval bills of fare on state 
occasions nearly always include it. In the days of chivalry one of 
the most solemn oaths was taken "on the peacock," which seems to 
have been served up garnished with its gaudy plumage. 

golden-green neck and breast furnish a ready means of distinction. 
Sir R. Heron was confident that the Japan breed had arisen in 
England within his memory, 2 and C. Darwin (Animals and 
Plants under Domestication, i. 290-292) was inclined to believe it 
only a variety; but its abrupt appearance, which rests on indis- 
putable evidence, is most suggestive in the light that it may one 
day throw on the question of evolution as exhibited in the origin 
of " species." It should be stated that the Japan bird is not 
known to exist anywhere as a wild race, though apparently kept 
in Japan. The accompanying illustration is copied from a plate 
drawn by J. Wolf, given in D. G. Elliot's Monograph of the 

The peafowls belong to the group Gallinae, from the normal mem- 
bers of which they do not materially differ in structure; and, though 
by some systematists they are raised to the rank of a family, 
Pavonidae, most are content to regard them as a sub-family of 
Phasianidae (PHEASANT, q.v.). Akin to the genus Pavo is Poly- 
plectrum, of which the males are armed with "two or more spurs on 
each leg, and near them is generally placed the genus Argusianus, 
containing the argus-pheasants, remarkable for their wonderfully 
ocellated plumage, and the extraordinary length of the secondary 
quills of their wings, as well as of the tail-feathers. It must always 
be remembered that the so-called " tail " of the peacock is formed 
not by the rectrices or true tail-feathers, but by the singular develop- 
ment of the tail-coverts. (A. N.) 

PEAK, THE, a high table-land in the north of Derbyshire, 
England, included in the Pennine range of hills. The name, 
however, is extended, without definite limits, to cover the whole 
of the hilly district north of Buxton. The table-land reaches an 
elevation of 2088 ft. in Kinder Scout. The geological formation 
is millstone-grit, and the underlying beds are not domed, but 
cup-shaped, dipping inward from the flanks of the mass. The 
summit is a peaty moorland, through which masses of rock 
project at intervals. The name of this high plateau has from the 
1 7th century been identified with " peak," the pointed or conical 
top of a mountain, but the very early references to the district 
and certain places in it show clearly, as the New English 
Dictionary points out, that this connexion is unwarranted. The 
name appears in the Old English Chronicle (924) as Peaclond, of 
the district governed from the castle of Peveril of the Peak (sec 
DERBYSHIRE), and also in the name of the cavern under the hill 
at Castleton, Peac's Arse. Peac, it has been suggested, is the 
name of a local deity or demon, and possibly may be indentified 
with Puck. For the etymology of " peak," point, &c., and its 
variants or related words, " pick " and " pike," see PIKE. 

PEALE, CHARLES WILLSON (1741-1826), American portrait 
painter, celebrated especially for his portraits of Washington, 
was born in Queen Anne county, Maryland, on the i6th of April 
1741. During his infancy the family removed to Chestertown, 
Kent county, Maryland, and after the death of his father 
(a country schoolmaster) in 1750 they removed to Annapolis. 
Here, at the age of 13, he was apprenticed to a saddler. About 
1764 he began seriously to study art. He got some assistance 
from Gustavus Hesselius, a Swedish portrait painter then living 
near Annapolis, and from John Singleton Copley in Boston; 
and in 1767-1770 he studied under Benjamin West in London. 
In 1770 he opened a studio in Philadelphia, and met with 
immediate success. In 1772, at Mount Vernon, Peale painted 
a three-quarters-length study of Washington (the earliest known 
portrait of him), in the uniform of a colonel of Virginia militia. 
This canvas is now in the Lee Memorial Chapel of Washington 
and Lee University. He painted various other portraits of 
Washington; probably the best known in a full-length, which 
was made in 1778, and of which Peale made many copies. This 
portrait had been ordered by the Continental Congress, which, 
however, made no appropriation for it, and eventually it was 
bought for a private collection in Philadelphia. Peale painted 
two miniatures of Mrs Washington (1772 and 1777), and portraits 
of many of the famous men of the time, a number of which 
are in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. His portraits of 
Washington do not appeal so strongly to Americans as do those 
of Gilbert Stuart, but his admitted skill as a draughtsman gives to 
all of his work considerable historical value. Peale removed to 
1 A. Newton himself regarded this as probably incorrect. 


Philadelphia in 1777, and served as a member of the committee 
of public safety; he aided in raising a militia company, became a 
lieutenant and afterwards a captain, and took part in the battles 
of Trenton, Princeton and Germantown. In 1770-1 780 he was 
a member of the Pennsylvania assembly, where he voted for 
the abolition of slavery he freed his own slaves whom he had 
brought from Maryland. In 1801 he undertook, largely at his 
own expense, the excavation of the skeletons of two mastodons 
in Uls'ter and Orange counties, New York, and in 1802 he estab- 
lished at Philadelphia Peale's Museum. He was one of the 
founders, in 1805, of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts 
at Philadelphia. At the age of eighty-one Peale painted a large 
canvas, " Christ Healing the Sick at Bethesda," and at eighty- 
three a full-length portrait of himself, now in the Academy of the 
Fine Arts. He died at his country home, near Germantown, 
Pennsylvania, on the 2 2nd of February 1826. 

His brother, JAMES PEALE (1749-1831), also an artist, painted 
two portraits of Washington (one now the property of the New 
York Historical Society, and the other in Independence Hall, 
Philadelphia), besides landscapes and historical compositions. 

PEALE, REMBRANDT (1778-1860), American artist, was born 
in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, on the 22nd of February 1778, 
the son of Charles Willson Peale (q.v.). He studied under his 
father, under Benjamin West in London (1802-1803), and in 
Paris in 1807 and 1809. As early as 1795 he had begun from life 
a portrait of Washington. Of this he made many replicas, the 
latest in 1823, purchased by the United States government 
in 1832, and now in the Capitol of Washington. Peale was one 
of the first of American lithographers. He was an excellent 
draughtsman, but in colour his work cannot rank with hisfather's. 
In 1843 he devised for the Philadelphia public schools a system 
of teaching drawing and penmanship. His portraits include 
those of President Jefferson, Mrs Madison, Commodores Perry, 
Decatur, and Bainbridge, Houdon, the sculptor, General Arm- 
strong, and an equestrian portrait of General Washington, now 
in Independence Hall, Philadelphia. His " Court of Death " 
(1820) is in the Detroit Art Gallery. In 1825 Peale succeeded 
John Trumbull as president of the American Academy of Fine 
Arts (founded in 1802 as the New York Academy of Fine Arts), 
and he was one of the original members of the National 
Academy of Design. He wrote several books, among them 
Notes on Italy (1831), Reminiscences of Art and Artists (1845). 
He died in Philadelphia on the 3rd of October 1860. 

A brother, RAPHAELLE PEALE (1774-1825), was one of the 
earliest of American still-life painters; and another brother, 
TITIAN RAMSEY PEALE (1800-1885), made numerous drawings, 
some of them in water-colour, in illustration of animal life. 

See " Rembrandt Pcalc," partly autobiographical, in C.E.Lester's 
The Artists of America (New York, 1846). 

PEAR (Pyrus communis), a member of the natural order 
Rosaceae, belonging to the same genus as the apple (P. mains), 
which it resembles in floral structure. In both cases the so- 
called fruit is composed of the receptacle or upper end of the 
flower-stalk (the so-called calyx tube) greatly dilated, and en- 
closing within its cellular flesh the five cartilaginous carpels which 
constitute the " core " and are really the true fruit. From the 
upper rim of the receptacle are given off the five sepals, the five 
petals, and the very numerous stamens. The form of the pear 
and of the apple respectively, although usually characteristic 
enough, is not by itself sufficient to distinguish them, for there 
are pears which cannot by form alone be distinguished from 
apples, and apples which cannot by superficial appearance be 
recognized from pears. The main distinction is the occurrence 
in the tissue of the fruit, or beneath the rind, of clusters of cells 
filled with hard woody deposit in the case of the pear, constituting 
the " grit," while in the apple no such formation of woody cells 
takes place. The appearance of the tree the bark, the foliage, 
the flowers is, however, usually quite characteristic in the 
two species. Cultivated pears, whose number is enormous, are 
without doubt derived from one or two wild species widely 
distributed throughout Europe and western Asia, and sometimes 
forming part of the natural vegetation of the forests. In England, 

where the pear is sometimes considered wild, there is always 
the doubt that it may not really be so, but the produce of some 
seed of a cultivated tree deposited by birds or otherwise, which 
has degenerated into the wild spine-bearing tree known as 
Pyrus communis. 

The cultivation of the pear extends to the remotest antiquity. 
Traces of it have been found in the Swiss lake-dwellings; it is 
mentioned in the oldest Greek writings, and was cultivated by 
the Romans. The word " pear " or its equivalent occurs in all 
the Celtic languages, while in Slavonic and other dialects different 
appellations, but still referring to the same thing, are found a 
diversity and multiplicity of nomenclature which led Alphonse 
de Candolle to infer a very ancient cultivation of the tree from 
the shores of the Caspian to those of the Atlantic. A certain 
race of pears, with white down on the under surface of their 
leaves, is supposed to have originated from P. nivalis, and their 
fruit is chiefly used in France in the manufacture of Perry (see 
CIDER). Other small-fruited pears, distinguished by their 
precocity and apple-like fruit, may be referred to P. cordaia, a 
species found wild in western France, and in Devonshire and 

Karl Koch considered that cultivated pears were the descendants 
of three species P. persica (from which the bergamots have 
descended), P. elaeagrifolia and P. sinensis. J. Decaisnc, who made 
the subject one of critical study for a number of years, and not only 
investigated the wild forms, but carefully studied the peculiarities 
of the numerous varieties cultivated in the Jardin des Plantes at 
Paris, refers all cultivated pears to one species, the individuals of 
which have in course of time diverged in various directions, so as 
to form now six races: (l) the Celtic, including P. cordata; (2) the 
Germanic, including P. communis, P. achras, and P. piraster; (3) 
the Hellenic, including P. parviflora, P. sinaica and others; (4) 
the Pontic, including P. elaeagrifolia; (5) the Indian, comprising 
P . Paschae; and (6) the Mongolic, represented by P. sinensis. With 
reference to the Celtic race, P. cordata, it is interesting to note its 
connexion with Arthurian legend and the Isle of Avalon or Isle of 
Apples. An island in Loch Awe has a Celtic legend containing the 
principal features of Arthurian story; but in this case the word is 
" berries " instead of " apples." Dr Phen6 visited Armorica 
(Brittany) with a view of investigating these matters, and brought 
thence fruits of a small berry-like pear, which were identified 
with the Pyrus cordata of western France. 

Cultivation. The pear may be readily raised by sowing the 
pips of ordinary cultivated or of wilding kinds, these forming 
what are known as free or pear stocks, on which the choicer 
varieties are grafted for increase. For new varieties the flowers 
should be fertilized with a view to combine, in the seedlings 
which result from the union, the desirable qualities of the parents. 
The dwarf and pyramid trees, more usually planted in gardens, 
are obtained by grafting on the quince stock, the Portugal quince 
being the best; but this stock, from its surface-rooting habit, 
is most suitable for soils of a cold damp nature. The pear-stock, 
having an inclination to send its roots down deeper into the soil, 
is the best for light dry soils, as the plants are not then so likely 
to suffer in dry seasons. Some of the finer pears do not unite 
readily with the quince, and in this case double working is 
resorted to; that is to say, a vigorous-growing pear is first 
grafted on the quince, and then the choicer pear is grafted on 
the pear introduced as its foster parent. 

In selecting young pear trees for walls or espaliers, some 
persons prefer plants one year old from the graft, but trees two 
or three years trained are equally good. The trees should be 
planted immediately before or after the fall of the leaf. The wall 
trees require to be planted from 25 to 30 ft. apart when on free 
stocks, and from 15 to 20 ft. when dwarfed. Where the trees 
are trained as pyramids or columns they may stand 8 or 10 ft. 
apart, but standards in orchards should be allowed at least 30 ft., 
and dwarf bush trees half that distance. 

In the formation of the trees the same plan may be adopted as 
in the case of the apple. For the pear orchard a warm situation 
is very desirable, with a soil deep, substantial, and thoroughly 
drained. Any good free loam is suitable, but a calcareous loam 
is the best. Pear trees worked on the quince should have the 
stock covered up to its junction with the graft. This is effected 
by raising up a small mound of rich compost around it. a contriv- 
ance which induces the graft to emit roots into the surface soil, 


and also keeps the stock from becoming hard or bark-bound. 
The fruit of the pear is produced on spurs, which appear on shoots 
more than one year old. The mode most commonly adopted 
of training wall pear-trees is the horizontal. For the slender 
twiggy sorts the fan form is to be preferred, while for strong 
growers the half-fan or the horizontal is more suitable. In the 
latter form old trees, the summer pruning of which has been 
neglected, are apt to acquire an undue projection from the wall 
and become scraggy, to avoid which a portion of the old spurs 
should be cut out annually. 

The summer pruning of established wall or espalier-rail trees 
consists chiefly in the timely displacing, shortening back, or 
rubbing off of the superfluous shoots, so that the winter pruning, 
in horizontal training, is little more than adjusting the leading 
shoots and thinning out the spurs, which should be kept close to 
the wall and allowed to retain but two or at most three buds. 
In fan-training the subordinate branches must be regulated, the 
spurs thinned out, and the young laterals finally established in 
their places. When horizontal trees have fallen into disorder, the 
branches may be cut back to within 9 in. of the vertical stem 
and branch, and trained in afresh, or they may be grafted with 
other sorts, if a variety of kinds is wanted. 

Summer and autumn pears should be gathered before they are 
fully ripe, otherwise they will not in general keep more than a 
few days. The Jargonelle should be allowed to remain on the 
tree and be pulled daily as wanted, the fruit from standard trees 
thus succeeding the produce of the wall trees. In the case of 
the Crassane the crop should be gathered at three different 
times, the first a fortnight or more before it is ripe, the second 
a week or ten days after that, and the third when fully ripe. 
The first gathering will come into eating latest, and thus the 
season of the fruit may be considerably prolonged. It is 
evident that the same method may be followed with other 
sorts which continue only a short time in a mature state. 

Diseases. The pear is subject to several diseases caused by fungi. 
Gymnosporangium sabinae, one of the rusts (Uredineae) passes one 
stage of its life-history on living pear leaves, forming large raised 
spots or patches which are at first yellow but soon become red and 
are visible on both faces; on the lower face of each patch is a group 
of cluster-cups or aecidia containing spores which escape when ripe. 
This stage in the life-history was formerly regarded as a distinct 
fungus with the name Roestelia cancellata; it is now known, however, 
that the spores germinate on young juniper leaves, in which they give 
rise to this other stage in the plant's history known as Gymnospor- 
angium. The gelatinous, generally reddish-brown masses of spores 
the teleutospores formed on the juniper in the spring germinate 
and form minute spores sporidia which give rise to the aecidium 
stage on the pear. Diseased pear leaves should be picked off and 
destroyed before the spores are scattered and the various species of 
juniper on which the alternate stage is developed should not be 
allowed near the pear trees. 

Pear scab is caused by a parasitic fungus, Fusidadium pyrinum, 
very closely allied and perhaps merely a form of the apple scab 

fungus, F. dendriticum. As in 
the case of the apple disease it 
forms large irregular blackish 
blotches on the fruit and 
leaves, the injury being often 
very severe especially in a cool, 
damp season. The fungus 
mycelium grows between the 
cuticle and the epidermis, 
the former being ultimately 
ruptured by numerous short 
branches bearing spores (con- 
idia) by means of which the 
disease is spread. As a pre- 
ventive repeated spraying 
with dilute Bordeaux mixture 
is recommended, during the 
flowering season and early 
development of the fruit. 
Similar spraying is recom- 
(From a specimen in the British Museum.) mended for pear-leaf blister 
Pear Scab (Fusidadium pyrinum). caused by Taphrina buttata, 

1 . Leaf showing diseased areas. !? * forms s ^ ollen areas on 

2, Section of leaf surface showing the ^, SQ fae attackdb 
spores or conidia, c, borne on long var ; etv of : t ^^ 
stalks (conidiophores) X25O. the y O u n g er bran 

injured by the pearl oyster scale (Aspidiotus ostreaeformisi^Uch 

may be removed by washing in winter with soft soap and hot 
water. A number of larvae of Lepidoptera feed on the leaves 
the remedy is to capture the mature insects when possible. The 
winter moth (Cheimatobia brumata) must be kept in check by putting 
greasy bands round the trunks from October till December or 
January, to catch the wingless females that crawl up and deposit 
their eggs in the cracks and crevices in the bark. The caterpillars 
of the leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina) and of the goat moth (Cossus 
ligniperda) sometimes bore their way into the trunks and destroy 
the sap channels. If badly bored, the trees are useless; but in 

Pear-leaf Cluster-cups (Gymnosporangium sabinae). 

I. Leaf showing groups of cups or aecidia. 2, Early stage of 

disease. 3, Cups enlarged X 5. 

the early stages if the entrance of the caterpillars has been detected, 
a wire should be pushed into the hole. One of the worst pests 
of pear trees is the pear midge, known as Diplosis pyrivora or 
Cecidomyia nigra, the females of which lay their eggs in the flower- 
buds before they open. The yellow maggots devour the seeds and 
thus ruin the crop. When deformed fruits are noticed they should 
be picked off and burned immediately. Species of aphides may be 
removed by tobacco infusion, soapsuds or other solutions. A gall 
mite (Phytoptus pyri) sometimes severely injures the leaves, on 
which it forms blisters the best remedy is to cut off and burn 
the diseased leaves. 

The Alligator or Avocado Pear is Persea gratissima, a member 
of the natural order Lauraceae, and a native of the West Indies 
and other parts of tropical America. It is a tree of 25 to 30 ft. 
high and bears large pear-shaped fruits, green or deep purple in 
colour, with a firm yellowish-green marrow-like pulp surrounding 
a large seed. The pulp is much esteemed in the West Indies and 
is eaten as a salad, usually with the addition of pepper, salt and 
vinegar. The pulp contains much oil, which is used for lighting 
and soap-making, and the seeds yield a deep indelible black 
stain which is used for marking linen. 

Prickly pear is the popular name for species of Opunlia (see 

The name wooden pear is applied to the fruits of Xylotnelum 
(nat. ord. Proteaceae), an Australian genus of trees with very 
thick, woody, inversely pear-shaped fruits which split into two 
parts when ripe. 

PEARCE, CHARLES SPRAGUE (1851- ), American artist, 
was born at Boston, Massachusetts, on the I3th of October 1851. 
In 1873 he became a pupil of Leon Bonnat in Paris, and after 
1885 he lived in Paris and at Auvers-sur-Oise. He painted 
Egyptian and Algerian scenes, French peasants, and portraits, 
and also decorative work, notably for the Congressional Library 
at Washington. He received medals at the Paris Salon and 
elsewhere, and was decorated with the Legion of Honour, the 
order of Leopold, Belgium, the order of the Red Eagle, Prussia, 
and the order of Dannebrog, Denmark. Among his best known 
paintings are " The Decapitation of St John the Baptist " 
(i88i),in the Art Institute of Chicago; " Prayer " (1884), owned 
by the Massachusetts Charitable Mechanic Association; " The 
Return of the Flock," in the Bohemian Club, San Frana'sco; 
and " Meditation," in the New York Metropolitan Museum. 

PEARL. Pearls are calcareous concretions of peculiar lustre, 
produced by certain molluscs, and valued as objects of personal 
ornament. The experience of pearl-fishers shows that those 
shells which are irregular in shape and stunted in growth, or 


which bear excrescences, or are honeycombed by boring parasites, 
are those most likely to yield pearls. 

The substance of a pearl is essentially the same as that which 
lines the interior of many shells and is known as " mother-of- 
pearl." Sir D. Brewster first showed that the iridescence of this 
substance was an optical phenomenon due to the interference of 
rays of light reflected from microscopic corrugations of the surface 
an effect which may be imitated by artificial striations on a suit- 
able medium. When the inner laminated portion of a nacreous 
shell is digested in acid the calcareous layers are dissolved away, 
leaving a very delicate membranous pellicle, which, as shown 
by Dr Carpenter, may retain the iridescence as long as it is 
undisturbed, but which loses it when pressed or stretched. 

It is obvious that if a pearl presents a perfectly spherical form 
it must have remained loose in the substance of the muscles or 
other soft tissues of the mollusc. Frequently, however, the pearl 
becomes cemented to the interior of the shell, the point of attach- 
ment thus interfering with its symmetry. In this position it may 
receive successive nacreous deposits, which ultimately form a 
pearl of hemispherical shape, so that when cut from the shell it 
may be flat on one side and convex on the other, forming what 
jewelers know as a " perle bouton." In the course of growth 
the pearl may become involved in the general deposit of mother- 
of-pearl, and be ultimately buried in the substance of the shell. 
It has thus happened that fine pearls have occasionally been 
unexpectedly brought to light in cutting up mother-of-pearl in 
the workshop. 

When a pearl oyster is attacked by a boring parasite the 
mollusc protects itself by depositing nacreous matter at the point 
of invasion, thus forming a hollow body of irregular shape known 
as a " blister pearl." Hollow warty pearl is sometimes termed 
in trade " coq de perle." Solid pearls of irregular form are often 
produced by deposition on rough objects, such as small fragments 
of wood, and these, and in fact all irregular-shaped pearls, are 
termed " perles baroques," or " barrok pearls." It appears that 
the Romans in the period of the Decline restricted the name unio 
to the globular pearl, and termed the baroque margaritum. It 
was fashionable in the i6th and I7th centuries to mount curiously 
shaped baroques in gold and enamel so as to form ornamental 
objects of grotesque character. A valuable collection of such 
mounted pearls by Dinglinger is preserved in the Green vaults at 

A pearl of the first water should possess, in jewelers' language, 
a perfect " skin " and a fine " orient "; that is to say, it must be 
of delicate texture, free from speck or flaw, and of clear almost 
translucent white colour, with a subdued iridescent sheen. It 
should also be perfectly spherical, or, if not, of a symmetrical 
pear-shape. On removing the outer layer of a pearl the sub- 
jacent surface is generally dull, like a dead fish-eye, but it 
occasionally happens that a poor pearl encloses a "lively kernel," 
and may therefore be improved by careful peeling. The most 
perfect pearl in existence is said to be one, known as " La Pelle- 
grina," in the museum of Zosima in Moscow; it is a perfectly 
globular Indian pearl of singular beauty, weighing 28 carats. 
The largest known pearl is one of irregular shape in the Beresford 
Hope collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum. This 
magnificent pearl weighs 3 oz., has a circumference of 4.5 in., and 
is surmounted by an enamelled and jewelled gold crown, forming 
a pendant of great value. 

Pearl Fisheries. The ancients obtained their pearls chiefly 
from India and the Persian Gulf, but at the present time they are 
also procured from the Sulu seas, the coast of Australia, the shores 
of Central America and some of the South Pacific Islands. The 
ancient fisheries of Ceylon (Taprobane) are situated in the Gulf 
of Manaar, the fishing-banks lying from 6 to 8 m. off the western 
shore, a little to the south of the isle of Manaar. The Tinnevelly 
fishery is on the Madras side of the strait, near Tuticorin. These 
Indian fishing-grounds are under the control of government 
inspectors, who regulate the fisheries. The oysters yield the 
best pearls at about four years of age. Fishing generally com- 
mences in the second week in March, and lasts for from four to six 
weeks, according to the season. The boats are grouped in fleets 

of from sixty to seventy, and start usually at midnight so as to 
reach the oyster-banks at sunrise. Each boat generally carries 
ten divers. On reaching the bank a signal-gun is fired, and diving 
commences. A stone weighing about 40 Ib is attached to 
the cord by which the diver is let down. The divers work in 
pairs, one man diving while the other watches the signal-cord, 
drawing up the sink-stone first, then hauling up the baskets of 
oysters, and finally raising the diver himself. On an average the 
divers remain under water from fifty to eighty seconds, though 
exceptional instances are cited of men remaining below for as 
long as six minutes. After resting for a minute or two at the 
surface, the diver descends again; and so on, until exhausted, 
when he comes on board and watches the rope, while his comrade 
relieves him as diver. The native descends naked, carrying only 
a girdle for the support of the basket in which he places the pearl 
oysters. In his submarine work the diver makes skilful use of his 
toes. To arm himself against the attacks of the sharks and other 
fishes which infest the Indian waters he carries spikes of iron- 
wood; and the genuine Indian cliver never descends without the 
incantations of shark-charmers, one of whom accompanies the 
boat while others remain on shore. As a rule the diver is a short- 
lived man. 

The diving continues from sunrise to about noon, when a gun 
is fired. On the arrival of the fleet at shore the divers carry their 
oysters to a shed, where they are made up into four heaps, one 
of which is taken by the diver. The oysters are then sold by 
auction in lots' of 1000 each. The pearls, after removal from the 
dead oysters, are " classed " by passing through a number of 
small brass colanders, known as " baskets," the holes in the 
successive vessels being smaller and smaller. Having been sized 
in this way, they are sorted as to colour, weighed and valued. 

Since the days of the Macedonians pearl-fishing has been 
carried on in the Persian Gulf. It is said that the oyster-beds 
extend along the entire Arabian coast of the gulf, but the most 
important are on sandbanks off the islands of Bahrein. The chief 
centre of the trade is the port of Lingah. Most of the products 
of this fishery are known as " Bombay pearls," from the fact that 
many of the best are sold there. The shells usually present a 
dark colour about the edges, like that of " smoked pearl." The 
yellow-tinted pearls are sent chiefly to Bombay, while the whitest 
go to Bagdad. Very small pearls, much below a pea in size, 
are generally known as " seed-pearls," and these are valued in 
India and China as constituents of certain electuaries, while 
occasionally they are calcined for chunam, or lime, used with betel 
as a masticatory. There is a small pearl-fishery near Karachi 
on the coast of Bombay. 

From the time of the Ptolemies pearl-fishing has been 
prosecuted along the coast of the Red Sea, especially in the 
neighbourhood of Jiddah and Koseir. This fishery is now 
insignificant, but the Arabs still obtain from this district a 
quantity of mother-of-pearl shells, which are shipped from 
Alexandria, and come into the market as " Egyptians." 

Very fine pearls are obtained from the Sulu Archipelago, on 
the north-east of Borneo. The mother-of-pearl shells from the 
Sulu seas are characterized by a yellow colour on the border and 
back, which unfits them for many ornamental purposes. Pearl 
oysters are also abundant in the seas around the Aru Islands to 
the south-west of New Guinea. From Labuan a good many 
pearl-shells are occasionally sent to Singapore. They are also 
obtained from the neighbourhood of Timor, and from New 
Caledonia. The pearl oyster occurs throughout the Pacific, 
mostly in the clear water of the lagoons within the atolls, though 
fine shells are also found in deep water outside the coral reefs. 
The Polynesian divers do not employ sink-stones, and the women 
are said to be more skilful than the men. They anoint their 
bodies with oil before diving. Fine pearl-shells are obtained 
from Navigators' Islands, the Society Islands, the Low Archi- 
pelago or Paumota Isles and the Gambier Islands. Many of 
the Gambier pearls present a bronzy tint. 

Pearl-fishing is actively prosecuted along the western coast of 
Central America, especially in the Gulf of California, and to a less 
extent around the Pearl Islands in the Bay of Panama. The 



fishing-grounds are in water about 40 ft. deep, and the season 
lasts for four months. An ordinary fishing-party expects to 
obtain about three tons of shells per day, and it is estimated that 
one shell in a thousand contains a pearl. The pearls are shipped 
in barrels from San Francisco and Panama. Some pearls of rare 
beauty have been obtained from the Bay of Mulege, near Los 
Coyetes, in the gulf of California; and in 1882 a pearl of 75 carats, 
the largest on record from this district, was found near La Paz 
in California. The coast of Guayaquil also yields pearls. 
Columbus found that pearl-fishing was carried on in his time in 
the Gulf of Mexico, and pearls are still obtained from the Carib- 
bean Sea. In the West Indies the best pearls are obtained from 
St Thomas and from the island of Margarita, off the coast of 
Venezuela. From Margarita Philip II. of Spain is said to have 
obtained in 1579 a famous pearl of 250 carats. 

Of late years good pearls have been found in Shark's Bay, on 
the coast of West Australia, especially in an inlet termed Useless 
Harbour. Mother-of-pearl shells are also fished at many other 
points along the western coast, between the i5th and 25th 
parallels of south latitude. An important pearl-fishery is also 
established in Torres Strait and on the coast of Queensland. 
The shells occur in water from four to six fathoms deep, and the 
divers are generally Malays and Papuans, though sometimes 
native Australians. On the western coast of Australia the 
pearl-shells are obtained by dredging rather than by diving. 
Pearl-shells have also been found at Port Darwin and in 
Oakley Creek, New Zealand. 

River pearls are produced by the species of Unio and Anodonta, 
especially by Unio margaritiferus. These species belong to the family 
Unionidae, order Eulamellebranchia. They inhabit the mountain- 
streams of temperate climates in the northern hemisphere^ 
especially in Scotland, Wales, Ireland, Saxony, Bohemia, Bavaria, 
Lapland and Canada. The pearls of Britain are mentioned by 
Tacitus and by Pliny, and a breastplate studded with British pearls 
was dedicated by Julius Caesar to Venus Genetrix. As early as 
1355 Scotch pearls are referred to in a statute of the goldsmiths of 
Paris; and in the reign of Charles II. the Scotch pearl trade was 
sufficiently important to attract the attention of parliament. The 
Scotch pearl-fishery, after having declined for years, was revived 
in 1860 by a German named Moritz Unger, who visited Scotland 
and bought up all the pearls he could find in the hands of the peasan- 
try, thus leading to an eager search for more pearls the following 
season. It is estimated that in 1865 the produce of the seaso.i's 
fishing in the Scotch rivers was worth at least 12,000. This 
yield, however, was not maintained, and at the present time only 
a few pearls are obtained at irregular intervals by an occasional 

The principal rivers in Scotland which have yielded pearls are 
the Spey, the Tay and the South Esk; and to a less extent the Doon, 
the Dee, the Don, the Ythan, the Teith, the Forth and many other 
streams. In North Wales the Conway was at one time celebrated 
for its pearls; and it is related that Sir Richard Wynn, chamberlain 
to the queen of Charles II., presented her with a Conway pearl 
which is believed to occupy a place in the British crown. In Ireland 
the rivers of Donegal, Tyrone and Wexford have yielded pearls. 
It is said that Sir John Hawkins the circumnavigator had a patent 
for pearl-fishing in the Irt in Cumberland. Although the pearl- 
fisheries of Britain are now neglected, it is otherwise with those of 
Germany. The most important of these are in the forest-streams of 
Bavaria, between Ratisbon and Passau. The Saxon fisheries are 
chiefly confined to the basin of the White Elster, and those of 
Bohemia to the Horazdiowitz district of Wotawa. For more than 
two centuries the Saxon fisheries have been carefully regulated 
by inspectors, who examine the streams every spring, and determine 
where fishing is to be permitted. After a tract has been fished over, 
it is left to rest for ten or fifteen years. The fisher-folk open the 
valves of the mussels with an iron instrument, and if they find no 
ptarl restore the mussel to the water. 

River pearls are found in many parts of the United States, and 
have been systematically worked in the Little Miami river, Warren 
county, Ohio, and also on the Mississippi, especially about Musca- 
tine, Iowa. The season extends from June to October. Japan 
produces fresh-water pearls, found especially in the Anodonta 
japonica. But it is in China that the culture of the pearl-mussel 
is carried to the greatest perfection. The Chinese also obtain marine 
pearls, and use a large quantity of mother-of-pearl for decorative 
purposes. More than twenty-two centuries before our era pearls 
are enumerated as a tribute or tax in China; and they are mentioned 
as products of the western part of the empire in the Rh'ya,_ a 
dictionary compiled earlier than 1000 B.C. A process for promoting 
the artificial formation of pearls in the Chinese river-mussels was 
discovered by Ye-jin-yang, a native of Hoochow, in the I3th 
century ; and this process is still extensively carried on near the city 

of Teh-tsing, where it forms the staple industry of several villages, 
and is said to give employment to about 5000 people. Large num- 
bers of the mussels are collected in May and June, and the valves 
of each are gently opened with a spatula to allow of the introduction 
of various foreign bodies, which are inserted by means of a forked 
bamboo stick. These " matrices " are generally pellets of prepared 
mud, but may be small bosses of bone, brass or wood. After a num- 
ber of these objects have been placed in convenient positions on one 
valve, the unfortunate mollusc is turned over and the operation is 
repeated on the other valve. The mussels are then placed in shallow 
ponds connected with the canals, and are nourished by tubs of night- 
soil being thrown in from time to time. After several months, in 
some cases two or three years, the mussels are removed, and the 
pearls which have formed over the matrices are cut from the shells, 
while the molluscs themselves serve as food. The matrix is generally 
extracted from the pearl and the cavity filled with white wax, the 
aperture being neatly sealed up so as to render the appearance of the 
pearl as perfect as possible. Millions of such pearls are annually 
sold at Soo-chow. The most curious of these Chinese pearls are those 
which present the form of small seated images of Buddha. The 
figures are cast in very thin lead, or stamped in tin, and are inserted 
as previously describe.d. Specimens of these Buddha pearls in the 
British Museum are referred to the species Dipsas plicala. It 
should be mentioned that Linnaeus, probably ignorant of what 
had long been practised in China, demonstrated the possibility of 
producing artificial pearls in the fresh-water mussels of Sweden. 

Pink pearls are occasionally found in the great conch or fountain 
shell of the West Indies, Strombus gigas, L. ; but these, though much 
prized, are not nacreous, and their tint is apt to fade. They are also 
produced by the chank shell, Turbinella scolymus, L. 1 Yellowish- 
brown pearls, of little or no value, are yielded by the Pinna squamosa, 
and bad-coloured concretions are formed by the Placuna placenta? ' 
Black pearls, which are very highly valued, are obtained chiefly 
from the pearl oyster of the Gulf of Mexico. The common marine 
mussel Mytilus edulis also produces pearls, which are, however, of 
little value. 

According to the latest researches the cause of pearl-formation 
is in most cases, perhaps in all, the dead body of a minute parasite 
within the tissues of a mollusc, around which nacreous deposit is 
secreted. The parasite is a stage in the life history of a Trema- 
tode in some cases, in others of a Cestode; that is to say of a form 
resembling the common liver-fluke of the sheep, or of a tape- 
worm. As long ago as 1852 Filippi of Turin showed that the 
species of Trematode Distomum duplicalum was the cause of a 
pearl formation in the fresh-water mussel Anodonta. Kuchen- 
meister subsequently investigated the question at Elster in 
Saxony and came to a different conclusion, namely that the 
central body of the pearl was a small specimen of a species of 
water mite which is a very common parasite of A nodonta. Filippi 
however states that the mite is only rarely found within a 
pearl, the Trematode occurring in the great majority of cases. 
R. Dubois and Dr H. Lyster Jameson have made special investi- 
gations of the process in the common mussel Mytilus edulis. 
The latter states that the pearl is produced in a sac which is 
situated beneath the epidermis of the mantle and is lined by an 
epithelium. This epithelium is not derived from the cells of the 
epidermis but from the internal connective-tissue cells. This 
statement, if correct, is contrary to what would be expected, for 
calcareous matter is usually secreted by the external epidermis 
only. The sac or cyst is formed by the larva of a species of 
Trematode belonging to the genus Leucilhodendrium, a species 
closely resembling and probably identical with L. somateriac, 
which lives in the adult state in the eider duck. At Billiers, 
Morbihan, in France, the host of the adult Trematode is another 
species of duck, namely the common Scoter, Oedemia nigra, which 
is notorious in the locality for its avidity for mussels. Trema- 
todes of the family Distomidae, to which the parasite under 
consideration belongs, usually have three hosts in each of which 
they pass different stages of the life history. In this case the first 
host at Billiers is a species of bivalve called Tapes decussatus, but 
at Piel in Lancashire there are no Tapes and the first stages of the 
parasite are found in the common cockle. The Trematode 
enters the first host as a minute newly hatched embryo and 

1 Strombus gigas, L., is a Gastropod belonging to the family 
Strombidae, of the order Pectinibranchia. Turbinella scolymus, 
Lam., is a Gastropod of the same order. 

2 Placuna placenta, L., belongs to the family Anomiidae; it is 
found on the shores of North Australia. Pinna squamosa, Gmelin, 
belongs to the Ostreacea; it occurs in the Mediterranean. Both 
are Lamellibranchs. 



leaves it in the form called Cercaria, which is really an immature 
condition of the adult. The Cercaria makes its way into the 
tissues of a mussel and there becomes enclosed in the cyst 
previously described. If the mussel is then swallowed by the 
duck the Cercariae develop into adult Trematodes or flukes in the 
liver or intestines of the bird. In the mussels which escape being 
devoured the parasites cannot develop further, and they die and 
become embedded in the nacreous deposit which forms a pearl. 
Dr Jameson points out that, as in other cases, pearls in Mytilus 
are common in certain special localities and rare elsewhere, and 
that the said localities are those where the parasite and its hosts 
are plentiful. 

The first suggestion that the most valuable pearls obtained 
from pearl oysters in tropical oceans might be due to parasites 
was made by Kelaart in reports to the government of Ceylon in 
1857-1859. Recently a special investigation of the Ceylon pearl 
fishery has been organized by Professor Herdman. Herdman and 
Hornell find that in the pearl oyster of Ceylon Margaritifera 
vulgaris, -Schum, the nucleus of the pearl is, in all specimens 
examined, the larva of a Cestode or tapeworm. This larva is of 
globular form and is of the type known as a cysticercus. As in 
the case of the mussel the larva dies in its cyst and its remains are 
enshrined in nacreous deposit, so that, as a French writer has 
said, the ornament associated in all ages with beauty and riches 
is nothing but the brilliant sarcophagus of a worm. 

The cysticercus described by Herdman and Hornell has on the 
surface a muscular zone within which is a depression containing 
a papilla which can be protruded. It was at first identified as 
the larva of a tapeworm called Tetrarhynchus, and Professor 
Herdman concluded that the life-history of the pearl parasite 
consisted of four stages, the first being exhibited by free larvae 
which were taken at the surface of the sea, the second that in the 
pearl oyster, the third a form found in the bodies of file-fishes 
which feed on the oysters, and the fourth or adult stage living in 
some species of large ray. It has not however been proved that 
the pearl parasite is a Tetrarhynchus, nor that it is connected 
with the free larva or the form found in the file-fish, Balistes; nor 
has the adult form been identified. All that is certain is that 
the pearls are due to the presence of a parasite which is the larva 
of a Cestode; all the rest is probability or possibility. A French 
naturalist, M. Seurat, studying the pearl oyster of the Gambier 
Archipelago in the Pacific, found that pearl formation was due 
to a parasite quite similar to that described by Herdman and 
Hornell. This parasite was described by Professor Giard as 
characterized by a rostrum armed with a single terminal sucker 
and he did not identify it with TetrarHynchus. 

Genuine precious pearls and the most valuable mother-of-pearl 
are produced by various species and varieties of the genus Meleagrina 
of Lamarck, for which Dr Jameson in his recent revision of the species 
prefers the name Margaritifera. The genus is represented in tropical 
regions in all parts of the world. It belongs to the family Aviculidae, 
which is allied to the Pectens or scallop shells. In this family the 
hinge border is straight and prolonged into two auriculae; the foot 
has a very stout byssus. Meleagrina is distinguished by the small 
size or complete absence of the posterior auricula. The species are 
as follows. The type species is Meleagrina margaritifera, which has 
no teeth on the hinge. Geographical races are distinguished by 
different names in the trade. Specimens from the Malay Archipelago 
have a dark band along the margin of the nacre and are known as 
black-edged Banda shell ; those from Australia and New Guinea 
and the neighbouring islands of the western Pacific are called 
Australian and New Guinea black-lip. Another variety occurs in 
Tahiti, Gambier Islands and Eastern Polynesia generally, yielding 
both pearls and shell. It occurs also in China, Ceylon, the Andaman 
Islands and the Maldives. Another form is taken at Zanzibar, Mada- 
gascar, and the neighbouring islands, and is called Zanzibar and 
Madagascar shell. Bombay shell is another local form fished in 
the Persian Gulf and shipped via Bombay. The Red Sea variety 
is known as Egyptian shell. Another variety occurs along the west 
coast of America and from Panama to Vancouver, and supplies 
Panama shell and some pearls. A larger form, attaining a foot in 
diameter and a weight of 10 Ib per pair of shells, is considered as a 
distinct species by Dr Jameson and named Margaritifera maxima. 
It is found along the north coast of Australia and New Guinea and 
the Malay Archipelago. The nacreous surface of this shell is white, 
without the black or dark margin of the common species; it is 
known in the trade as the silver-lip, gold-lip and by other names. 
It is the most valuable species of mother-of-pearl oyster. 

Dr Jameson distinguishes in addition to the above thirty-two 
species of Margaritifera or- Meleagrina; all these have rudimentary 
teeth on the hinge. The most important species is Meleagrina 
vulgaris, to which belong the pearl oyster of Ceylon and southern 
India, the lingah shell of the Persian Gulf and the pearl oyster of 
the Red Sea. Since the opening of the Suez Canal the latter form 
has invaded the Mediterranean, specimens having been taken at 
Alexandria and at Malta, and attempts have been made to cultivate 
it on the French coast. The species occurs also on the coasts of the 
Malay Peninsula, Australia and New Guinea, where it is fished both 
for its shells (Australian lingah) and for pearls. Two species occur 
on the coasts of South Africa but have no market value. Melea- 
grina carchariarum is the Shark's Bay shell of the London market. 
It is taken in large quantities at Shark's Bay, Western Australia, 
and is of rather small value; it also yields pearls of inferior quality. 
The pearl oyster of Japan, known as Japan lingah, is probably a 
variety of Meleagrina vulgaris. Meleagrina radiata is the West 
Indian pearl oyster. 

The largest and steadiest consumption of mother-of-pearl is in 
the button trade, and much is also consumed by cutlers for handles 
of fruit and dessert knives and forks, pocket-knives, &c. It is also 
used in the inlaying of Japanese and Chinese lacquers, European 
lacquered papier-mache work, trays, &c., and as an ornamental 
inlay generally. The carving of pilgrim shells and the elaboration of 
crucifixes and ornamental work in mother-of-pearl is a distinctive 
industry of the monks and other inhabitants of Bethlehem. Among 
the South Sea Islands the shell is largely fashioned into fishing-hooks. 
Among shells other than those of Meleagrina margaritifera used as 
mother-of-pearl may be mentioned the Green Ear or Ormer shell 
(Haliotis tuberculata) and several other species of Haliotis, besides 
various species of Turbo. 

Artificial pearls were first made in western Europe in 1 680 by 
Jacquin, a rosary-maker in Paris, and the trade is now largely carried 
on in France, Germany and Italy. Spheres of thin glass are filled 
with a preparation known as " essence d'orient," made from the 
silvery scales of the bleak or " ablette," which is caused to adhere 
to the inner wall of the globe, and the cavity is then filled with 
white wax. Many imitation pearls are now formed of an opaline 
glass of nacreous lustre, and the soft appearance of the pearl obtained 
by the judicious use of hydrofluoric acid. An excellent substitute 
for black pearl is found in the so-called " ironstone jewelry," and 
consists of close-grained haematite, not too highly polished ; but the 
great density of the haematite immediately destroys the illusion. 
Pink pearls are imitated by turning small spheres out of the rosy 
part of the conch shell, or even out of pink coral. 

See Clements R. Markham, " The Tinnevelly Pearl Fishery," 
in Journ. Soc. Arts (1867), xv., 256; D. T. Macgowan, " Pearls and 
Pearl-making in China," ibid. (1854), ii. 72; F. Hague, "On the 
Natural and Artificial Production of Pearls in China," in Journ. Roy. 
Asiatic Soc. (1856), vol. xvi.; H. J. Le Beck, " Pearl Fishery in the 
Gulf of Manar," in Asiatic Researches (1798), v. 393; K. Mobius, 
Dieechten Perlen (Hamburg, 1857); H. Lyster Jameson, " Formation 
of Pearls," Proc. Zool. Soc. (1902), pi. I ; idem, " On the Identity and 
Distribution of Mother-of- Pearl Oysters," Proc. Zool. Soc. (1901), 
pi. i, pp. 372-394; Herdman and Hornell, Rep. Ceylon Pearl Fisheries 
(London, Royal Soc., 1903) ; and Kunz and Stevenson, Book of the 
Pearl (New York, 1908), with bibliography. (J. T. C.) 

PEARL, THE. The Middle-English poem known as Pearl, or 
The Pearl, is preserved in the unique manuscript Cotton Nero 
Ax at the British Museum ; in this volume are contained also the 
poems Cleanness, Patience, and Sir Gawayne and the Green Knight. 
All the pieces are in the same handwriting, and from internal 
evidences of dialect, style and parallel references, it is now 
generally accepted that the poems are all by the same author. 
The MS., which is quaintly illustrated, belongs to the end of 
the I4th or the beginning of the isth century, and appears to 
be but little later than the date of composition ; no line of Pearl 
or of the other poems is elsewhere to be found. 

Pearl is a poet's lament for the loss of a girl-child, " who 
lived not upon earth two years " the poet is evidently the 
child's father. In grief he visits the little grave, and there in 
a vision beholds his Pearl, now transfigured as a queen of 
heaven he sees her beneath " a crystal rock," beyond a stream ; 
the dreamer would fain cross over, but cannot. From the 
opposite bank Pearl, grown in wisdom as in stature, instructs 
him in lessons of faith and resignation, expounds to him the 
mystery of her transfiguration, and leads him to a glimpse of the 
New Jerusalem. Suddenly the city is filled with glorious 
maidens, who in long procession glide towards the throne, all 
of them clad in white, pearl-bedecked robes as Pearl herself. 
And there he sees, too, " his little queen." A great- love- 
longing possesses him to be by her. He must needs plunge 


into the stream that keeps him from her. In the very effort 
the dreamer awakes, to find himself resting upon the little 
mound where his Pearl had " strayed below ": 

" I roused me, and fell in great dismay, 
And, sighing, to myself I said: 

Now all be to that Prince's pleasure." 

The poem consists of one hundred and one stanzas, each oi 
twelve lines, with four accents, rhymed ab, ab, ab, ab, be, be; 
the versification combines rhyme with alliteration; trisyllabic 
effects add to the easy movement and lyrical charm of the lines. 
Five stanzas (in one case six), with the same refrain, constitute 
a section, of which accordingly there are twenty in all, the whole 
sequence being linked together by the device of making the 
first line of each stanza catch up the refrain of the previous 
verse, the last line of the poem re-echoing the first line. The 
author was not the creator of this form, nor was he the last to 
use it. The extant pieces in the metre are short religious poems, 
some of the later (e.g. God's Complaint, falsely attributed to 
Scottish authorship) revealing the influence of Pearl. 

The dialect is West Midland, or rather North- West Midland, 
and the vocabulary is remarkable for the blending of native 
speech with Scandinavian and Romance elements, the latter 
partly Anglo-French, and partly learned French, due to the 
author's knowledge of French literature. 

" While the main part of the poem," according to Gollancz, 
" is a paraphrase of the closing chapters of the Apocalypse and 
the parable of the Vineyard, the poet's debt to the Romaunt of 
the Rose is noteworthy, more particularly in the description of 
the wonderful land through which the dreamer wanders; and it 
can be traced throughout the poem, in the personification of 
Pearl as Reason, in the form of the colloquy, in the details of 
dress and ornament, in many a characteristic word, phrase and 
reference. ' The river from the throne,' in the Apocalypse, 
here meets ' the waters of the wells ' devised by Sir Mirth for 
the Garden of the Rose. From these two sources, the Book of 
Revelation, with its almost Celtic glamour, and The Romaunt of 
the Rose, with its almost Oriental allegory, are derived much of 
the wealth and brilliancy of the poem. The poet's fancy revels 
in the richness of the heavenly and the earthly paradise, but 
his fancy is subordinated to his earnestness and intensity." 

The leading motifs of Pearl are to be found in the Gospel 
in the allegory of the merchant who sold his all to purchase one 
pearl of great price, and in the words, so fraught with solace for 
the child-bereft, " for of such is the Kingdom of Heaven." 
Naturally arising from the theme, and from these motifs, some 
theological problems of the time are touched upon, or treated 
somewhat too elaborately perhaps, and an attempt has been made 
to demonstrate that Pearl is merely allegorical and theological, 
and not really a lament. Those who hold this view surely ignore 
or fail to recognize the subtle personal touches whereby the 
poem transcends all its theological interests, and makes its 
simple and direct appeal to the human heart. Herein, too, lies 
its abiding charm, over and above the poetical talent, the love 
of nature, colour and the picturesque, the technical skill, and 
the descriptive power, which in a high degree belonged to the 
unknown poet. 

Various theories have been advanced as to the authorship of 
Pearl and the other poems in the manuscript. The claims of 
Huchown " of the Awle Ryale " have been vigorously (but 
unsuccessfully) advocated; the case in favour of Ralph Strode 
(Chaucer's " philosophical Strode ") the most attractive of all 
the theories is still, unfortunately, " not proven." By piecing 
together the personal indications to be found in the poems 
an imaginary biography of the poet may be constructed. It 
may safely be inferred that he was born about 1330, somewhere 
in Lancashire, or a little to the north ; that he delighted in open- 
air life, in woodcraft and sport; that his early life was passed 
amid the gay scenes that brightened existence in medieval hall 
and bower; that he availed himself of opportunities of study, 
theology and romance alike claiming him; that he wedded, and 
had a child named Margery or Marguerite the Daisy, or the 

Pearl at whose death his happiness drooped and life's joy 

The four poems are closely linked and belong to one period 
of the poet's career. In Gawayne, probably the first of the four, 
the poet is still the minstrel rejoicing in the glamour of the 
Arthurian tale, but using it, in almost Spenserian spirit, to point 
a moral. In Pearl the minstrel has become the elegiac poet, 
harmonizing the old Teutonic form with the newer Romance 
rhyme. In Cleanness he has discarded all attractions of form, 
and writes, in direct alliterative metre, a stern homily on chastity. 
In Patience a homiletic paraphrase of ^onah he appears to 
be autobiographical, reminding himself, while teaching others, 
that " Poverty and Patience are needs playfellows." He had 
evidently fallen on evil days. 

It is noteworthy that soon after 1358 Boccaccio wrote his 
Latin eclogue Olympia in memory of his young daughter 
Violante. A comparative study of the two poems is full of 
interest; the direct influence of the Latin on the English poem 
is not so clear as has been maintained. Pearl cannot be placed 
earlier than 1360; it is most probably later than Olympia. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Texts and Translations: Early Alliterative 
Poems in the West Midland Dialect of the fourteenth Century (edited 
by Richard Morris, Early English Text Society I. 1864; revised, 
1869, 1885, 1896, 1901); Pearl, an English Poem of the Fourteenth 
Century, edited, with a Modern Rendering, by Israel Gollancz (with 
frontispiece by Holman Hunt, and prefatory lines, sent to the 
editor by Tennyson) ; revised edition of the text, privately printed, 
1897; new edition of text and translation, " King's Classics, 1910- 
1911; Facsimile of MS. Cotton Nero Ax, 1910-1911; The Pearl, 
(edited by C. G. Osgood; Boston, 1906). Translations by Gollancz 
(as above) ; G. G. Coulton (1906) ; Osgood (1907) ; Miss Mead (1908) ; 
Miss Jewett (1908); part of the poem, by S. Weir Mitchell (1906). 

Literary History: Tenbrink, History of English Literature (trans- 
lated by H. M. Kennedy, 1889, i. 336-351); G. Nelson, Huchown 
of the Awle Ryale (Glasgow, 1902) ; Carletpn Brown, The Author 
of the Pearl, considered in the Light of his Theological Opinions 
(publications of the Modern Languages Association of America, 
xix. 115-153; 1904); W. G. Schofield, The Nature and Fabric of the 
Pearl (ibid. pp. 154-215; 1904); also Symbolism, Allegory and 
Autobiography (ibid. xxiv. 585-675; 1909); I. Gollancz, Cambridge 
History of English Literature, vol. i. ch. xv. 

Works connected with Pearl: Sir Gawayne, a Collection of Ancient 
Romance Poems (edited by Sir F. Madden; London, 1839); Sir 
Gawayne (re-edited by Richard Morris, E.E.T.S., 1864, 1869; text 
revised by I. Gollancz, 1893); The Parlement of the Thre Ages, and 
Wynnere and Wastoure (edited by I. Gollancz: London, 1897); 
Hymns to the Virgin and Christ (edited by F. J. Furnivall, E.E.T.S., 
1867) ; Political, Religious and Love Poems (edited by F. J. Furnivall, 
E.E.T.S., 1866, 1903). 

Metre. Clark S. Northup, Study of the Metrical Structure of the 
Pearl (publications of the Modern Languages Association, xii. 

Phonology. W. Fick, Zum mittelenglischen Gedicht von der Perle 
(Kiel, 1885). (I. G.) 

PEARSALL, ROBERT LUCAS DE (1795-1856), English 
composer, was born on the i4th of March 17951 at Clifton. 
Educated for the bar, he practised till 1825, when he left England 
for Germany and studied composition under Panny of Mainz; 
with the exception of three comparatively short visits to 
England, during one of which he made the acquaintance of 
the English school of madrigals, he lived abroad, selling his 
family property of Willsbridge and settling in the castle of 
Wartensee, on the lake of Constance. He produced many works 
of lasting beauty, nearly all of them for voices in combination: 
from his part songs, such as " Oh, who will o'er the downs ? " to 
bis elaborate and scholarly madrigals, such as the admirable 
eight-part compositions, " Great God of Love " and " Lay a 
Garland," or the beautiful " Light of my Soul." His reception 
into the Roman Church in his later years may have suggested 
the composition of some beautiful sacred music, among other 
things a fine " Salve Regina." He wrote many valuable 
treatises on music, and edited a Roman Catholic hymn-book. 
He died on the 5th of August 1856. 

PEARSON, CHARLES HENRY (1830-1894), British historian 
and colonial statesman, was born in London on the 7th of 
September 1830. After receiving his early education at Rugby 
and King's College, London, he went up to Oxford, where he 


was generally regarded as the most brilliant of an exceptionally 
able set, and in 1854 obtained a fellowship at Oriel College. 
His constitutional weakness and bad eyesight forced him to 
abandon medicine, which he had adopted as a career, and in 
1855 he returned to King's College as lecturer in English language 
and literature, a post which he almost immediately quitted 
for the professorship of modern history. He made numerous 
journeys abroad, the most important being his visit to Russia 
in 1858, his account of which was published anonymously in 
1859 under the title of Russia, by a Recent Traveller; an adven- 
turous journey through Poland during the insurrection of 1863, 
of which he gave a sympathetic and much praised account in 
the Spectator; and a visit to the United States in 1868, where 
he gathered materials for his subsequent discussion of the negro 
problem in his National Life and Character. In the meantime, 
besides contributing regularly, first to the Saturday Review and 
then to the Spectator, and editing the National Review, he wrote 
the first volume of The Early and Middle Ages of England (1861). 
The work was bitterly attacked by Freeman, whose " extrava- 
gant Saxonism " Pearson had been unable to adopt. It appeared 
in 1868 in a revised form with the title of History of England 
during the Early and Middle Ages, accompanied by a second 
volume which met with general recognition. Still better was 
the reception of his admirable Maps of England in the First 
Thirteen Centuries (1870). But as the result of these labours he 
was threatened with total blindness; and, disappointed of 
receiving a professorship at Oxford, in 1871 he emigrated to 
Australia. Here he married and settled down to the life of a 
sheep-farmer; but finding his health and eyesight greatly 
improved, he came to Melbourne as lecturer on history at the 
university. Soon afterwards he became head master of the 
Presbyterian Ladies' College, and in this position practically 
organized the whole system of higher education for women in 
Victoria. On his election in 1878 to the Legislative Assembly 
he definitely adopted politics as his career. His views on the 
land question and secular education aroused the bitter hostility 
of the rich squatters and the clergy; but his singular nobility 
of character, no less than his powers of mind, made him one 
of the most influential men in the Assembly. He was minister 
without portfolio in the Berry cabinet (1880-1881), and as 
minister of education in the coalition government of 1886 to 1890 
he was able to pass into law many of the recommendations of 
his report. His reforms entirely remodelled state education in 
Victoria. In 1892 a fresh attack of illness decided him to return 
to England. Here he published in 1893 the best known of his 
works, National Life and Character. It is an attempt to show 
that the white man can flourish only in the temperate zones, 
that the yellow and black races must increase out of all propor- 
tion to the white, and must in time crush out his civilization. 
He died in London on the 29th of May 1894. 

A volume of his Reviews and Critical Essays was published in 
1896, and was followed in 1900 by his autobiography, a work of 
great interest. 

PEARSON, JOHN (1612-1686), English divine and scholar, 
was born at Great Snoring, Norfolk, on the 28th of February 
1612. From Eton he passed to Queen's College, Cambridge, and 
was elected a scholar of King's in April 1632, and a fellow in 
1634. On taking orders in 1639 he was collated to the Salisbury 
prebend of Nether-Avon. In 1640 he was appointed chaplain to 
the lord-keeper Finch, by whom he was presented to the living 
of Thorington in Suffolk. In the Civil War he acted as chaplain 
to George Goring's forces in the west. In 1654 he was made 
weekly preacher at St Clement's, Eastcheap, in London. With 
Peter Gunning he disputed against two Roman Catholics on the 
subject of schism, a one-sided account of which was printed in 
Paris by one of the Roman Catholic disputants, under the title 
Scisme Unmask't (1658). Pearson also argued against the 
Puritan party, and was much interested in Brian Walton's 
polyglot Bible. In 1659 he published in London his celebrated 
Exposition of the Creed, dedicated to his parishioners of St 
Clement's, Eastcheap, to whom the substance of the work had 
been preached several years before. In the same year he 


published the Golden Remains of the ever-memorable Mr John 
Hales of Eton, with an interesting memoir. Soon after the 
Restoration he was presented by Juxon, bishop of London, to 
the rectory of St Christopher-le-Stocks; and in 1660 he was 
created doctor of divinity at Cambridge, appointed a royal 
chaplain, prebendary of Ely, archdeacon of Surrey, and master 
of Jesus College, Cambridge. In 1661 he was appointed Lady 
Margaret professor of divinity; and on the first day of the 
ensuing year he was nominated one of the commissioners for 
the review of the liturgy in the conference held at the Savoy. 
There he won the esteem of his opponents and high praise from 
Richard Baxter. On the i4th of April 1662 he was made master 
of Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1667 he was admitted a 
fellow of the Royal Society. In 1672 he published at Cambridge 
Vindiciae epistolarum S. Ignatii, in 4to, in answer to Jean 
Daille. His defence of the authenticity of the letters of Ignatius 
has been confirmed by J. B. Lightfoot and other recent scholars. 
Upon the death of John \yilkins in 1672, Pearson was appointed 
to the bishopric of Chester. In 1682 his Annales cyprianici were 
published at Oxford, with John Fell's edition of that father's 
works. He died at Chester on the i6th of July 1686. His last 
work, the Two Dissertations on the Succession and Times of the 
First Bishops of Rome, formed with the Annales Paulini the 
principal part of his Opera posthuma, edited by Henry Dodwell 
in 1688. 

See the memoir in Biographia Britannica, and another by Edward 
Churton, prefixed to the edition of Pearson's Minor Theological 
Works (2 vols., Oxford, 1844). Churton also edited almost the 
whole of the theological writings. 

PEARSON, JOHN LOUGHBOROUGH (1817-1897), English 
architect, son of William Pearson, etcher, of Durham, was born 
in Brussels on the 5th of July 1817. He was articled at the age 
of fourteen to Ignatius Bonomi, architect, of Durham, but soon 
removed to London, and worked under the elder Hardwicke. 
He revived and practised largely the art of vaulting, and acquired 
in it a proficiency unrivalled in his generation. He was, however, 
by no means a Gothic purist, and was also fond of Renaissance 
and thoroughly grounded in classical architecture. From the 
erection of his first church of EUerker, in Yorkshire, in 1843, 
to that of St Peter's, Vauxhall, in 1864, his buildings are 
Geometrical in manner and exhibit a close adherence to pre- 
cedent, but elegance of proportion and refinement of detail lift 
them out of the commonplace of mere imitation. Holy Trinity, 
Westminster (1848), and St Mary's, Dalton Holme (1858), are 
notable examples of this phase. St Peter's, Vauxhall (1864), 
his first groined church, was also the first of a series of buildings 
which brought Pearson to the forefront among his contempor- 
aries. In these he applied the Early English style to modern 
needs and modern economy with unrivalled success. St Augus- 
tine's, Kilburn (1871), St John's, Red Lion Square, London 
(1874), St Alban's, Birmingham (1880), St Michael's, Croydon 
(1880), St John's, Norwood (1881), St Stephen's, Bournemouth 
(1889), and All Saints', Hove (1889), are characteristic examples 
of his matured work. He is best known by Truro Cathedral 
(1880), which has a special interest in its apt incorporation 
of the south aisle of the ancient church. Pearson's conservative 
spirit fitted him for the reparation of ancient edifices, and among 
cathedrals and other historical buildings placed under his 
care were Lincoln, Chichester, Peterborough, Bristol and 
Exeter Cathedrals, St George's Chapel, Windsor, Westminster 
Hall and Westminster Abbey, in the surveyorship of which 
last he succeeded Sir G. G. Scott. Except as to the porches, 
the work of Scott, he re-faced the north transept of Westminster 
Abbey, and also designed the vigorous organ cases. In his hand- 
ling of ancient buildings he was repeatedly opposed by the ultra 
anti-restorers (as in the case of the west front of Peterborough 
Cathedral in 1896), but he generally proved the soundness 
of his judgment by his executed work. Pearson's practice was 
not confined to church building. Treberfydd House (1850), 
Quar Wood (1858), Lechlade Manor, an Elizabethan house 
(1873), Westwood House, Sydenham, in the French Renaissance 
style (1880), the Astor estate offices (1892) upon the Victoria 


Embankment, London, the remodelling of the interiors of 
Clieveden House (1893) and No. 18 Carlton House Terrace (1894), 
with many parsonages, show his aptitude for domestic architec- 
ture. In general design he first aimed at form, embracing both 
proportion and contour; and his work may be recognized by 
accurate scholarship coupled with harmonious detail. Its key- 
notes are cautiousness and refinement rather than boldness. 
He died on the nth of December 1897, and was buried in the 
nave of Westminster Abbey, where his grave is marked by the 
appropriate motto Sustinuit et abstinuit. He was elected A.R.A. 
in 1874, R.A. in 1880, was a fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, 
and a fellow and member of the Council of the Royal Institute 
of British Architects. 

The following are some of Pearson's more important works, 
not already named: Ferriby church (1846); Stow, Lincolnshire 
(restoration, 1850) ; Weybridge, St James's (1853) ; Freeland church, 
parsonage and schools (1866) ; Kilbuin, St Peter's Home (1868) ; 
Wentworth church (1872); Horsforth church (1874); Cullercoats, 
St George's (1882) ; Chiswick, St Michaells (restoration, 1882) ; Great 
Yarmouth church (restoration, 1883); Liverpool, St Agnes' (1883); 
Woking Convalescent Home (1884); Headingley church (1884); 
Torquay, All Saints (1884); Maidstone, All Saints (restoration, 
1885); Shrewsbury Abbey (1886); Ayr, Holy Trinity (1886); Hythe 
church (restoration, 1887); Oxford, New College, reredos (com- 
pletion, 1889); Cambridge University Library (additions, 1889); 
Friern Barnet, St John's (1890); Cambridge, Sidney Sussex College 
(additions, 1890); Middlesex Hospital chapel (1890); Bishopsgate, 
St Helen's (restoration, 1891); Maida Hill (Irvingite) church (1891); 
Barking, All Hallows (restoration, 1893) ; Cambridge, Emmanuel 
College (additions, 1893); Ledbury, St Michael's (restoration, 
1894); Malta, Memorial church (1894); Port Talbot church (1895). 

(W. D. C.) 

PEARY, ROBERT EDWIN (1856- ), American Arctic 
explorer, was born at Cresson, Pennsylvania, on the 6th of May 
1856. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1877, and in 1881 
became a civil engineer in the U.S. navy with the rank of lieuten- 
ant. In 1884 he was appointed assistant-engineer in connexion 
with the surveys for the Nicaragua Ship Canal, and in 1887-1888 
he was in charge of these surveys. In 1886 he obtained leave of 
absence for a summer excursion to Disco Bay on the west coast 
of Greenland. From this point he made a journey of nearly a 
hundred miles into the interior, and the experience impressed 
him with the practicability of using this so-called inland ice-cap 
as a highway for exploration. In 1891 he organized an expedi- 
tion under the auspices of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. The party of seven included Lieut. Peary's 
wife, the first white woman to accompany an Arctic ex- 
pedition. After wintering in Inglefield Gulf on the north- 
west coast of Greenland, in the following spring Lieut. Peary, 
with a young Norwegian, Eivind Astrup, crossed the inland 
ice-cap along its northern limit to the north-east of Greenland 
and back. The practical geographical result of this journey 
was to establish the insularity of Greenland. Valuable 
work was also performed by the expedition in the close 
study which was made of the isolated tribe of the Cape 
York or Smith Sound Eskimos, the most northerly people in 
the world. 1 Lieut. Peary was able to fit out another Arctic 
expedition in 1893, and was again accompanied by Mrs Peary, 
who gave birth to a daughter at the winter quarters in Inglefield 
Gulf. The expedition returned in the season of 1894, leaving 
Peary with his coloured servant Henson and Mr Hugh G. Lee 
to renew the attempt to cross the inland ice in the next year. 
This they succeeded in doing, but without being able to carry 
the work of exploration any farther on the opposite side of 
Greenland. During a summer excursion to Melville Bay in 
1894, Peary discovered three large meteorites, which supplied 
the Eskimos with the material for their iron implements, as 
reported by Sir John Ross in 1818, and on his return in 1895 
he brought the two smaller ones with him. The remaining 
meteorite was brought to New York in 1897. In 1898 Lieut. 
Peary published Northward over the Great Ice, a record of all his 
expeditions up to that time, and in the same year he started 

* A narrative of the expedition written by Mrs Peary, and con- 
taining an account of the " Great White Journey across Greenland," 
by her husband, was published under the title of My Arctic Journal. 

on another expedition to the Arctic regions. In this and sub- 
sequent expeditions he received financial aid from Mr Morris 
Jesup and the Peary Arctic Club. The greatest forethought 
was bestowed upon the organization of the expedition, a four- 
years' programme being laid down at the outset and a system 
of relief expeditions provided for. A distinctive feature was 
the utilization of a company of Eskimos. Although unsuccessful 
as regards the North Pole, the expedition achieved the accurate 
survey (1900) of the northern limit of the Greenland continent 
and the demanstration that beyond it lay a Polar ocean. 
In 1902 Peary with Henson and an Eskimo advanced as 
far north as lat. 84 17' 27", the highest point then reached 
in the western hemisphere. Lieut. Peary had now been 
promoted to the rank of Commander, and on his return he 
was elected president of the American Geographical Society. 
In November 1903 he went to England on a naval commission 
to inquire into the system of naval barracks in Great 
Britain, and was presented with the Livingstone Gold Medal 
of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Commander Peary 
then began preparations for another expedition by the con- 
struction of a special ship, named the " Roosevelt," the first 
ever built in the United States for the purpose of Arctic 
exploration. He sailed from New York on the i6th of July 
1905, having two years' supplies on board. The " Roosevelt " 
wintered on the north coast of Grant Land, and on the 2ist of 
February a start was made with sledges. The party experienced 
serious delay owing to open water between 84 and 85, and 
farther north the ice was opened up during a six days' gale, 
which cut off communications and destroyed the depots which 
had been established. A steady easterly drift was experienced. 
But on the 2ist of April, 1906, 876' was reached the"farthest 
north " attained by man by which time Peary and his com- 
panions were suffering severe privations, and had to make the 
return journey in the face of great difficulties. They reached 
the north coast of Greenland and subsequently rejoined the ship, 
from which, after a week's rest, Peary made a sledge journey 
along the north coast of Grant Land. Returning home, the 
expedition reached Hebron, Labrador, on the i3th of October, 
the " Roosevelt " having been nearly wrecked en route. In 1907 
the narrative of this journey, Nearest the Pole, was published. 

In 1908 Peary started in the " Roosevelt " on the journey 
which was to bring him his final success. He left Etah on the 
i8th of August, wintered in Grant Land, and set forward over the 
ice from Cape Columbia on the ist of March 1909. A party of 
six started with him, and moved in sections, one in front of 
another. They were gradually sent back as supplies diminished. 
At the end of the month Captain Bartlett was the only white 
man left with Peary, and he turned back in 87 48' N., the highest 
latitude then ever reached. Peary, with his negro servant and 
four Eskimos, pushed on, and on the 6th of April 1909 reached 
the North Pole. They remained some thirty hours, took obser- 
vations, and on sounding, a few miles from the pole, found no 
bottom at 1500 fathoms. The party, with the exception of one 
drowned, returned safely to the " Roosevelt," which left her 
winter quarters on the i8th of July and reached Indian Harbour 
on the sth of September. Peary's The North Pole: Its Discovery 
in igog was published in 1910. 

Just before the news came of Peary's success another 
American explorer, Dr F. A. Cook (b. 1865), returning from 
Greenland to Europe on a Danish ship, claimed that he 
had reached the North Pole on the 2ist of April 1908. He had 
accompanied an expedition northward in 1907, prepared to 
attempt to reach the Pole if opportunity offered, and according 
to his own story had done so, leaving his party and taking only 
some Eskimos, early in 1908. Nothing had been heard of him 
since March of that year, and it was supposed that he had 
perished. Cook's claim to have forestalled Peary was at first 
credited in various circles, and he was given a rapturous 
reception at Copenhagen; but scientific opinion in England and 
America was more reserved, and eventually, after a prolonged 
dispute, a special committee of the university of Copenhagen, 
to whom his documents were submitted, declared that they 


contained no proof that he had reached the Pole. By that time 
most other people had come to an adverse conclusion and the 
sensation was over. 

PEASANT (O. Fr. paysant, Mod. paysan; Lat. pagensis, 
belonging to the pagus or country; cf. " pagan"), a countryman 
or rustic, either working for others, or, more specifically, owning 
or renting and working by his own labour a small plot of ground. 
Though a word of not very strict application, it is now frequently 
used of the rural population of such countries as France, where 
the land is chiefly held by small holders, " peasant proprietors." 

PEASE, EDWARD (1767-1858), the founder of a famous 
industrial Quaker family in the north of England, was born at 
Darlington on the 315! of May 1767, his father, Joseph Pease 
(1737-1808), being a woollen manufacturer in that town. Having 
retired from this business Edward Pease made the acquaintance 
of George Stephenson, and with him took a prominent part in 
constructing the railway between Stockton and Darlington. 
He died at Darlington on the 3ist of July 1858. His second 
son, Joseph Pease (1799-1872), who assisted his father in his 
railway enterprises, was M.P. for South Durham from 1832 to 
1841, being the first Quaker to sit in parliament. He was 
interested in collieries, quarries and ironstone mines in Durham 
and North Yorkshire, as well as in cotton and woollen manu- 
factures; and he was active in educational and philanthropic 
work. Another son, Henry Pease (1807-1881), was M.P. for 
South Durham from 1857 to 1865. Like all the members of 
his family he was a supporter of the Peace Society, and in its 
interests he visited the emperor Nicholas of Russia just before 
the outbreak of the Crimean War, and later the emperor of the 
French, Napoleon III. / 

Joseph Pease's eldest son, Sir Joseph Whitwell Pease (1828- 
1903), was made a baronet in 1882. He was M.P. for South 
Durham from 1865 to 1885 and for the Barnard Castle division 
of Durham from 1885 to 1903. His elder son, Sir Alfred Edward 
.Pease (b. 1857), who succeeded to the baronetcy, became famous 
as a hunter of big game, and was M.P. for York from 1885 to 
1892 and for the Cleveland division of Yorkshire from 1897 to 
1902. A younger son, Joseph Albert Pease (b. 1860), entered 
parliament in 1892, and in 1908 became chief Liberal whip, 
being advanced to the cabinet as chancellor of the duchy of 
Lancaster in 1910. 

Another son of Joseph Pease was Arthur Pease (1837-1898), 
member of parliament from 1880 to 1885 and again from 1895 
to 1898. His son, Herbert Pike Pease (b. 1867), M.P. for 
Darlington 1898-1910, was one of the Unionist Whips. 

The Diaries of Edward Pease were edited by Sir Alfred Pease in 

PEAT (possibly connected with Med. Lat. pelia, pecia, piece, 
ultimately of Celtic origin; cf. O. Celt, pet, O. Ir. pit, Welsh peth, 
portion), a product of decayed vegetation found in the form of 
bogs in many parts of the world. The continent of Europe is 
estimated to contain 212,700 sq. m. of bog; Ireland has 2,858,150 
acres, Canada 30,000,000 acres, and the United States 20,000,000 
acres. The plants which give origin to these deposits are mainly 
aquatic, including reeds, rushes, sedges and mosses. Sphagnum 
is present in most peats, but in Irish peat Thacomitrum lanugino- 
sum predominates. It seems that the disintegration of the 
vegetable tissues is effected partly by moist atmospheric oxida- 
tion and partly by anaerobic bacteria, yeasts, moulds and fungi, 
in depressions containing fairly still but not stagnant water, 
which is retained by an impervious bed or underlying strata. 
As decomposition proceeds the products become waterlogged 
and sink to the bottom of the pool; in the course of time the 
deposits attain a considerable thickness, and the lower layers, 
under the superincumbent pressure of the water and later 
deposits, are gradually compressed and carbonized. The most 
favourable conditions appear to be a moist atmosphere, and a 
mean annual temperature of about 45 F. ; no bogs are found 
between latitudes 45 N. and 45 S. 

Peat varies from a pale yellow or brown fibrous substance, 
resembling turf or compressed hay, containing conspicuous plant 

remains, to a compact dark brown material, resembling black 
clay when wet, and some varieties of lignite when dry. Two 
typical forms may be noticed: " Hill peat " (the mountain or 
brown bogs of Ireland), found in mountainous districts, and 
consisting mainly of Sphagnum and Andromeda; and " Bottom 
peat " (the lowland or red bogs of Ireland), found in lakes, 
rivers, and brooks, and containing Hypnum. It always contains 
much water, up to 90%, which it is necessary to remove before 
the product can be efficiently employed as a fuel, and for most 
other purposes. A specimen dried at 100 C. had the composi- 
tion: carbon = 60-48%, hydrogen = 6- 10%, oxygen = 32-55%, 
nitrogen = 0-88%, ash = 3~3O%; the ash is very variable from 
i to 65 % and consists principally of clay and sand, with lesser 
amounts of ferric oxide, lime, magnesia, &c. The specific gravity 
has been variously given, owing to the variable water content 
and air spaces; when dried and compressed, however, it is denser 
than water. 

Peat-winning presents certain special features. The general 
practice is to cut a trench about a foot deep with a peculiarly 
shaped spade, termed in Ireland a " slane," and remove sods 
from 3 to 4 ft. long. When one layer has been removed, the 
next is attacked, and so on. If the deposit be more solid step- 
working may be adopted, and should water be reached recourse 
may be had to long-handled slanes. The sods are allowed to 
drain, and then stacked for drying in the air, being occasionally 
turned so as to dry equally; this process may require about six 
weeks. The dried sods are known as " dug peat." Excavators 
and dredges are now extensively used, and the drying is effected 
in heated chambers, both fixed and revolving. 

The low value of ordinary dug peat as a fuel has led to processes 
for obtaining a more useful product. In M. Ekenberg's process 
the wet peat is pulped and milled so as to make it of uniform 
composition, and the pulp passed into an oven maintained at 
l8o-2OO F., where it is carbonized by superheated water. The 
pressed product, which resembles lignite, still contains 8 to 14% of 
water; this is driven off by heat, and the residue briquetted. The 
final product is nearly equal to coal in calorific value, and has the 
additional advantage of a lower sulphur content 0-2 to 0-4 % 
against about 2 % in ordinary coal. M. Zeigler's method leads to 
the production of a useful coke. Both these processes permit the 
recovery of valuable by-products, especially ammonium sulphate. 
Experiments for obtaining a gas suitable for consumption in gas- 
engines have been followed by commercial processes devised by the 
Mond Gas Corporation, London, and Crossley Bros, of Manchester, 
and by Caro and Frank in Germany. The processes essentially 
consist in destructively distilling peat in special retorts and under 
specified conditions, and, in addition to the gas, there is recovered 
a useful coke and also the nitrogen as ammonium sulphate. 

The conversion of the nitrogen into ammonia has been the subject 
of much work, and is commercially pursued at a works at Carn- 
lough, Co. Antrim, under patents held by H. C. Woltereck. The 
peat is treated with a mixture of air and water vapour in special 
furnaces, and the gaseous products, including paraffin tar, acetic 
acid and ammonia, are led through a special scrubber to remove 
the tar, then through a tower containing milk of lime to absorb 
the acid (the calcium acetate formed being employed for the manu- 
facture of acetone, &c.), and finally through a sulphuric acid tower, 
where the ammonia is converted into ammonium sulphate which 
is recovered by crystallization. 

Peat has also been exploited as a source of commercial alcohol, 
to be employed in motors. In the process founded on the experi- 
ments of R. W. Wallace and Sir W. Ramsay, which gives 25 to 26 
gallons of spirit from a ton of peat, the peat is boiled with water 
containing a little sulphuric acid, the product neutralized with 
lime and then distilled; the ammonia is also recovered. In another 
process a yield of 40 gallons of spirit and 66 Ib of ammonium 
sulphate per ton of peat is claimed. 

Of other applications we may notice C. E. Nelson's process for 
making a paper, said to be better than ordinary wrapping; the first 
factory to exploit this idea was opened at Capac, Michigan, in 1906. 
Peat has been employed as a manure for many years, and recently 
attempts have been made to convert artificially its nitrogen into 
assimilable nitrates; such a process was patented by A. Miintz 
and A. G. Girard of Paris, in 1907. 

See P. R. Bjorling and F. T. Gissing, Peat and its Manufacture 
(1907); F. T. Gissing, Commercial Peat (1909); E. Nystrom, Peat 
and Lignite (1908), published by Department of Mines of Canada. 

PECAUT, FELIX (1828-1898), French educationalist, a 
member of an old Huguenot family, was born at Salies de Beam, 
in 1828. He was for some months evangelical pastor at Salies, 
but he had no pretence of sympathy with ecclesiastical authority 


He was consequently compelled to resign his pastorate, and for 
some years occupied himself by urging the claims of a liberal 
Christianity. In 1879 he conducted a general inspection of 
primary education for the French government, and several 
similar missions followed. His fame chiefly rests in his successful 
organization of the training school for women teachers at 
Fontenoy-aux-Roses, to which he devoted fifteen years of 
ceaseless toil. He died on the 3ist of July 1898. 

A summary of his educational views is given in his Public Educa- 
tion and National Life (1897). 

PECCARY, the name of the New World representatives of 
the swine (Suidae) of the E. hemisphere, of which they constitute 
the sub-family Dicotylinae (or Tagassuinae). (See ARTIODACTYLA 
and SWINE.) 

The teeth of the peccaries differ from those of the typical Old 
World pigs (Sus), numerically, in wanting the upper outer incisor 
and the anterior premolar on each side of each jaw, the dental 
formula being: i. f , c. {, p. f , m. , total 38. From those of all 
Old World swine or Suinae, the upper canines, or tusks, differ 
in having their points directed downwards, not outwards or 

The Collared Peccary (Dicotyles tajacu). 

upwards; these being very sharp, with cutting hinder edges, 
and completely covered with enamel until worn. The lower 
canines are large and directed upwards and outwards, and 
slightly curved backwards. The cheek-teeth form a continuous 
series, gradually increasing in size from the first to the last: the 
molars having square four-cusped crowns. The stomach is 
much more complex than in the true pigs, almost approaching 
that of a ruminant. In the feet the two middle (third and 
fourth) metacarpal and metatarsal bones, which are completely 
separate in the pigs, are united at their upper ends. On the 
fore-foot the two (second and fifth) outer toes are equally 
developed as in pigs, but on the hind-foot, although the inner 
(or second) is present, the outer or fifth toe is entirely wanting. 
As in all Suidae the snout is truncated, and the nostrils are 
situated in its flat, expanded, disk-like termination. The ears 
are rather small, ovate and erect; and there is no external 
appearance of a tail. 

Peccaries, which range fromNewMexico andTexas to Patagonia, 
are represented by two main types, of which the first is the 
collared peccary, Dicotyles (or Tagassu) tajacu, which has an 
extensive range in South America. Generally it is found singly 
or in pairs, or at most in small herds of from eight to ten, and is 
not inclined to attack other animals or human beings. Its 
colour is dark grey, with a white or whitish band passing across 
the chest from shoulder to shoulder. The length of the head 
and body is about 36 in. The second form is typified by the 
white-lipped peccary or warri, D. (or T.) labiatus, or pecari, 
representing the sub-genus Olidosus. Typically it is rather 
larger than the collared species, being about 40 in. in length, 
of a blackish colour, with the lips and lower jaw white. It is 

not found farther north than Guatemala, or south of Paraguay. 
Generally met with in large droves of from fifty to a hundred, it 
is of a more pugnacious disposition than the former species, 
and a hunter who encounters a herd in a forest has often to climb 
a tree as his only chance of safety. Peccaries are omnivorous, 
living on roots, fallen fruits, worms and carrion, and often inflict 
great devastation upon crops. Both types are so nearly allied 
that they will breed together freely in captivity. Unlike pigs, 
they never appear to produce more than two young ones at a 

Remains of extinct peccaries referable to the modern genus 
occur in the caverns and superficial deposits of South America, 
but not in the earlier, formations. This, coupled with the 
occurrence of earlier types in North America, indicates that the 
group is a northern one. Of the extinct North American 
peccaries, the typical Dicotyles occur in the Pliocene while the 
Miocene Botkriolabis, which has tusks of the peccary type, 
approximates in the structure of its cheek-teeth to the European 
Miocene genus among the Suinae. From this it may be inferred 
that the ancestral peccaries entered America in the Upper 
Oligocene. Platygonus is an aberrant type which died out in 
the Pleistocene. (R.L.*) 

PECHLIN, KARL FREDRIK (1720-1796), Swedish politician 
and demagogue, son of the Holstein minister at Stockholm, was 
educated in Sweden, and entered the Swedish army. He rose 
to the rank of major-general, but became famous by being the 
type par excellence of the corrupt and egoistic Swedish parlia- 
mentarian of the final period of the Frihetstiden (see SWEDEN : 
History); he received for many years the sobriquet of " General 
of the Riksdag." Pechlin first appears prominently in Swedish 
politics in 1760, when by suddenly changing sides he contrived 
to save the " Hats " from impeachment. Enraged at being 
thus excluded from power by their former friend, the " Caps " 
procured Pechlin's expulsion from the two following Riksdags - 
In 1769 Pechlin sold the " Hats " as he had formerly sold the 
" Caps, " and was largely instrumental in preventing the pro- 
jected indispensable reform of the Swedish constitution. During 
the revolution of 1772 he escaped from Stockholm and kept 
quietly in the background. In 1786, when the opposition 
against Gustavus III. was gathering strength, Pechlin reappeared 
in the Riksdag as one of the leaders of the malcontents, and is 
said to have been at the same time in the pay of the Russian 
court. In 1789 he was one of the deputies whom Gustavus III. 
kept under lock and key till he had changed the government 
into a semi-absolute monarchy. It is fairly certain that Pechlin 
was at the bottom of the plot for murdering Gustavus in 1792. 
On the eve of the assassination (March 16) the principal 
conspirators met at his house to make their final preparations 
and discuss the form of government which should be adopted 
after the king's death. Pechlin undertook to crowd the fatal 
masquerade with accomplices, but took care not to be there 
personally. He was arrested on the i7th of March, but nothing 
definite could ever be proved against him. Nevertheless he 
was condemned to imprisonment in the fortress of Varberg, 
where he died four years later. 

See R. N. Bain, Gustavus III. and his Contemporaries (London, 
1905). (R. N. B.) 

PECHORA, a river of N. Russia, rising in the Urals, almost 
on 62 N., in the government of Perm. It flows W. for a short 
distance, then turns N. and maintains that direction up to 
about 66 20' N. It then describes a double loop, to N. and 
to S., and after that resumes its N. course, finally emptying 
into the Gulf of Pechora, situated between the White Sea and 
the Kara Sea. Its total length is 970 m. At its mouth it forms 
an elongated delta. Although frozen in its upper reaches for 
190 days in the year and for 138 days in its lower reaches, it 
is navigable throughout the greater part of its course. Its 
drainage basin covers an area of 127,200 sq. m. The principal 
tributaries are, on the right, the Ilych and the Usa, and on the 
.eft the Izhma, the Tsylma and the Sula. 

PECK, a dry measure of capacity, especially used for grain. 
It contains 8 quarts or 2 gallons, and is J of a bushel. The 



imperial peck contains 554-548 cub. in., in the United States 
of America 537-6 cub. in. The word is in M.E. pek, and 
is found latinized as pecctim or pekka. In Med. Lat. are found 
picotinus, " mensura frumentaria," and picotus, " mensura 
liquidorum " (Du Cange, Gloss, s.vv.) These words seem to be 
connected with the Fr. picoter, to peck, of a bird, and this would 
identify the word with " peck," a variant of " pick," a tap or 
stroke of the beak, especially used of the action of a bird in 
picking up grain or other food. The sense-development in this 
case is very obscure, and the name of the measure is found much 
earlier than " peck " as a variant form of " pick." 

PECKHAM, JOHN (d. 1292), archbishop of Canterbury, was 
probably a native of Sussex, and received his early education 
from the Cluniac monks of Lewes. About 1250 he joined the 
Franciscan order and studied in their Oxford convent. Shortly 
afterwards he proceeded to the university of Paris, where he 
took his degree under St Bonaventure and became regent in 
theology. For many years Peckham taught at Paris, coming 
into contact with the greatest scholars of the day, among others 
St Thomas Aquinas. About 1270 he returned to Oxford and 
taught there, being elected in 1275 provincial minister of the 
Franciscans in England, but he was soon afterwards called 
to Rome as lector sacri palalii, or theological lecturer in the 
schools of the papal palace. In 1279 he returned to England as 
archbishop of Canterbury, being appointed by the pope on the 
rejection of Robert Burnell, Edward I.'s candidate. Peckham 
was always a strenuous advocate of the papal power, especially 
as shown in the council of Lyons in 1274. His enthronement 
in October 1279 marks the beginning of an important epoch 
in the history of the English primacy. Its characteristic note 
was an insistence on discipline which offended contemporaries. 
Peckham's zeal was not tempered by discernment, and he 
had little gift of sympathy or imagination. His first act on 
arrival in England was to call a council at Reading, which met in 
July 1 279. Its main object was ecclesiastical reform, but the pro- 
vision that a copy of Magna Carta should be hung in all cathedral 
and collegiate churches seemed to the king a political action, 
and parliament declared void any action of this council 
touching on the royal power. Nevertheless Peckham's relations 
with the king were often cordial, and Edward called on him for 
help in bringing order into conquered Wales. The chief note 
of his activity was, however, certainly ecclesiastical. The 
crime of " plurality," the holding by one cleric of two or more 
benefices, was especially attacked, as also clerical absenteeism 
and ignorance, and laxity in the monastic life. Peckham's 
main instrument was a minute system of " visitation," which he 
used with a frequency hitherto unknown. Disputes resulted, 
and on some points Peckham gave way, but his powers as papal 
legate complicated matters, and he did much to strengthen 
the court of Canterbury at the expense of the lower courts. 
The famous quarrel with St Thomas of Cantilupe, bishop of 
Hereford, arose out of similar causes. A more attractive side 
of Peckham's career is his activity as a writer. The numerous 
manuscripts of his works to be found in the libraries of Italy, 
England and France, testify to his industry as a philosopher 
and commentator. In philosophy he represents the Franciscan 
school which attacked the teaching of St Thomas Aquinas 
on the " Unity of Form." He wrote in a quaint and elaborate 
style on scientific, scriptural and moral subjects and engaged 
in much controversy in defence of the Franciscan rule and 
practice. He was " an excellent maker of songs," and his 
hymns are characterized by a lyrical tenderness which seems 
typically Franciscan. Printed examples of his work as com- 
mentator and hymn writer respectively may be found in the 
Firamentum Irium ordinum (Paris, 1512), and his office for 
Trinity Sunday in the " unreformed " breviary. 

The chief authority on Peckham as archbishop of Canterbury, 
is the Registrum fratris Johannis Peckham, edited by C. Trice 
Martin for the Rolls Series (London, 1882-1885). A sympathetic 
account of his life as a Franciscan is to be found in L. Wadding, 
Annales minorum (Lyons, 1625, 1654). See also the article by 
C. L. Kingsford in Did. Nat. Biog., and Wilkin's Concilia magnae 
Britanniae (London, 1737). (E. O'N.) 

XXI. 2 

PECOCK (or PEACOCK), REGINALD (c. i39S-c. 1460), English 
prelate and writer, was probably born in Wales, and was edu- 
cated at Oriel College, Oxford. Having been ordained priest 
in 1421, he secured a mastership in London in 1431, and soon 
became prominent by his attacks upon the religious position 
of the Lollards. In 1444 he became bishop of St Asaph, and 
six years later bishop of Chichester. He was an adherent of 
the house of Lancaster and in 1454 became a member of the privy 
council. In attacking the Lollards Pecock put forward religious 
views far in advance of his age. He asserted that the Scriptures 
were not the only standard of right and wrong; he questioned 
some of the articles of the creed and the infallibility of the 
Church; he wished " bi cleer witte drawe men into consente of 
trewe feith otherwise than bi fire and swerd or hangement " and 
in general he exalted the authority of reason. Owing to these 
views the archbishop of Canterbury ,Thomas Bourchier, ordered 
his writings to be examined. This was done and he was found 
guilty of heresy. He was removed from the privy council and 
he only saved himself from a painful death by privately, 
and then publicly (at St Paul's Cross, Dec. 4, 1457), renounc- 
ing his opinions. Pecock, who has been called " the only 
great English theologian of the isth century," was then 
forced to resign his bishopric, and was removed to Thorney 
Abbey in Cambridgeshire, where he doubtless remained until his 
death. The bishop's chief work is the famous Represser of 
over-much weeting [blaming] of the Clergie, which was issued 
about 1455. In addition to its great importance in the history 
of the Lollard movement the Represser has an exceptional 
interest as a model of the English of the time, Pecock being 
one of the first writers to use the vernacular. In thought and 
style alike it is the work of a man of learning and ability. 

A biography of the author is added to the edition of the Represser 
published by C. Babingtor. for the Rolls Series in 1860. Pecock' s 
other writings include the Book or Rule of Christian Religion; the 
Donet, " an introduction to the chief truths of the Christian faith 
in the form of a dialogue between father and son " ; and the Folewer 
to the Donet. The two last works are extant in manuscript. His 
Book of Faith has been edited from the manuscript in the library 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, by J. L. Morison (Glasgow, 1909). 
See also John Lewis, Life of Pecock (1744; new ed., 1820). 

PECORA (plural of Lat. pecus, cattle), a term employed in a 
more restricted sense in place of the older title Ruminantia, 
to designate the group of ruminating artiodactyle ungulates 
represented by oxen, sheep, goats, antelopes, deer, giraffes, &c. 

The leading characteristics of the Pecora are given in some 
detail in the article ARTIODACTYLA (q.v.); but it is necessary to 
allude to a few of these here. Pecora, or true ruminants as 
they may be conveniently called, have complex stomachs and 
chew the cud; they have no upper incisor teeth; and the lower 
canines are approximated to the outer incisors in such a manner 
that the three incisors and the one canine of the two sides 
collectively form a continuous semicircle of four pairs of nearly 
similar teeth. In the cheek-teeth the component columns are 
crescent-shaped, constituting the selenodont type. In the fore- 
limbs the bones corresponding to the third and fourth metacar- 
pals of the pig's foot are fused into a cannon-bone; and a similar 
condition obtains in the case of the corresponding metatarsals 
in the hind-limbs. There is generally no sagittal crest to the 
skull; and the condyle of the lower jaw is transversely elongated. 
Another general, although not universal, characteristic of the 
Pecora is the presence of simple or complex appendages on the 
forehead commonly known as horns. In a few existing species, 
such as the musk-deer and the water-deer, these appendages 
are absent, and they are likewise lacking in a large number 
of extinct members of the group, in fact in all the earlier ones. 
They are, therefore, a specialized feature, which has only recently 
attained its full development. 

These horns present several distinct structural types, which may 
be classified as follows : 

I. The simplest type is that of the giraffe, in which three bony 
prominences a single one in front and a pair behind quite 
separate from the underlying bones and covered during life with 
skin, occupy the front surface of the skull. The summits of the 
hind pair are surmounted by bristly hairs. In the extinct 




Sivatherium there are two pairs of such appendages, of which the 
hinder are large and were probably covered during life either with 
skin or thin horn. In the giraffes the separation of the horns from 
the skull may be a degenerate character. 

II. In the Asiatic muntjac deer we find a pair of skin-covered 
horns, or "pedicles," corresponding to the paired horns of the 
giraffe, although welded to the skull. From the summits of these 

FIG. i. Head of Siamese Deer (Cervus schomburgkii), showing 

pedicles arise secondary outgrowths, at first covered with skin, 
which (owing to the growth of a ring of bone at the base arresting 
the flow of blood) eventually dries up and leaves bare bone incapable 
of further growth. In the muntjac the bare bony part, or " antler," 
is small in proportion to the skin-covered pedicle, and simple in 
structure; but in the majority of deer the antler increases in size 
at the expense of the pedicle which dwindles and in some species, 
like the Siamese deer (fig. i), the sambar and the red deer, becomes 
very large and more or less branched. Owing to liability to necrosis, 
the permanent retention of such a mass of dead bone would be 
dangerous; and the antlers are consequently shed annually (or 
every few years), to be renewed the following year, when, till the 
animal becomes past its prime, they are larger than their predeces- 
sors. The periodical shedding is also necessary in order to allow of 
this increase in size. With the exception of the reindeer, antlers 
are confined to the males. 

III. The third type of horn is presented by the American 
prongbuck, or pronghorn, in which bony processes, or " core's," corre- 
sponding to the horns of the giraffe, have acquired a horny sheath, 
in place of skin ; the sheath being in this instance forked, and annually 
shed and renewed, although the core is simple. The sheaths are 
akin to hair in structure, thus suggesting affinity with the hairs 
surmounting the giraffe's horns. Female prongbuck may or may 
not have horns. 

IV. In the great majority of " Hollow-horned Ruminants," 
such as oxen, sheep, goats and antelopes (fig. 2), the horny sheath 
(or true " horn ") forms a simple unbranched cone, which may be 
compressed, spirally twisted, or curved in one or more directions, 
but is permanently retained and continues to grow throughout 
life from the base, while it becomes worn away at the tip. Rarely, 
as in the four-horned antelope, there are two pairs of horns. In 
many cases these horns are present in both sexes. 

Dr H. Gadow is of opinion that the antlers of the deer, the horn- 
like protuberances on the skull of the giraffe, and the true horns 
of the prongbuck and other hollow-horned ruminants (Bovidae) 
are all different stages of evolution from a single common type: 
the antlers of the deer being the most primitive, and the horns of 
the Bovidae the most specialized. From the fact that the bony 
horn-core of the hollow-horned ruminants first develops as a separate 
ossification, as do the horns of the giraffe, while the pedicle of the 
antlers of the deer grow direct from the frontal bone, it has been 
proposed to place the hollow-horned ruminants (inclusive of the 
prongbuck) and the giraffes in one group and the deer in another. 
This arrangement has the disadvantage of separating the deer from 

the giraffes, to which they are evidently nearly related ; but_ Dr 
Gadow's work brings them more into line. Whether he is right 
in regarding the hollow-horned ruminants as derived from the 
primitive deer may, however, be a matter of opinion. One very 
important fact recorded by Dr Gadow is that calves and lambs 
shed their horns at an early age. The Bovidae are thus brought 
into nearer relationship with the American prongbuck (the only 
living ruminant which sheds its horn-cover in the adult condition) 
than has generally been supposed. 

The above-mentioned four types of skull appendages are gener- 
ally regarded as severally characteristic of as many family groups, 
namely the Giraffidae, Cervidae, Antilocapridae and Bovidae. The 
two last are, however, much more closely connected than are either 
of the others, and should perhaps be united. 

Giraffidae. In the Giraffidae, which include not only giraffes 
(Giraffa) but also the okapi (Ocapia) and a number of extinct 
species from the Lower Pliocene Tertiary deposits of southern 
Europe, Asia and North Africa, the appendages on the skull are of 
type No. I., and may well be designated " antler-horns." Another 
important feature is that the lower canine has a cleft or twp-lobed 
crown, so that it is unlike the incisors to which it is approximated. 
There are no upper canines; and the cheek-teeth are short -crowned 
(brachyodont) with a peculiar grained enamel, resembling the 
skin of a slug in character. The feet have only two hoofs, all traces 
of the small lateral pair found in many other ruminants having 

The giraffes (Giraffa) are now an exclusively African genus, and 
have long legs and neck, and three horns a single one in front 
and a pair behind supplemented in some instances with a rudi- 
mentary pair on the occiput. 

The okapi (Ocapia), which is also African but restricted to the 
tropical forest-region, in place of being an inhabitant of more or 
less open country, represents a second genus, characterized by the 
shorter neck and limbs, the totally different type of colouring, and 
the restriction of the horns to the male sex, in which they form 
a pair on the forehead; these horns being more compressed than 

FIG. 2. Head of Grant's Gazelle (Gazella granti), showing horns. 

the paired horns of the giraffe, and penetrating the skin at their 
summits (see GIRAFFE and OKAPI). Remains of extinct species 
of giraffe occur in the Lower Pliocene formations of Greece, Hungary, 
Persia, Northern India and China. From deposits of the same 
age in Greece, Samos and elsewhere have been obtained skulls 
and other remains of Palaeolragus or Samotherium, a ruminant 
closely allied to Ocapia, the males of which were armed with a very 
similar pair of dagger-shaped horns. Helladotherium was a much 
larger animal, known by a single hornless skull from the Pliocene 
of Greece, which may be that of a female. In the equally large 



Bramatherium and Hydaspitherium of India the horns of the males 
were complex, those of the former including an occipital pair, 
while those of the latter arise from a common base. In both 
genera, as in the okapi, there is a vacuity in front of the orbit. 
Largest of all is Sivatherium, typically from the Lower Pliocene of 
Northern India, but also recorded from Adrianople, in which the 
skull of the male is short and wide, with a pair of simple conical 
horns above the eye, and a huge branching pair at the vertex. 
Libytherium is an allied form from North Africa. Whether the 
Giraffidae were originally an African or a Euro-Asiatic group there 
is not yet sufficient evidence to decide. The family is unrepre- 
sented in the western hemisphere. 

Cervidae. In the deer-tribe, or Cervidae, the lower canine, as in 
the two following families, is simple and similar to the incisors. 
The frontal appendages, when present, are confined (except in the 
case of the reindeer) to the males, and take the form of antlers, that 
is to say of type No. II. in the foregoing description. As a general 
rule, the molars, and more especially the first, are partially brachy- 
odont (short-crowned) ; although they are taller in the chital (Cervus 
axis). In the skull there are two orifices to the lachrymal duct, 
situated on or inside the rim of the orbit. A preorbital vacuity of 
such dimensions as to exclude the lachrymal bone from articulation 
with the nasal. Upper canines usually present in both sexes, and 
sometimes attaining a very great size in the male (see fig. 3). 

FIG. 3. Skull of Chinese Water-Deer, Hydrelaphus inermis (adult 
male), a Deer without Antlers, but with largely developed upper 
canine teeth. (Xj.) 

Lateral digits of both fore and hind feet almost always present, 
and frequently the lower ends of the metacarpals and the meta- 
tarsals as well. Placenta with few cotyledons. Gall-bladder 
absent (except in the musk-deer, Moschus). This family contains 
numerous species, having a wide geographical distribution, ranging 
in the New World from the Arctic circle as far south as Patagonia, 
and in the Old World throughout the whole of Europe and Asia, 
but absent in Africa south of the Sahara, and, of course, Australasia. 
Evidently the family originated in the northern continent of the 
Old World, from which an entrance was effected by way of Bering 
Strait into America. Some of the more northern American deer, 
such as the wapiti, reindeer and elk (moose), are cjosely allied to 
Old World species; but there is also a group of exclusively American 
deer (Mazama) the only one found in Central and South America 
the members of which are unlike any living Old World deer; 
and these must be regarded as having reached the western hemi- 
sphere at an earlier date than the wapiti, reindeer and elk (see 

Remains of deer more or less nearly allied to species inhabiting 
the same districts are found over the greater part of the present 
habitat of the family. It is noteworthy, however, that certain 
Pliocene European deer (Anoglochis) appear to be closely allied to 
the modern American deer (Mazama). As we descend in the geo- 
logical series the deer have simpler antlers, as in the European 
Miocene Dicrocerus; while in the Oligocene Amphitragulus, Dremo- 
therium and Palaeomeryx, constituting the family Palaeomerycidae, 
antlers were absent, and the crowns of the molars so low that the 
whole depth of the hollows between the crescentic cojumns is com- 
pletely visible. Most of these animals were of small size, and many 
had long upper canines, like those of the existing Hydrelaphus; 
while in all there was no depression for a gland in front of the eye. 

From North America have been obtained remains of certain 
ruminants which seem in some degree intermediate between deer 
and the prongbuck. Of one of these a complete skeleton was 
obtained in 1901 from the Middle Miocene deposits of north-eastern 
Colorado, and as mounted stands 19 in. in height at the withers. 
With the exception that the right antler is malformed and partially 
aborted, and that the bones of the lateral toes have been lost, 
the skeleton is practically complete. The one complete antler has 
a well-marked burr and a long undivided beam, which eventually 
forks. After this there is a bifurcation of the hinder branch, thus 
producing three tines. From the presence of these well-marked 
antlers the skeleton would at first sight be set down as that of a 
small and primitive deer, conforming in regard to the structure of 
these appendages to the American type of the group. Mr W. D. 

Matthew shows, however, that the skeleton of Merycodus, as the 
extinct ruminant is called, differs markedly from that of all deer. 
The most noteworthy point of distinction is in the skull, in which 
the facial portion is sharply bent down on the posterior basal axis 
in the fashion characteristic of the hollow-horned ruminants (oxen, 
antelopes, &c.), and the American prongbuck, instead of running 
more or less nearly parallel to the same, as in deer. Again, the 
cheek-teeth have the tall crowns characteristic of a large number 
of representatives of the first group and of the prongbuck, thereby 
showing that Merycodus can scarcely be regarded as a primitive 
type. As regards the general structure of the rest of the skeleton, 
it must suffice to say that this agrees closely with that of the ante- 
lopes and the prongbuck', and differs markedly from the cervine 
type. In the absence of any trace of the lower extremities of the 
metacarpal and metatarsal bones of the lateral toes the skeleton 
differs from the American deer, and resembles those hollow-horned 
ruminants in which these toes persist. 

As a whole Merycodus presents a curious mixture of cervine 
and antilopine character. To explain these, two alternatives are 
offered by the describer. Either we must regard Merycodus as 
a deer which parallels the antelopes and the prongbuck in every 
detail of skeletal structure, or else, like the prongbuck, an antelope 
separated from the main stock at a date sufficiently early to have 
permitted the development of a distinct type of cranial appendages, 
namely, antlers in place of true horns. The former alternative, 
it is urged, involves a parallelism too close and too uniform between 
unrelated types to have been probable. On the latter view Mery- 
codus, the prongbuck (Antilocapra) and the antelopes must be 
regarded as representing three branches from an original common 
stock, divergent as regards the structure of their cranial appendages, 
but parallel in other respects. If, therefore, Antilocapra deserves 
to be separated as a family from the Bovidae, the same can scarcely 
be refused for Merycodus. But American extinct types appear to 
indicate signs of intimate relationship between antelopes, prong- 
buck and deer, and it may be necessary eventually to amend the 
current classification. As a temporary measure it seems prefer- 
able to regard Merycodus either as representing a distinct sub- 
family of Antilocapridae or a family by itself, the latter course 
being adopted by Mr Matthew. 

Whatever be the ultimate verdict, the association of antlers 
and these, be it noticed, conforming almost exactly with the forked 
type characteristic of American deer with an antilopine type of 
skull, skeleton and teeth in Merycodus is a most interesting and 
unexpected feature. Merycodus was named many years ago by 
Professor J. Leidy on the evidence of imperfect materials, and other 
remains now known to belong to the same type were subsequently 
described as Cosoryx, to which Blastomeryx seems to be allied. 
Not till the discovery of the skeleton of the' species described by 
Mr Matthew was it possible to arrive at an adequate conception of 
the affinities of this remarkable ruminant. 

Antilocapridae. By many modern writers the American prong- 
buck, pronghorn or " antelope," alone forming the genus Antilo- 
capra, is regarded as representing merely a sub-family of the Bovidae, 
to which latter group the animal is structurally akin. In view of 
what has been stated in the preceding paragraph with regard to 
the extinct American genus Merycodus, it seems, however, at least 
provisionally advisable to allow the prongbuck to remain as the 
type of a family Antilocapridae. The characteristic of this family 
as represented by the prongbuck is that the sheath of the horns 
is forked, and shed annually, or every few years. The cheek- 
teeth are tall-crowned (hypsodont), and lateral hoofs are wanting 

Bovidae. Lastly, we have the great family of hollow-horned 
ruminants or Bovidae, in which the horns (present in the males at 
least of all the existing species) take the form of simple non-deciduous 
hollow sheaths growing upon bony cores. As a rule the molars 
are tall-crowned (hypsodont). Usually only one orifice to the 
lachrymal canal, situated inside the rim of the orbit. Lachrymal 
bone almost always articulating with the nasal. Canines absent 
in both sexes. The lateral toes may be completely absent, but 
more often are represented by the hoofs alone, supported sometimes 
by a very rudimentary skeleton, consisting of mere irregular nodules 
of bone. Lower ends of the lateral metacarpals and metatarsals 
never present. Gall-bladder almost always present. Placenta 
with many cotyledons. 

The Bovidae form a most extensive family, with members widely 
distributed throughout the Old World, with the exception of the 
Australian region; but in America they are less numerous, and 
confined to the Arctic and northern temperate regions, no species 
being indigenous either to South or Central America. The home 
of the family was evidently the Old World, whence a small number 
of forms made their way into North America by way of what is 
now Bering Strait. It has already been pointed out that the 
Cervidae originated in the northern continent of the Old World; 
and it has been suggested that the Bovidae were developed in 
Africa. Unfortunately, we know at present practically nothing 
as to the past history of the group, all the fossil species at present 
discovered approximating more or less closely to existing types. 
While admitting, therefore, that there are several facts in favour 
of the theory of an African origin of the Bovidae, final judgment 


must for the present be suspended. For the various generic 
types see BOVIDAE, and the special articles referred to under that 
heading. (R. L.*) 

(Ger. FUnfkirchen), a town of Hungary, capital of 
the country of Baranya, 160 m. S.S.W. of Budapest by rail. 
Pop. (1900), 42, 252. It lies on the outskirts of the Mecsek Hills, 
and is composed of the inner old town, which is laid out in an 
almost regular square, and four suburbs. Pecs is the see of a 
Roman Catholic bishop, and its cathedral, reputed one of the 
oldest churches in Hungary, is also ont of the finest medieval 
buildings in the country. It was built in the nth century in 
the Romanesque style with four towers, and completely restored 
in 1881-1891. In the Cathedral Square is situated the Sacellum, 
a subterranean brick structure, probably a burial-chapel, dating 
from the end of the 4th or the beginning of the sth century. 
Other noteworthy buildings are the parish church, formerly a 
mosque of the Turkish period; the hospital church, also a former 
mosque, with a minaret 88 ft. high, and another mosque, the 
bishop's palace, and the town and county hall. Pecs has 
manufactories of woollens, porcelain, leather and paper, and 
carries on a considerable trade in tobacco, gall-nuts and wine. 
The hills around the town are covered with vineyards, which 
produce one of the best wines in Hungary. In the vicinity are 
valuable coal-mines, which since 1858 are worked by the Danube 
Steamship Company. 

According to tradition Pecs existed in the time of the Romans 
under the name of Sompiana, and several remains of the Roman 
and early Christian period have been found here. In the 
Prankish-German period it was known under the name of 
Quinque ecclesiae; its bishopric was founded in 1009. King 
Ludwig I. founded here in 1367 a university, which existed 
until the battle of Mohacs. In 1543 it was taken by the Turks, 
who retained possession of it till 1686. 

PECTORAL, a word applied to various objects worn on the 
breast (Lat. pectus) ; thus it is the name of the ornamental plate 
of metal or embroidery formerly worn by bishops of the Roman 
Church during the celebration of mass, the breastplate of the 
Jewish high priest, and the metal plate placed on the breast of 
the embalmed dead in Egyptian tombs. The " pectoral cross," 
a small cross of precious metal, is worn by bishops and abbots 
of the Roman, and by bishops of the Anglican, communion. 
The term has also been used for the more general " poitrel " or 
" peitrel " (the French and Norman French forms respectively), 
the piece of armour which protected the breast of the war-horse 
of the middle ages. 

PECULIAR, a word now generally used in the sense of that 
which solely or exclusively belongs to,or is particularly character- 
istic of, an individual; hence strange, odd, queer. The Lat. 
peculiaris meant primarily " belonging to private property," 
and is formed from peculium, private property, particularly 
the property given by a paterfamilias to his children, or by a 
master to his slave, to enjoy as their own. As a term of ecclesias- 
tical law " peculiar " is applied to those ecclesiastical districts, 
parishes, chapels or churches, once numerous in England, which 
were outside the jurisdiction of the bishop of the diocese in 
which they were situated, and were subject to a jurisdiction 
" peculiar " to themselves. They were introduced originally, 
in many cases by papal authority, in order to limit the powers 
of the bishop in his diocese. There were royal peculiars, e^. 
the Chapel Royal St James's, or St George's Windsor, peculiars 
of the archbishop, over certain of which the Court of Peculiars 
exercised jurisdiction (see ARCHES, COURT OF), and peculiars 
of bishops and deans (see DEAN). The jurisdiction and privi- 
leges of the " peculiars " were abolished by statutory powers 
given to the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners Acts 1836 and 1850, by the Pluralities Act 1838, 
the Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction Act 1847, and other statutes. 

PECULIAR PEOPLE, a small sect of Christian faith-healers 
founded in London in 1838 by John Banyard. They consider 
themselves bound by the literal interpretation of James v. 14, 
and in cases of sickness seek no medical aid but rely on oil, 
prayer and nursing. The community is in the main composed 

of simple working people, who, apart from their peculiarity, 
have a good reputation; but their avoidance of professional 
medical attendance has led to severe criticism at inquests on 
children who have died for want of it. 

PEDAGOGUE, a teacher or schoolmaster, a term usually now 
applied with a certain amount of contempt, implying pedantry, 
dogmatism or narrow-mindedness. The Gr. Traidayuyos (ircus, 
boy, ayuybs, leader, 8.ytu>, to lead), from which the English 
word is derived, was not strictly an instructor. He was a 
slave in an Athenian household who looked after the personal 
safety of the sons of the master of the house, kept them from 
bad company, and took them to and from school and the 
gymnasium. He probably sat with his charges in school. The 
boys were put in his charge at the age of six. The 7rai5a7&yy6s, 
being a slave, was necessarily a foreigner, usually a Thracian or 
Asiatic. The Romans adopted the paedagogus or pedagogus 
towards the end of the republic. He probably took some part 
in the instruction of the boys (see SCHOOLS). Under the empire, 
the pedagogus was specifically the instructor of the boy slaves, 
who were being trained and educated in the household of the 
emperor and of the rich nobles and other persons; these boys 
lived together in a paedagogium, and were known as pueri 
paedagogiani, a name which has possibly developed into 
" page " (?..). 

PEDAL CLARINET, a contrabass instrument invented in 
1891 by M. F. Besson to complete the quartet of clarinets, as 
the contrafagotto or double bassoon completes that of the 
oboe family; it is constructed on practically the same principles 
as the clarinet, and consists of a tube 10 ft. long, in which cylin- 
drical and conical bores are so ingeniously combined that the 
acoustic principles remain unchanged. The tube is doubled up 
twice upon itself; at the upper end the beak mouthpiece stands 
out like the head of a viper, while at the lower a metal tube, in the 
shape of a U with a wide gloxinea-shaped bell, is joined to the 
wooden tube. The beak mouthpiece is exactly like that of the ' 
other clarinets but of larger size, and it is furnished with a single 
or beating reed. There are 13 keys and 2 rings on the tube, and 
the fingering is the same as for the B flat clarinet except for the 
eight highest semitones. The compass of the pedal clarinet is 
as follows: 


Real Sounds 

gj t to 



8va bassa 

The instrument is in B flat two octaves below the B flat 
clarinet, and, like it, it is a transposing instrument, the music 
being written in a key a tone higher than that of the 
composition, and in order to avoid ledger lines a whole octave 
higher besides. The tone is rich and full except for the lowest 
notes, which are unavoidably a little rough in quality, but much 
more sonorous than the corresponding notes on the double 
bassoon. The upper register resembles the chalumeau register 
of the B flat clarinet, being reedy and sweet. The instrument 
is used as a fundamental bass for the wood wind at Kneller 
Hall, and it has also been used at Covent Garden to accompany 
the music of Fafner and Hunding in the Nibelungen Ring. 

Many attempts have been made since the beginning of the 
I9th century to construct contra clarinets, but all possessed inherent 
faults and have been discarded (see BATYPHONE). A contrabass 
clarinet in F, an octave below the basset horn, constructed by 
Albert of Brussels in 1890, was, we believe, considered successful, 
but it differed in design from the pedal clarinet. (K. S.) 

PEDANT, one who exaggerates the value of detailed erudition 
for its own sake; also a person who delights in a display of the 
exact niceties of learning, in an excessive obedience to theory 
without regard to practical uses. The word came into English 
in the latter part of the i6th century in the sense of schoolmaster, 
the original meaning of Ital. pedanle, from which it is derived. 
The word is usually taken to be an adaptation of Gr. iraidfvtiv, 



to teach. Others connect with an O. Ital. pedare, to tramp about 
(Lat. pes, foot), of an usher tramping about with his pupils. 

PEDEN, ALEXANDER (c. 1626-1686), Scottish divine, one of 
the leading forces in the Covenant movement, was born at 
Auchincloich, Ayrshire, about 1626, and was educated at 
Glasgow University. He was ordained minister of New Luce 
in Galloway in 1660, but had to leave his parish under Middleton's 
Ejectment Act in 1663. For 23 years he wandered far and wide, 
bringing comfort and succour to his co-religionists, and often 
very narrowly escaping capture. He was indeed taken in June 
1673 while holding a conventicle at Knockdow, and condemned 
by the privy council to 4 years and 3 months' imprisonment on 
the Bass Rock and a further 15 months in the Tolbooth at 
Edinburgh. In December 1678 he was, with sixty others, 
sentenced to banishment to the American plantations, but the 
party was liberated in London, and Peden made his way north 
again to divide the remaining years of his life between his own 
country and the north of Ireland. His last days were spent in 
a cave in the parish of Sorn, near his birthplace, and there he 
died in 1686, worn out by hardship and privation. 

See A. Smelhe, Men of the Covenant, ch. xxxiv. 

PEDERSEN, CHRISTIERN (c. 1480-1554), Danish writer, 
known as the " father of Danish literature, " was a canon of the 
cathedral of Lund, and in 1510 went to Paris, where he took his 
master's degree in 1515. In Paris he edited the proverbs of Peder 
Laale and (1514) the Historia danica of Saxo Grammaticus. 
He showed signs of the spirit of reform, asserting that the 
gospels should be translated into the vernacular so that the 
common people might understand. He worked at a continuation 
of the history of Saxo Grammaticus, and became secretary to 
Christian II., whom he followed into exile in 1525. In Holland 
he translated the New Testament (1529) and the Psalms (1531) 
from the Vulgate, and, becoming a convert to the reformed 
opinion, he issued several Lutheran tracts. After his return to 
Denmark in 1532 he set up a printing press at Malmo. He 
published a Danish version (Kronike om Holger Danske) of 
the French romance of Ogier the Dane, and another of the 
Charlemagne legends, which is probably derived immediately 
from the Norwegian Katiamagnus saga. His greatest work, the 
Danish version of the Holy Scriptures, which is known generally 
as " Christian III.'s Bible, " is an important landmark in 
Danish literature. It was founded on Luther's version, and 
was edited by Peder Palladius, bishop of Zealand, and others. 

See C. Pedersen's Danske Skrifter, edited by C. J. Brandt and 
B. T. Fenger (5 vols., Copenhagen, 1850-1856). 

PEDESTAL (Fr. picdestal, Ital. piedestallo, foot of a stall), a 
term generally applied to a support, square, octagonal or 
circular on plan, provided to carry a statue or a vase. Although 
in Syria, Asia Minor and Tunisia the Romans occasionally 
raised the columns of their temples or propylaea on square 
pedestals, in Rome itself they were employed only to give 
greater importance to isolated columns, such as those of Trajan 
and Antoninus, or as a podium to the columns employed decor- 
atively in the Roman triumphal arches. The architects of the 
Italian revival, however, conceived the idea that no order was 
complete without a pedestal, and as the orders were by them 
employed to divide up and decorate a building in several storeys, 
the cornice of the pedestal was carried through and formed the 
sills of their windows, or, in open arcades, round a court, the 
balustrade of the arcade. They also would seem to have 
considered that the height of the pedestal should correspond in 
its proportion with that of the column of pilaster it supported; 
thus in the church of St John Lateran, where the applied order 
is of considerable dimensions, the pedestal is 13 ft. high instead 
of the ordinary height of 3 to 5 ft. 

PEDICULOSIS, or PHTHIRIASIS, the medical term for the 
pathological symptoms in man due to the presence of lice 
(pediculi), either on the head (pediculus capitis), body (pediculus 
corporis, or vestimentorum) , or pubes (pediculus pubis). 

PEDIGREE, a genealogical tree, a tabular statement of descent 
(see GENEALOGY). The word first appears at the beginning of 
the isth century and takes an extraordinary variety of forms, 

e.g. pedicree, pe de gre, petiegrew, petygru, &c. It is generally 
accepted that these point to a corruption of Fr. pied de grue, foot 
of a crane, and that the probable reference is to the marks 
resembling the claw of a bird found in old genealogies showing 
the lines of descent. Such etymologies as Minshea's par degris, 
by degrees, or pfre degrts, descent by the father, are mere 

PEDIMENT (equivalents, Gr. derfe, Lat. fasligium, Fr. 
ponton), in classic architecture the triangular-shaped portion of 
the wali above the cornice which formed the termination of the 
roof behind it. The projecting mouldings of the cornice which 
surround it enclose the tympanum, which is sometimes decorated 
with sculpture. The pediment in classic architecture corre- 
sponds to the gable in Gothic architecture, where the roof is of 
loftier pitch. It was employed by the Greeks only as the front 
of the roof which covered the main building; the Romans, how- 
ever, adopted it as a decorative termination to a doorway, niche 
or window, and occasionally, in a row of windows or niches, 
alternated the triangular with a segmental pediment. It was 
reserved for the Italian architects of the decadence to break the 
pediment in the centre, thus destroying its original purpose. 
The earliest English form of the word is periment or peremint, 
probably a workman's corruption of " pyramid. " 

PEDIPALPI, Arachnida (q.v.) related to the spiders, and 
serving in a measure to bridge over the structural interval 
between the latter and the scorpions. The appendages of the 
second pair are large and prehensile, as in scorpions, but are 
armed with spines, to impale and hold prey. The appendages of 
the third pair, representing the first pair of walking legs in spiders 
and scorpions, are, on the contrary, long, attenuated and many- 
jointed at the end. Like the antennae of insects, they act as 
feelers. It is from this structural feature that the term " pedi- 
palpi " has been derived. In the tailless division of the Pedipalpi, 



Mexican tailed Pedipalp (Mastigoproetus giganteus). 

namely the Amblypygi of which Phrynus is a commonly cited 
type, these tactile appendages are exceedingly long and lash- 
like, whereas in the tailed division, the Uropygi, of which Thely- 
phonus is best known, the limb is much shorter andless modified. 
Thelyphonus and its allies, however, have a long tactile caudal 
flagellum, the homologue of the scorpion's sting; but its exact 
use is unknown. A third division, the Tartarides, a subordinate 
group of the Uropygi, contains minute Arachnida differing 
principally from the typical Uropygi in having the caudal process 
un jointed and short. Apart from the Tartarides, the Pedipalpi 


are large or medium-sized Arachnida, nocturnal in habits and 
spending the day under stones, logs of wood or loosened bark. 
Some species of the Uropygi (Thelyphonidae) dig burrows; and 
in the east there is a family of Amblypygi, the Charontidae, of 
which many of the species live in the recesses of deep caves. 
Specimens of another species have been found under stones 
between tide marks in the Andaman Islands. The Pedipalpi 
feed upon insects, and Like spiders, are oviparous. The eggs 
after being laid are carried about by the mother, adhering in a 
glutinous mass to the underside of the abdomen. 

Pedipalpi date back to the Carboniferous Period, occurring in 
deposits of that age both in Europe and North America. More- 
over, the two main divisions of the order, which were as sharply 
differentiated then as they are now, have existed practically 
unchanged from that remote epoch. 

In spite of the untold ages they have been in existence, the 
Pedipalpi are more restricted in range than the scorpions. The 
Uropygi are found only in Central and South America and in 
south and eastern Asia, from India and south China to the Solo- 
mon Islands.' The absence of the entire order from Africa is an 
interesting fact. The distribution of the Amblypygi practically 
covers that of the Uropygi, but in addition they extend from India 
through Arabia into tropical and southern Africa. Both groups 
are unknown in Madagascar, in Australia, with the exception 
possibly of the extreme north, and in New Zealand. Very little 
can be said with certainty about the distribution of the Tartar- 
ides. They have been recorded from the Indian Region, West 
Africa and sub-tropical America. (R- 1. P-) 

PEDOMETER (Lat. pes, foot, and Gr. utrpov, measure), an 
apparatus in the form of a watch, which, carried on the person 
of a walker, counts the number of paces he makes, and thus 
indicates approximately the distance travelled. The ordinary 
form has a dial-plate marked for yards and miles. The regis- 
tration is effected by the fall of a heavy pendulum, caused by the 
percussion of each step. The pendulum is forced back to a 
horizontal position by a delicate spring, and with each stroke a 
fine-toothed ratchet-wheel connected with it is moved round a 
certain length. The ratchet communicates with a train of wheels 
which work the dial-hands. In using the apparatus a measured 
mile or other known distance is walked and the indication 
thereby made on the dial-plate observed. According as it is too 
great or too small, the stroke of the pendulum is shortened or 
lengthened by a screw. Obviously the pedometer is little better 
than an ingenious toy, depending even for rough measurements 
on the uniformity of pace maintained throughout the journey 

PEDRO II. (1825-1891), emperor of Brazil, came to the throne 
in childhood, having been born on the 2nd of December 1825, 
and proclaimed emperor in April 1831, upon the abdication of 
his father. He was declared of full age in 1840. For a long 
period few thrones appeared more secure, and his prosperous 
and beneficent rule might have endured throughout his life 
but for his want of energy and inattention to the signs of the 
times. The rising generation had become honeycombed with 
republicanism, the prospects of the imperial succession were 
justly regarded as unsatisfactory, the higher classes had been 
estranged by the emancipation of the slaves, and all these causes 
of discontent found expression in a military revolt, which in 
November 1889 overthrew the seemingly solid edifice of the 
Brazilian Empire in a few hours. Dom Pedro retired to Europe, 
and died in Paris on the 5th of December 1891. The chief 
events of his reign had been the emancipation of the slaves, 
and the war with Paraguay in 1864-70. Dom Pedro was a 
model constitutional sovereign, and a munificent patron of 
science and letters. He travelled in the United States (1876), 
and thrice visited Europe (1871-1872, 1876-1877, 1886-1889). 

PEEBLES, a royal and police burgh and county town of 
Peeblesshire, Scotland, situated at the junction of Eddleston 
Water with the Tweed. Pop. (1901), 5266. It is 27 m. south of 
Edinburgh by the North British Railway (22 m. by road), and 
is also the terminus of a branch line of the Caledonian system 
from Carstairs in Lanarkshire. The burgh consists of the new 

town, the principal quarter, on the south of the Eddleston, and 
the old on the north; the Tweed is crossed by a handsome five- 
arched bridge. Peebles is a noted haunt of anglers, and the 
Royal Company of Archers shoot here periodically for the silver 
arrow given by the burgh. The chief public buildings are the 
town and county halls, the corn exchange, the hospital and 
Chambers Institution. The last was once the town house of the 
earls of March, but was presented to Peebles byWilliam Chambers, 
the publisher, in 1859. The site of the castle, which stood till 
the beginning of the i8th century, is now occupied by the parish 
church, built in 1887. Of St Andrew's Church, founded in 1195, 
nothing remains but the tower, restored by William Chambers, 
who was buried beside it in 1883. The church of the Holy 
Rood was erected by Alexander III. in 1261, to contain a 
supposed remnant of the true cross discovered here. The 
building remained till 1784, when it was nearly demolished to 
provide stones for a new parish church. Portions of the town 
walls still exist, and there are also vaulted cellars constructed 
in the i6th and i7th centuries as hiding-places against Border 
freebooters. The old cross, which had stood for several years in 
the quadrangle of Chambers Institution, was restored and 
erected in High Street in 1895. The industries consist of the 
manufactures of woollens and tweeds, and of meal and flour 
mills. The town is also an important agricultural centre. 

The name of Peebles is said to be derived from the pebylls, or 
tents, which the Gadeni pitched here in the days of the Romans. 
The place was early a favourite residence of the Scots kings when 
they came to hunt in Ettrick forest. It probably received its 
charter from Alexander III., was created a royal burgh in 1367 
and was the scene of the poem of Peblis to the Play, ascribed to 
James I. In 1544 the town sustained heavy damage in the 
expedition led by the ist earl of Hertford, afterwards the 
protector Somerset, and in 1604 a large portion of it was 
destroyed by fire. Though James VI. extended its charter, 
Peebles lost its importance after the union of the Crowns. 

On the north bank of the Tweed, one mile west of Peebles, stands 
Neidpath Castle. The ancient peel tower dates probably from the 
1 3th century. Its first owners were Tweeddale Frasers or Frisels, 
from whom it passed, by marriage, to the Hays of Yester in Had- 
dingtonshire, earls of Tweeddale. It was besieged and taken by 
Cromwell in 1650. The third earl of Tweeddale (1645-1713) sold 
it to the duke of Queensberry in 1686. The earl of Wemyss suc- 
ceeded to the Neidpath property in 1810. 

PEEBLESSHIRE, or TWEEDDALE, a southern inland county of 
Scotland, bounded N. and N.E. by Edinburghshire, E. and S.E. 
by Selkirkshire, S. by Dumfriesshire, and W. by Lanarkshire. 
Its area is 222,599 acres or 547-8 sq. m. The surface consists 
of a succession of hills, which are highest in the south, broken 
by the vale of the Tweed and the glens formed by its numerous 
tributaries. South of the Tweed the highest points are Broad 
Law and Cramalt Craig on the confines of Selkirkshire (each 
2723 ft.), while north of the river are, in the west centre, Brough- 
ton Heights (1872), Trahenna Hill (1792), Penvalla (1764) and 
Ladyurd Hill (1724), and in the north-west the Pentland emin- 
ences of Mount Maw (1753), Byrehope Mount (1752) and King 
Seat (1521). The lowest point above sea-level is on the banks of 
the Tweed, where it passes into Selkirkshire (about 450 ft.). 
The principal river is the Tweed, and from the fact that for the 
first 36 m. of its course of 97 m. it flows through the south of 
the shire, the county derives its alternative name of Tweeddale. 
Its affluents on the right are the Stanhope, Drummelzier, Manor 
andQuair;on the left, the Biggar, Lyne, Eddlestone and Leithen. 
The North Esk, rising in Cairnmuir, forms the boundary line 
between Midlothian and Peeblesshire for about four miles, 
during which it presents some very charming pictures, especially 
at Habbie's Howe, where Allan Ramsay laid the scene of the 
Gentle Shepherd. For 4 m. of its course the South Medwin 
divides the south-western part of the parish of Linton from 
Lanarkshire. Portmore Loch, a small sheet of water 2 m. north- 
east of Eddlestone church, lies at a height of 1000 ft. above the 
sea, and is the only lake in the county. The shire is in favour with 
anglers, its streams being well stocked and unpolluted, and few 
restrictions being placed on the fishing. 



Geology. The southern elevated portion of the county is occupied 
by Silurian rocks, mainly by shales and grits or greywackes of 
Llandovery age. Owing to the repeated folding and crumpling of 
the rocks in this region there are numerous elliptical exposures 
of Ordovician strata within the Silurian tract; but the principal 
area of Ordovician rocks lies north of a line running south-west 
from the Moorfoot Hills through Lyne and Stobo. Here these 
rocks form a belt some four to five miles in breadth ; they are com- 
posed of radiolarian cherts and mudstones with associated con- 
temporaneous volcanic rocks of Arenig age, and of shales, grits 
and limestones of Llandeilo and Caradoc age. The general direction 
of strike of all these formations is south-west-north-east, but the 
dips are sometimes misleading through occasional inversion of the 
strata. Patches of higher Silurian, with Wenlock and Ludlow 
fossils, are found in the north of the country in the Pentland Hills, 
and resting conformably upon the Silurian in the same district is 
the Lower Old Red Sandstone. The Old Red Sandstone here 
consists of a lower division, red and chocolate marls and sandstones ; 
a middle division, volcanic rocks, porphyrites, tuffs, &c., which are 
unconformable on the lower marls in this area; and an upper 
division, sandstones and conglomerates. The south-west extremity 
of the Edinburgh coalfield just enters this county over the north- 
west border where a slice of Carboniferous strata is found let down 
between Silurian and Old Red rocks by two important faults. 
Both Calciferous sandstone and Carboniferous limestone occur, 
with useful beds of coal, limestone, ironstone, fireclay and alum 
shale. An outlier of Carboniferous limestone, surrounded by 
Lower Old Red Sandstone, lies south of Linton. Much glacial 
boulder clay with gravel and sand rests upon the higher ground, 
while morainic deposits are found in the valleys. 

Climate and Industries. The annual rainfall averages from 
33 to 41 in.; the mean temperature for the year is 47-5 F., 
for January 38 F., and for July 59 F. The character of the 
soil varies considerably, peat, gravel and clay being all repre- 
sented. The low-lying lands consist generally of rich loam, 
composed of sand and clay. The farming is pastoral rather than 
arable. The average holding is about 200 acres of arable land, 
with pasturage for from 600 to 800 sheep. Roughly speaking, 
one-fifth of the total area is under cultivation. Oats are the 
chief grain and turnips the chief root crop. The hill pastures are 
better suited to sheep than to cattle, but both flocks and herds are 
comparatively large. Cheviots and half-breds are preferred for 
the grass lands, the heathery ranges being stocked with black- 
faced sheep. Crosses of Cheviots, black-faced and half-bred 
ewes with Leicestershire rams are common. The favourite 
breed of cattle is a cross between Ayrshires and shorthorns, the 
cows being Ayrshire. Many of the horses are Clydesdales bred 
in the county. Pig-keeping is on the decline. A few acres have 
been laid down as nurseries and market gardens, and about 
10,000 acres are under wood, especially at Dalwick, where larch 
and horse-chestnut were first grown in Scotland. Apart from 
agriculture, the only industries are the woollen factories and flour 
mills at Peebles and Innerleithen. 

The North British railway crosses the county in the north from 
Leadburn to Dolphinton, and runs down the Eddlestone valley 
from Leadburn to Peebles and Thornielee, while in the south the 
Caledonian railway connects the county town with Biggar in 

Population and Administration. In 1001 the population 
numbered 13,066 or 43 persons to the sq. m. In igoi one person 
spoke Gaelic only, 72 Gaelic and English. The chief towns are 
Peebles (pop. 5266) and Innerleithen (2181). West Linton, on 
Lyne Water, is a holiday resort. The shire combines with 
Selkirkshire to return one member to parliament, the electors 
of Peebles town voting with the county. Peeblesshire forms a 
sheriff dom with the Lothians and a sheriff -substitute sits in 
the county town. There is a high school in Peebles, and one 
or more schools in the county usually earn grants for secondary 

History. The country was originally occupied by the Gadeni, 
a British tribe, of whom there are many remains in the shape of 
camps and sepulchral mounds (in which stone coffins, axes and 
hammers have been found), while several place-names (such as 
Peebles, Dalwick and Stobo) also attest their presence. The 
standing stones near the confluence of the Lyne and Tweed are 
supposed to commemorate a Cymric chief. The natives were 
reduced by the Romans, who have left traces of their military 
rule in the fine camp at Lyne, locally known as Randal's Walls. 

The hill-side terraces at Romanno are conjectured, somewhat 
fancifully, to be remains of a Roman method of cultivation. On 
the retreat of the Romans the Gadeni came into their own again, 
and although they are said to have been defeated by King Arthur 
at Cademuir in 530, they held the district until the consolidation 
of the kingdom after Malcolm II. 's victory at Carham in 1018, 
before which the land, constantly harried by Danes, was nomi- 
nally included in the territory of Northumbria. This tract of 
Scotland is closely associated with the legend of Merlin. David I. 
made the district a deanery in the archdeaconry of Peebles, 
and it afterwards formed part of the diocese of Glasgow. 
Towards the middle of the i2th century it was placed under 
the jurisdiction of two sheriffs, one of whom was settled at 
Traquair and the other at Peebles. At Happrew, in the valley 
of the Lyne, the English defeated Wallace in 1304. The Scottish 
sovereigns had a lodge at Polmood, and often hunted in the 
uplands and the adjoining forests. English armies occasionally 
invaded the county, but more frequently the people were harried 
by Border raiders. Many castles and peels were erected in the 
valley of the Tweed from the Bield to Berwick. Several were 
renowned in their day, among them Oliver Castle (built by Sir 
Oliver Fraser in the reign of David I.), Drumeizier, Tinnis or 
Thane's Castle, and Neidpath. Three miles south of Romanno 
stand the ruins of Drochil Castle, designed for the Regent 
Morton, who was beheaded at Edinburgh in 1581, and the 
building was never completed. Memories of the Covenanters 
cluster around Tweedhopefoot, Tweedshaws, Corehead, Tweeds- 
muir, Talla Linns and other spots. In the churchyard of 
Tweedsmuir is the tombstone of John Hunter, the martyr, 
which was relettered by " Old Mortality." The " men of the 
moss hags " did little fighting in Peeblesshire, but Montrose first 
drew rein at Traquair House after he was defeated at Philip- 
haugh on the Yarrow in 1645. The plain of Sheriffmuir near 
Lyne is the place where the Tweeddale wapinschaws used to be 
held in the i7th century. The Jacobite risings left the county 
untouched, and since the beginning of the ipth century the shire 
has been more conspicuous in literature than in politics. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Pennecuick, Description of Tweeddale (1715); 
William Chambers, History of Peeblesshire (Edinburgh, 1864); 
Dr C. B. Gunn, Innerleithen and Traquair (Innerleithen, 1867); 
Sir George Reid, The River Tweed from its Source to the Sea (Text 
by Professor Veitch) (Edinburgh, 1884); Professor Veitch, History 
and Poetry of the Scottish Border (Edinburgh, 1893); Border Essays 
(Edinburgh, 1896); Rev. W. S. Crockett, The Scott Country (Edin- 
burgh, 1902). 

PEEKSKILL, a village of Westchester county, New York, 
U.S.A., on the E. bank of the Hudson river, about 41 m. N. 
of New York City. Pop. (1910, census), 15,245. It is served 
by the New York Central & Hudson River railway, and by 
passenger and freight steamboat lines on the Hudson river. 
The village is the home of many New York business men. 
At Peekskill are the Peekskill military academy (1833, non- 
sectarian); St Mary's school, Mount St Gabriel (Protestant 
Episcopal), a school for girls established by the sisterhood of 
St Mary; the Field memorial library; St Joseph's home (Roman 
Catholic); the Peekskill hospital, and several sanatoria. 
Near the village is the state military camp, where the national 
guard of the state meets in annual encampment. Peekskill has 
many manufactures, and the factory products were valued in 
1905 at $7,251,897, an increase of 306-7 % since 1900. The site 
was settled early in the i8th century, but the village itself dates 
from about 1 760, when it took its present name from the adjacent 
creek or " kill," on which a Dutch trader, Jans Peek, of New 
York City, had established a trading post. During the latter 
part of the War of Independence Peekskill was an important 
outpost of the Continental Army, and in the neighbourhood 
several small engagements were fought between American and 
British scouting parties. The village was incorporated in 1816. 
Peekskill was the country home of Henry Ward Beecher. 

(1829- ), English statesman, youngest son of the great 
Sir Robert Peel, was born on the 3rd of August 1829, and was 
educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford. He unsuccessfully 


contested Coventry in 1863; in 1865 he was elected in the 
liberal interest for Warwick, for which he sat until his elevation 
to the peerage. In December 1 868 he was appointed parliamentary 
secretary to the poor law board. This office he filled until 1871, 
when he became secretary to the board of trade, an appointment 
which he held for two years. In 1873-1874 he was patronage 
secretary to the treasury, and in 1880 he became under- 
secretary for the home department. On the retirement of Mr 
Brand (afterwards Viscount Hampden)in 1884, Peel was elected 
Speaker. He was thrice re-elected to the post, twice in 1886, and 
again in 1892.. Throughout his career as Speaker he exhibited 
conspicuous impartiality, combined with a perfect knowledge of 
the traditions, usages and forms of the house, soundness of judg- 
ment, and readiness of decision upon all occasions; and he will 
always rank as one of the greatest holders of this important 
office. On the 8th of April 1895 he announced that for reasons 
of health he was compelled to retire. The farewell ceremony 
was of a most impressive character, and warm tributes were paid 
from all parts of the house. He was created a viscount and 
granted a pension of 4000 for life. He was presented with the 
freedom of the City of London in July 1895. The public 
interest in the ex-Speaker's later life centred entirely in his some- 
what controversial connexion with the drink traffic. A royal 
commission was appointed in April 1896 to inquire into the 
operation and administration of the licensing laws, and Viscount 
Peel was appointed chairman. In July 1898 Lord Peel drew up 
a draft report for discussion, in five parts. Some differences of 
opinion arose in connexion with the report, and at a meeting of 
the commissioners on the i2th of April 1899, when part 5 of the 
draft report was to be considered, a proposal was made to 
substitute an alternative draft for Lord Peel's, and also a series 
of alternative drafts for the four sections already discussed. 
Lord Peel declined to put these proposals, and left the room. 
Sir Algernon West was elected to the chair, and ultimately two 
main reports were presented, one section agreeing with Lord 
Peel, and the other including the majority of the commis- 
sioners presenting a report which differed from his in several 
important respects. The Peel report recommended that a 
large reduction in the number of licensed houses should be 
immediately effected, and that no compensation should be paid 
from the public rates or taxes, the money for this purpose 
being raised by an annual licence-rental levied on the rateable 
value of the licensed premises; it at once became a valuable 
weapon in the hands of advanced reformers. 

Lord Peel married in 1862, and had four sons and two daughters 
(married to Mr J. Rochfort Maguire and to Mr C. S. Goldman). 
His eldest son, William Robert Wellesley Peel (b. 1866), married 
the daughter of Lord Ashton; he was Unionist M.P. for South 
Manchester from 1900 to 1905, and later for Taunton, and also 
acted as Municipal Reform leader on the London County 

PEEL, SIR ROBERT, BART. (1788-1850), English statesman, 
was born on the sth of February 1788 at Chamber Hall, in the 
neighbourhood of Bury, Lancashire, or, less probably, at a 
cottage near the Hall. He was a scion of that new aristocracy 
of wealth which sprang from the rapid progress of mechanical 
discovery and manufactures in the latter part of the i8th 
century. His ancestors were Yorkshire yeomen in the district 
of Craven, whence they migrated to Blackburn in Lancashire. 
His grandfather, Robert Peel, first of Peeltcld, and afterwards of 
Brookside, near Blackburn, was a calico-printer, who, appre- 
ciating the discovery of his townsman Hargreaves, took to 
cotton-spinning with the spinning-jenny and grew a wealthy man. 
His father, Robert Peel (1750-1830), third son of the last-named, 
carried on the same business at Bury with still greater success, 
in partnership with his uncle, Mr Haworth, and Mr Yates, whose 
daughter, Ellen, he married. He made a princely fortune, 
became the owner of Drayton Manor and member of parlia- 
ment for the neighbouring borough of Tamworth, was a trusted 
and honoured, as well as ardent, supporter of Pitt, contributed 
munificently towards the support of that leader's war policy, 
and was rewarded with a baronetcy ( 1 800) . 

At Harrow, according to the accounts of his contemporaries, 
Peel was a steady industrious boy, the best scholar in the school, 
fonder of country walks with a friend than of school games, 
but reputed one of the best football players. At Christ Church, 
where he entered as a gentleman commoner, he was the first who, 
under the new examination statutes, took a first class both in 
classics and in mathematics. His examination for his B .A. degree 
in 1808 was an academical ovation in presence of a numerous 
audience, who came to hear the first man of the day. From 
his classical studies Robert Peel derived not only the classical, 
though somewhat pompous, character of his speeches and the 
Latin quotations with which they were of ten happily interspersed 
but something of his lofty ideal of political ambition. To his 
mathematical training, which was then not common among 
public men, he no doubt owed in part his method, his clearness, 
his great power of grasping steadily and working out difficult 
and complicated questions. His speeches show that, in addition 
to his academical knowledge, he was well versed in English 
literature, in history, and in the principles of law, in order to study 
which he entered at Lincoln's Inn. But while reading hard he 
did not neglect to develop his tall and vigorous frame, and, though 
he lost his life partly through his bad riding, he was always a 
good shot and an untiring walker after game. His Oxford 
education confirmed his atachment to the Church of England. 
His practical mind remained satisfied with the doctrines of his 
youth, and he never showed that he had studied the great 
religious controversies of his day. 

In 1 809, being then in his twenty-second year, he was brought 
into parliament for the close borough of Cashel, which he after- 
wards exchanged for Chippenham, and commenced his parlia- 
mentary career under the eye of his father, then member for 
Tamworth, who fondly saw in him the future leader of the Tory 
party. In that House of Commons sat Wilberforce, Windham, 
Tierney, Grattan, Perceval, Castlereagh, Plunkett, Romilly, 
Mackintosh, Burdett, Whitbread, Horner, Brougham, Parnell, 
Huskisson, and, above all, George Canning. Lord Palmerston 
entered the house two years earlier, and Lord John Russell 
three years later. Among these men young Peel had to rise. 
And he rose, not by splendid eloquence, by profound political 
philosophy or by great originality of thought, but by the closest 
attention to all his parliamentary duties, by a study of all the 
business of parliament, and by a style of speaking which owed 
its force not to high flights of oratory, but to knowledge of the 
subject in hand, clearness of exposition, close reasoning, and tact 
in dealing with a parliamentary audience. With the close of 
the struggle against revolutionary France, political progress in 
England was soon to resume the march which that struggle had 
arrested. Young Peel's lot, however, was cast, through his 
father, with the Tory party. In his maiden speech in 1810, 
seconding the address, he defended the Walcheren expedition, 
which he again vindicated soon afterwards against the report of 
Lord Porchester's committee. It is said that even then his father 
had discerned in him a tendency to think for himself, and told 
Lord Liverpool that to make sure of his support it would be well 
to place him early in harness. At all events he began official 
life in 1810 as Lord Liverpool's under-secretary for war and the 
colonies under the administration of Perceval. In 1812 he was 
transferred by Lord Liverpool to the more important but 
unhappy post of secretary for Ireland. There he was engaged 
till 1818 in maintaining English ascendancy over a country 
heaving with discontent, teeming with conspiracy, and ever ready 
to burst into rebellion. A middle course between Irish parties 
was impossible, and Peel plied the established engines of coercion 
and patronage with a vigorous hand. At the same time, it was 
his frequent duty to combat Grattan, Plunkett, Canning and 
the other movers and advocates of Roman Catholic emancipation 
in the House of Commons. He, however, always spoke on this 
question with a command of temper wonderful in hot youth, 
with the utmost courtesy towards his opponents, and with warm 
expressions of sympathy and even of admiration for the Irish 
people. He also, thus early, did his best to advocate and 
promote joint education in Ireland as a means of reconciling 


sects and raising the character of the people. But his greatest 
service to Ireland as secretary was the institution of the regular 
Irish constabulary, nicknamed after him " Peelers," for the 
protection of life and property in a country where both were 
insecure. His moderation of tone did not save him from the 
violent abuse of O'Connell, whom he was ill advised enough to 
challenge an affair which covered them both with ridicule. 
In 1817 he obtained the highest parliamentary distinction of the 
Tory party by being elected member for the university of Oxford 
an honour for which he was chosen in preference to Canning on 
account of his hostility to Roman Catholic emancipation, 
Lord Eldon lending him his best support. In the following 
year he resigned the Irish secretaryship, of which he had long 
been very weary, and remained out of office till 1821. But he 
still supported the ministers, though in the affair of Queen 
Caroline he stood aloof, disapproving some steps taken by 
the government, and sensitive to popular opinion; and 
when Canning retired on account of this affair Peel declined 
Lord Liverpool's invitation to take the vacant place in the 
cabinet. During this break in his tenure of office he had some 
time for reflection, which there was enough in the aspect of the 
political world to move. But early office had done its work. 
It had given him excellent habits of business, great knowledge 
and a high position; but it had left him somewhat stiff and 
punctilious, too cold and reserved and over anxious for formal 
justifications when he might well have left his conduct to the 
judgment of men of honour and the heart of the people. At the 
same time he was no pedant in business; in corresponding on 
political subjects he loved to throw off official forms and com- 
municate his views with the freedom of private correspondence; 
and where his confidence was given, it was given without 

At this period he was made chairman of the bullion committee 
on the death of Horner. He was chosen for this important 
office by Huskisson, Ricardo and their fellow-economists, who 
saw in him a mind open to conviction, though he owed hereditary 
allegiance to Pitt's financial policy, and had actually voted with 
his Pittite father for a resolution of Lord Liverpool's government 
asserting that Bank of England notes were equivalent to legal 
coin. The choice proved judicious. Peel was converted to the 
currency doctrines of the economists, and proclaimed his con- 
version in a great speech on the 24th of May 1819, in which he 
moved and carried four resolutions embodying the recommen- 
dations of the bullion committee in favour of a return to cash 
payments. This laid the foundation of his financial reputation, 
and his co-operation with the economists tended to give a liberal 
turn to his commercial principles. In the course he took he 
somewhat diverged from his party, and particularly from his 
father, who remained faithful to Pitt's depreciated paper, and 
between whom and his schismatic son a solemn and touching 
passage occurred in the debate. The author of the Cash Pay- 
ments Act had often to defend his policy, and he did so with 
vigour. The act is sometimes said to have been hard on debtors, 
including the nation as debtor, because it required debts to be 
paid in cash which had been contracted in depreciated paper; 
and Peel, as heir to a great fundholder, was even charged with 
being biased by his personal interests. But it is answered that 
the Bank Restriction Acts, under which the depreciated paper 
had circulated, themselves contained a provision for a return to 
cash payments six months after peace. 

In 1820 Peel married Julia, daughter of General Sir John 
Floyd, who bore him five sons and two daughters. The writers 
who have most severely censured Sir Robert Peel as a public 
man have dwelt on the virtues and happiness of his private 
and domestic life. He was not only a most loving husband and 
father but a true and warm-hearted friend. In Whitehall 
Gardens or at Drayton Manor he gathered some of the most 
distinguished intellects of the day. He indulged in free and 
cheerful talk, and sought the conversation of men of science; he 
took delight in art, and was a great collector of pictures; he was 
fond of farming and agricultural improvements; he actively 
oromoted useful works and the advancement of knowledge; he 

loved making his friends, dependants, tenants and neighbours 
happy. And, cold as he was in public, few men could be more 
bright and genial in private than Sir Robert Peel. 

In 1821 Peel consented to strengthen the enfeebled ministry 
of Lord Liverpool by becoming home secretary; and in that 
capacity he had again to undertake the office of coercing the 
growing discontent in Ireland, of which he remained the real 
administrator, and had again to lead in the House of Commons 
the opposition to the rising cause of Roman Catholic emancipa- 
tion. In 1825, being defeated on the Roman Catholic question 
in the House of Commons, he wished to resign office, but Lord 
Liverpool pleaded that his resignation would break up the 
government. He found a congenial task in reforming and 
humanizing the criminal law, especially those parts of it which 
related to offences against property and offences punishable by 
death. The five acts in which Peel accomplished this great 
work, as well as the great speech of the gth of March 1826, in 
which he opened the subject to the house, will form one of the 
most solid and enduring monuments of his fame. Criminal law 
reform was the reform of Romilly and Mackintosh, from the 
hands of the latter of whom Peel received it. But the masterly 
bills in which it was embodied were the bills of Peel not himself 
a creative genius, but, like the founder of his house, a profound 
appreciator of other men's creations, and unrivalled in the power 
of giving them practical and complete effect. 

In 1827 the Liverpool ministry was broken up by the fatal 
illness of its chief, and under the new premier, George Canning, 
Peel, like the duke of Wellington and other high Tory members 
of Lord Liverpool's cabinet, refused to serve. Canning and Peel 
were rivals; but we need not interpret as mere personal rivalry 
that which was certainly, in part at least, a real difference ol 
connexion and opinion. Canning took a Liberal line, and was 
supported by many of the Whigs; the seceders were Tories, and 
it is difficult to see how their position in Canning's cabinet could 
have been otherwise than a false one. Separation led to public 
coolness and occasional approaches to bitterness on both sides in 
debate. But there seems no ground for exaggerated complaints 
against Peel's conduct. Canning himself said to a friend that 
" Peel was the only man who had behaved decently towards 
him." Their private intercourse remained uninterrupted to 
the end; and Canning's son afterwards entered public life under 
the auspices of Peel. The charge of having urged Roman 
Catholic emancipation on Lord Liverpool in 1825, and opposed 
Canning for being a friend to it in 1827, made against Sir Robert 
Peel in the fierce corn-law debates of 1846, has been withdrawn 
by those who made it. 

In January 1828, after Canning's death, the duke of Welling- 
ton formed a Tory government, in which Peel was home secretary 
and leader of the House of Commons. This cabinet, Tory as it. 
was, did not include the impracticable Lord Eldon, and did 
include Huskisson and three more friends of Canning. Its 
policy was to endeavour to stave off the growing demand for 
organic change by administrative reform, and by lightening 
the burdens of the people. The civil list was retrenched with an 
unsparing hand, the public expenditure was reduced lower than 
it had been since the Revolutionary war, and the import of corn 
was permitted under a sliding scale of duties. Peel also intro- 
duced into London the improved system of police which he had 
previously established with so much success in Ireland. But 
the tide ran too strong to be thus headed. First the government 
were compelled, after a defeat in the House of Commons, to 
acquiesce in the repeal of the Test and Corporation Acts, Peel 
bringing over their High Church supporters, as far as he could. 
Immediately afterwards the question of Roman Catholic emanci- 
pation was brought to a crisis by the election of O'Connell for 
the county of Clare. In August Peel expressed to the duke of 
Wellington his conviction that the question must be settled. 
He wrote that out of office he would co-operate in the settlement 
but in his judgment it should be committed to other hands than 
his. To this the duke assented, but in January 1829, owing to 
the declared opinions of the king, of the House of Lords, and of 
the Church against a change of policy, Wellington came to the 


conclusion that without Peel's aid in office there was no prospect 
of success. Under that pressure Peel consented to remain, and 
all the cabinet approved. The consent of the king, which could 
scarcely have been obtained except by the duke and Peel, was 
extorted, withdrawn (the ministers being out for a few hours), 
and again extorted; and on the 5th of March 1829 Peel proposed 
Roman Catholic emancipation in a speech of more than four 
hours. The apostate was overwhelmed with obloquy. Having 
been elected for the university of Oxford as a leading opponent 
of the Roman Catholics, he had thought it right to resign his 
seat on being converted to emancipation. His friends put him 
again in nomination, but he was defeated by Sir R. H. Inglis. 
He took refuge in the close borough of Westbury, whence he 
afterwards removed to Tamworth, for which he sat till his death. 
Catholic emancipation was forced on Peel by circumstances; 
but it was mainly owing to him that the measure was complete, 
and based upon equality of civil rights. This great concession, 
however, did not save the Tory government. The French 
Revolution of July 1830 gave fresh strength to the movement 
against them, though, schooled by the past, they promptly 
recognized King Louis Philippe. The parliamentary reform 
movement was joined by some of their offended Protestant 
supporters. The duke of Wellington committed them fatally 
against all reform, and the elections went against them on the 
demise of the Crown; they were beaten on Sir H. Parnell's 
motion for a committee on the civil list, and Wellington took the 
opportunity to resign rather than deal with reform. 

While in office, Peel succeeded to the baronetcy, Dray ton 
Manor and a great estate by the death of his father (May 3, 
1830). The old man had lived to see his fondest hopes fulfilled in 
the greatness of his son; but he had also lived to see that a father 
must not expect to fix his son's opinions above all, the opinions 
of such a son as Sir Robert Peel, and in such an age as that which 
followed the French Revolution. 

Sir Robert Peel's resistance to the Reform Bill won back for 
him the allegiance of his party. His opposition was resolute but 
it was temperate, and once only he betrayed the suppressed fire 
of his temper, in the historical debate of the 22nd of April 1831, 
when his speech was broken off by the arrival of the king to 
dissolve the parliament which had thrown out reform. He refused 
to join the duke of Wellington in the desperate enterprise of 
forming a Tory government at the height of the storm, when the 
Grey ministry had gone out on the refusal of the king to promise 
them an unlimited creation of peers. By this conduct he secured 
for his party the full benefit of the reaction which he no doubt 
knew was sure to ensue. The general election of 1832, after the 
passing of the Reform Bill, left him with barely 150 followers in 
the House of Commons; but this handful rapidly swelled under 
his management into the great Conservative party. He frankly 
accepted the Reform Act as irrevocable, taught his party to 
register instead of despairing, appealed to the intelligence of the 
middle classes, whose new-born power he appreciated, steadily 
supported the Whig ministers against the Radicals and O'Connell, 
and gained every moral advantage which the most dignified 
and constitutional tactics could afford. To this policy, and to the 
great parliamentary powers of its author, it was mainly due that, 
in the course of a few years, the Conservatives were as strong in 
the reformed parliament as the Tories had been in the unre- 
formed. It is vain to deny the praise of genius to such a leader, 
though the skill of a pilot who steered for many years over such 
waters may sometimes have resembled craft. But the duke of 
Wellington's emphatic eulogy on him was, "Of all the men I 
ever knew, he had the greatest regard for truth." The duke 
might have added that his own question, "How is the king's 
government to be carried on in a reformed parliament ? " was 
mainly solved by the temperate and constitutional policy of Sir 
Robert Peel, and by his personal influence on the debates and 
proceedings of the House of Commons during the years which 
followed the Reform Act. 

In 1834, on the dismissal of the Melbourne ministry, power 
came to Sir Robert Peel before he expected or desired it. He 
hurried from Rome at the call of the duke of Wellington, whose 


sagacious modesty yielded him the first place, and became prime 
minister, holding the two offices of first lord of the treasury and 
chancellor of the exchequer. He vainly sought to include in his 
cabinet two recent seceders from the Whigs, Lord Stanley and 
Sir James Graham. A dissolution gave him a great increase of 
strength in the house, but not enough. He was outvoted on 
the election of the speaker at the opening of the session of 1835, 
and, after struggling on for six weeks longer, resigned on the 
question of appropriating part of the revenues of the Church in 
Ireland to national education. His time had not yet come; but 
the capacity, energy and resource he displayed in this short 
tenure of office raised him immensely in the estimation of the 
house, his party and the country. Of the great budget of 
practical reforms which he brought forward, the plan for the 
commutation of tithes, the ecclesiastical commission, and the 
plan for settling the question of dissenters' marriages bore fruit. 

From 1835 to 1840 he pursued the same course of patient and 
far-sighted opposition. In 1837 the Conservative members of 
the House of Commons gave their leader a grand banquet at 
Merchant Taylors' Hall, where he proclaimed in a great speech 
the creed and objects of his party. In 1839, the Whigs having 
resigned on the Jamaica Bill, he was called on to form a govern- 
ment, and submitted names for a cabinet, but resigned the 
commission owing to the young queen's persistent refusal to part 
with any Whig ladies of her bedchamber (see VICTORIA, QUEEN). 
In 1840 he was hurried into a premature motion of want of con- 
fidence. But in the following year a similar motion was carried 
by a majority of one, and the Whigs ventured to appeal to the 
country. The result was a majority of ninety-one against them 
on a motion of want of confidence in the autumn of 1841, upon 
which they resigned, and Sir Robert Peel became first lord of 
the treasury, with a commanding majority in both Houses 
of Parliament. 

The crisis called for a master-hand. The finances were in 
disorder. For some years there had been a growing deficit, 
estimated for 1842 at more than two millions, and attempts to 
supply this by additions to assessed taxes and customs duties 
had failed. The great financier took till the spring of 1842 to 
mature his plans. He then boldly supplied the deficit by im- 
posing an income-tax on all incomes above 150 a year. He 
accompanied this tax with a reform of the tariff, by which pro- 
hibitory duties were removed and other duties abated on a vast 
number of articles of import, especially the raw materials of manu- 
factures and prime articles of food. The increased consumption, 
as the reformer expected, countervailed the reduction of duty. 
The income-tax was renewed and the reform of the tariff carried 
still farther on the same principle in 1845. The result was, in 
place of a deficit of upwards of two millions, a surplus of five 
millions in 1845, and the removal of seven millions and a half of 
taxes up to 1847, not on ^Y without loss, but with gain to the 
ordinary revenue of the country. The prosperous state of the 
finances and of public affairs also permitted a reduction of the 
interest on a portion of the national debt, giving a yearly saving 
at once of 625,000, and ultimately of a million and a quarter to 
the public. In 1844 another great financial measure, the Bank 
Charter Act, was passed and, though severely controverted and 
thrice suspended at a desperate crisis, has ever since regulated 
the currency of the country. In Ireland O'ConnelPs agitation 
for the repeal of the Union had now assumed threatening pro- 
portions, and verged upon rebellion. The great agitator was 
prosecuted, with his chief adherents, for conspiracy and sedition; 
and, though the conviction was quashed for informality, repeal 
was quelled in its chief. At the same time a healing hand was 
extended to Ireland. The Charitable Bequests Act gave Roman 
Catholics a share in the administration of charities and legal 
power to endow their own religion. The allowance to Maynooth 
was largely increased, notwithstanding violent Protestant 
opposition. Three queen's colleges, for the higher education of 
all the youth of Ireland, without distinction of religion, were 
founded, notwithstanding violent opposition, both Protestant and 
Roman Catholic. The principle of toleration once accepted, was 
thoroughly carried out. The last remnants of the penal laws 



were swept from the statute-book, and justice was extended to 
the Roman Catholic Church in Canada and Malta. In the same 
spirit acts were passed for clearing from doubt Irish Presbyterian 
marriages, for settling the titles of a large number of dissenters' 
chapels in England, and removing the municipal disabilities of 
the Jews. The grant for national education was trebled, and 
an attempt was made, though in vain, to introduce effective 
education clauses into the factory bills. To the alienation of any 
part of the revenues of the Established Church Sir Robert Peel 
never would consent; but he had issued the ecclesiastical com- 
mission, and he now made better provision for a number of 
populous parishes by a redistribution of part of the revenues of 
the Church. The weakest part of the conduct of this great 
government, perhaps, was its failure to control the railway 
mania by promptly laying down the lines on a government plan. 
It passed an act in 1844 which gave the government a right of 
purchase, and it had prepared a palliative measure in 1846, but 
was compelled to sacrifice this, like all other secondary measures, 
to the repeal of the corn laws. It failed also, though not without 
an effort, to avert the great schism in the Church of Scotland. 
Abroad it was as prosperous as at home. It had found disaster 
and disgrace in Afghanistan. It speedily ended the war there, 
and in India the invading Sikhs were destroyed upon the Sutlej. 
The sore and dangerous questions with France, touching the 
right of search, the war in Morocco, and the Tahiti affair, and 
with the United States touching the Maine boundary and the 
Oregon territory, were settled by negotiation. 

Yet there were malcontents in Sir Robert Peel's party. The 
Young Englanders disliked him because he had hoisted the flag 
of Conservatism instead of Toryism on the morrow of the Reform 
Bill. The strong philanthropists and Tory Chartists disliked 
him because he was a strict economist and an upholder of the 
new poor law. But the fatal question was protection. That 
question was being fast brought to a crisis by public opinion and 
the Anti-Corn-Law League. Sir Robert Peel had been recognized 
in 1841 by Cobden as a Free Trader, and after experience in 
office he had become in principle more and more so. Since his 
accession to power he had lowered the duties of the sliding scale, 
and thereby caused the secession from the cabinet of the duke of 
Buckingham. He had alarmed the farmers by admitting foreign 
cattle and meat under his new tariff, and by admitting Canadian 
corn. He had done his best in his speeches to put the mainte- 
nance of the corn laws on low ground, and to wean the landed 
interest from their reliance on protection. The approach of 
the Irish famine in 1845 turned decisively the wavering balance. 
When at first Sir Robert proposed to his cabinet the revision of 
the corn laws, Lord Stanley and the duke of Buccleuch dis- 
sented, and Sir Robert resigned. But Lord John Russell failed 
to form a new government. Sir Robert again came into office; 
and now, with the consent of all the cabinet but Lord Stanley, 
who retired, he, in a great speech on the 27th of January 1846, 
brought the repeal of the corn laws before the House of Commons. 
In the long and fierce debate that ensued he was assailed, both 
by political and personal enemies, with the most virulent 
invective, which he bore with his wonted calmness, and to which 
he made no retorts. His measure was carried; but immediately 
afterwards the offended protectionists, led by Lord George 
Bentinck and Benjamin Disraeli, coalesced with the Whigs, 
and threw him out on the Irish Coercion Bill. He went home 
from his defeat, escorted by a great crowd, who uncovered as 
he passed, and he immediately resigned. So fell a Conservative 
government which would otherwise have probably ended only 
with the life of its chief. 

Though out of office he was not out of power. He had " lost 
a party, but won a nation." The Whig ministry which succeeded 
him leant much on his support, with which he never taxed them. 
He joined them in carrying forward free-trade principles by the 
repeal of the navigation laws. He helped them to promote the 
principle of religious liberty by the bill for the emancipation of 
the Jews. One important measure was his own. While in 
office he had probed, by the Devon commission of inquiry, the 
sores of Ireland connected with the ownership and occupation of 

land. In 1849, in a speech on the Irish Poor Laws, he first 
suggested, and in the next year he aided in establishing, a corn- 
mission to facilitate the sale of estates in a hopeless state of 
encumbrance. The Encumbered Estates Act made no attempt, 
like later legislation, to secure by law the uncertain customary 
rights of Irish tenants, but it transferred the land from ruined 
landlords to solvent owners capable of performing the duties of 
property towards the people. On the aSth of June 1850 Sir 
Robert Peel made a great speech on the Greek question against 
Lord Palmerston's foreign policy of interference. This speech 
was thought to show that if necessary he would return to office. 
It was his last. On the following day he was thrown from his 
horse on Constitution Hill, and mortally injured by the fall. 
Three days he lingered and on the fourth (July 2, 1850) he 
died. All the tributes which respect and gratitude could pay 
were paid to him by the sovereign, by parliament, by public men 
of all parties, by the country, by the press, and, above all, by 
the great towns and the masses of the people to whom he had 
given " bread unleavened with injustice." He would have been 
buried among the great men of England in Westminster Abbey, 
but his will desired that he might be laid in Drayton church. It 
also renounced a peerage for his family, as he had before declined 
the garter for himself when it was offered him by the queen 
through Lord Aberdeen. 

Those who judge Sir Robert Peel will remember that he was 
bred a Tory in days when party was a religion; that he entered 
parliament a youth, was in office at twenty-four and secretary 
for Ireland at twenty-five; that his public life extended over a 
long period rife with change; and that his own changes were all 
forward and with the advancing intellect of the time. They will 
enumerate the great practical improvements and the great acts 
of legislative justice of those days, and note how large a share 
Sir Robert Peel had, if not in originating, in giving thorough 
practical effect to all. They will reflect that as a parliamentary 
statesman he could not govern without a party, and that it is 
difficult to govern at once for a party and for the whole people. 
They will think of his ardent love of his country, of his abstinence 
from intrigue, violence and faction, of his boundless labour 
through a long life devoted to the public service. Whether he 
was a model of statesmanship may be doubted. Models of 
statesmanship are rare, if by a model of statesmanship is meant 
a great administrator and party leader, a great political philo- 
sopher and a great independent orator, all in one. But if the 
question is whether he was a ruler loved and trusted by the 
English people there is no arguing against the tears of a nation. 

Those who wish to know more of him will consult his own post- 
humous Memoirs (1856), edited by his literary executors Earl 
Stanhope and Viscount Cardwell; his private correspondence, 
edited by C. S. Parker (1891-1899) ; the four volumes of his speeches; 
a sketch of his life and character by Sir Lawrence Peel (1860); an 
historical sketch by Lord Dalling (1874); Guizot's Sir Robert Peel 
( 1 .857); Kunzel's Leben und Reden Sir Robert Peel's (1851); Disraeli's 
Life of Lord George Bentinck (1858); Morley's Life of Cobden; mono- 
graphs by F. C. Montague (1888), J. R. Thursfeld (1891), and the 
earl of Rosebery (1899); Peel and O'Connett, by Lord Eversley; 
the Life of Sir J. Graham (1907), by C. S. Parker; Lord Stanmore's 
Life of Lord Aberdeen (1893); and the general histories of the 
time. (C. S. P.) 

Four of Sir Robert's five sons attained distinction. The 
eldest, SIR ROBERT PEEL (1822-1895), who became the 3rd 
baronet on his father's death, was educated at Harrow and at 
Christ Church, Oxford. He was in the diplomatic service from 
1844 to 1850, when he succeeded his father as member of parlia- 
ment for Tamworth, and he was chief secretary to the lord- 
lieutenant of Ireland from 1861 to 1865. He represented Tam- 
worth until the general election of 1880; in 1884 he became 
member for Huntingdon and in 1885 for Blackburn, but after 
1886 he ceased to sit in the. House of Commons. Sir Robert 
described himself as a Liberal-Conservative, but in his later years 
he opposed the policy of Gladstone, although after 1886 he 
championed the cause of home rule for Ireland. In 1871 he sold 
his father's collection of pictures to the National Gallery for 
75,000, and in his later life he was troubled by financial difficul- 
ties. Sir Robert was interested in racing, and was known on the 



turf as Mr F. Robinson. He died in London on the pth of May 
1895, and was succeeded as 4th baronet by his son, Sir Robert 
Peel (b. 1867). 

SIR FREDERICK PEEL (1823-1906), the prime minister's second 
son, was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge, 
becoming a barrister in 1849. He entered parliament in that 
year, and with the exception of the period between 1857 and 1859 
he remained in the House of Commons until 1865. In 1851-1852 
and again in 1853-1855 he was under-secretary for the colonies; 
from 1855 to 1857 he was under-secretary for war; and from 
1859 to 1865 he was secretary to the treasury. He became 
a privy councillor in 1857 and was knighted in 1869. Sir 
Frederick Peel's chief service to the state was in connexion with 
the railway and canal commission. He was appointed a com- 
missioner on the inception of this body in 1873, and was its 
president until its reconstruction in 1888, remaining a member 
of the commission until his death on the 6th of June 1906. 

The third son was SIR WILLIAM PEEL (1824-1858), and the 
youngest VISCOUNT PEEL (q.v.). Sir William was a sailor, who 
distinguished himself in the Crimea, where he gained the Victoria 
Cross, and also during the Indian Mutiny, being wounded at the 
relief of Lucknow. He died on the 27th of April 1858. Sir 
William wrote A Ride through the Nubian Desert (1852), giving 
an account of his travels in 1851. 

Two of Sir Robert Peel's brothers were also politicians of 
note. WILLIAM YATES PEEL (1789-1858), educated at Harrow and 
at St John's College, Cambridge, was a member of parliament 
from 1817 to 1837, and again from 1847 to 1852; he was under- 
secretary for home affairs in 1828, and was a lord of the treasury 
in 1830 and again in 1834-1835. JONATHAN PEEL (1799-1879) was 
first a soldier and then a member of parliament during the long 
period between 1826 and 1868, first representing Norwich and then 
Huntingdon. From 1841 to 1846 he was surveyor-general of the 
ordnance, and in 1858-1859 and again in 1866-1867 he was a very 
competent and successful secretary of state for war. General 
Peel was also an owner of racehorses, and in 1844 his horse Orlando 
won the Derby, after another horse, Running Rein, had been 

For the history of the Peel family see Jane Ha worth, A Memoir 
of the Family of Peel from the year 1000 (1836). 

PEEL, a seaport and watering-place of the Isle of Man, on 
the W. coast, n m. W.N.W. of Douglas by the Isle of Man 
railway. Pop. (1901), 3304. It lies on Peel Bay, at the mouth 
of the small river Neb, which forms the harbour. The old 
town consists of narrow streets and lanes, but a modern resi- 
dential quarter has grown up to the east. On the west side of the 
river-mouth St Patrick's Isle is connected with the mainland 
by a causeway. It is occupied almost wholly by the ruins of 
Peel castle. St Patrick is said to have founded here the first 
church in Man, and a small chapel, dedicated to him, appears 
to date from the 8th or loth century. There is a round tower, 
also of very early date, resembling in certain particulars the 
round towers of Ireland. The ruined cathedral of St German 
has a transitional Norman choir, with a very early crypt beneath, 
a nave with an early English triplet at the west end, transepts, 
and a low and massive central tower still standing. There 
are remains of the bishops' palace, of the so-called Fenella's 
tower, famous through Scott's Peveril of the Peak, of the palace 
of the Lords of Man, of the keep and guardroom above the 
entrance to the castle, and of the Moare or great tower, while 
the whole is surrounded by battlements. There are also a large 
artificial mound supposed to be a defensive earthwork of higher 
antiquity than the castle, and another mound known as the 
Giant's Grave. The guardroom is associated with the ghostly 
apparition of the Moddey Dhoo (black dog), to which reference 
is made in Peveril of the Peak. In 1397 Richard II. condemned 
the earl of Warwick to imprisonment in Peel Castle for con- 
spiracy, and in 1444 Eleanor, duchess of Gloucester, received 
a like sentence on the ground of having compassed the death 
of Henry VI. by magic. Peel has a long-established fishing 
industry, which, however, has declined in modern times. In 
the town the most notable building is the church of St German, 
with a fine tower and spire. Peel was called by the Northmen 
Holen (island, i.e. St Patrick's Isle) ; the existing name is Celtic, 

meaning " fort " (cf. the peel towers of the borderland of England 
and Scotland). 

PEEL, (i) The skin or rind of a fruit; thus " to peel " is 
to remove the outer covering of anything. The etymology 
of the word is closely connected with that of " pill," to plunder, 
surviving in " pillage." Both words are to be referred to 
French and thence to Latin. In French peler and piller, though 
now distinguished in meaning (the first used of stripping bark 
or rind, the second meaning to rob), were somewhat confused 
in application, and a similar confusion occurs in English till 
comparatively late. The Latin words from which they are 
derived are pellis, skin, and pilare, to strip of hair (pilus). 
(2) The name of a class of small fortified dwelling-houses built 
during the i6th century on the borders between Scotland and 
England. They are also known as " bastel-houses," i.e. 
" bastille-houses," and consist of a square massive tower with 
high pitched roof, the lower part being vaulted, the upper 
part containing a few living rooms. The entrance is on the 
upper floor, access being gained by a movable ladder. The 
vaulted ground-floor chamber served for the cattle when there 
was danger of attack. The word appears in various forms, 
e.g. pele, peil, and Latinized as pelum, &c. ; " pile " is also found 
used synonymously, but the New English Dictionary (s.ii. pile) 
considers the two words distinct. It seems more probable 
that the word is to be identified with " pale," a stake (Lat. 
palus). The earlier meaning of " peel " is a palisaded enclosure 
used as an additional defence for a fortified post or as an 
independent stronghold. 

PEELE, GEORGE (1558-0. 1598), English dramatist, was 
born in London in 1558. His father, who appears to have 
belonged to a Devonshire family, was clerk of Christ's Hospital, 
and wrote two treatises on book-keeping. George Peele was 
educated at Christ's Hospital, and entered Broadgates Hall 
(Pembroke College), Oxford, in 1571. In 1574 he removed 
to Christ Church, taking his B.A. degree in 1577, and 
proceeding M.A. in 1579. In 1579 the governors of Christ's 
Hospital requested their clerk to " discharge his house of his 
son, George Peele." It is not necessary to read into this 
anything more than that the governors insisted on his beginning 
to earn a livelihood. He went up to London about 1580, but 
in 1583 when Albertus Alasco (Albert Laski), a Polish nobleman, 
was entertained at Christ Church, Oxford, Peele was entrusted 
with the arrangement of two Latin plays by William Gager 
(fl. 1580-1619) presented on the occasion. He was also compli- 
mented by Dr Gager for an English verse translation of one 
of the Iphigenias of Euripides. In 1585 he was employed 
to write the Device of the Pageant borne before Woolslon Dixie, 
and in 1591 he devised the pageant in honour of another lord 
mayor, Sir William Webbe. This was the Descensus Astraeae 
(printed in the Harleian Miscellany, 1808), in which Queen 
Elizabeth is honoured as Astraea. Peele had married as early 
as 1583 a lady who brought him some property, which he 
speedily dissipated. Robert Greene, at the end of his Groats- 
worth of Wit, exhorts Peele to repentance, saying that he has, 
like himself, " been driven to extreme shifts for a living." The 
sorry traditions of his reckless life were emphasized by the use 
of his name in connexion with the apocryphal Merrie conceited 
Jests of George Peele (printed in 1607). Many of the stories 
had done service before, but there are personal touches that 
may be biographical. He died before 1598, for Francis Meres, 
writing in that year, speaks of his death in his Palladis Tamia. 

His pastoral comedy of The Araygnemenl of Paris, presented 
by the Children of the Chapel Royal before Queen Elizabeth 
perhaps as early as 1581, was printed anonymously in 1584. 
Charles Lamb, sending to Vincent Novello a song from this 
piece of Peek's, said that if it had been less uneven in execution 
Fletcher's Faithful Shepherdess " had been but a second name 
in this sort of writing." Peele shows considerable art in his 
flattery. Paris is arraigned before Jupiter for having assigned 
the apple to Venus. Diana, with whom the final decision 
rests, gives the apple to none of the competitors but to a 
nymph called Eliza, whose identity is confirmed by the further 



explanation, " whom some Zabeta call." The Famous Chronicle 
of King Edward the first, sirnamed Edward Longshankes, with his 
reiurne from the holy land. Also the life of Llcucllen, rebell 
in Wales. Lastly, the sinking of Queen Elinor, who suncke 
at Charingcrosse, and rose again at Potters-kith, now named 
Queenehith (printed 1593). This " chronicle history," formless 
enough, as the rambling title shows, is nevertheless an advance 
on the old chronicle plays, and marks a step towards the Shake- 
spearian historical drama. The Battell of Alcazar with the death 
of Captaine Stukeley (acted 1588-1589, printed 1594), published 
anonymously, is attributed with much probability to Peele. 
The Old Wives Tale, registered in Stationers' Hall, perhaps 
more correctly, as "The Owlde wiies tale" (printed 1595), 
was followed by The Love of King David and fair Bethsabe 
(written c. 1588, printed 1599), which is notable as an example 
of Elizabethan drama drawn entirely from scriptural sources. 
Mr Fleay sees in it a political satire, and identifies Elizabeth 
and Leicester as David and Bathsheba, Mary Queen of Scots 
as Absalom. Sir Clyomon and Sir Clamydes (printed 1599) 
has been attributed to Peele, but on insufficient grounds. 
Among his occasional poems are " The Honour of the Garter," 
which has a prologue containing Peele's judgments on his 
contemporaries, and " Polyhymnia " (1590), a blank- verse 
description of the ceremonies attending the retirement of the 
queen's champion, Sir Henry Lee. This is concluded by the 
" Sonnet," " His golden locks time hath to silver turn'd," 
quoted by Thackeray in the 76th chapter of The Newcomes. 
To the Phoenix Nest in 1593 he contributed "The Praise of 
Chastity." Mr F. G. Fleay (Biog. Chron. of the Drama) credits 
Peele with The Wisdom of Doctor Doddipoll (printed 1600), 
Wily Beguiled (printed 1606), The Life and Death of Jack 
Straw, a notable rebel (1587?), a share in the First and Second 
Parts of Henry VI., and on the authority of Wood and 
Winstanley, Alphonsus, Emperor of Germany. 

Peele belonged to the group of university scholars who, in 
Greene's phrase, " spent their wits in making playes." Greene 
went on to say that he was " in some things rarer, in nothing 
inferior," to Marlowe. Nashe in his preface to Greene's Mena- 
phon called him " the chief supporter of pleasance now living, 
the Atlas of Poetrie and primus iierborum artifex, whose first 
encrease, the Arraignement of Paris, might plead to your 
opinions his pregnant dexteritie of wit and manifold varietie 
of invention, wherein (me judice) hee goeth a step beyond all 
that write." This praise was not unfounded. The credit 
given to Greene and Marlowe for the increased dignity of 
English dramatic diction, and for the new smoothness infused 
into blank verse, must certainly be shared by Peele. Professor 
F. B. Gummere, in a critical essay prefixed to his edition of The 
Old Wives Tale, puts in another claim for Peele. In the contrast 
between the romantic story and the realistic dialogue he sees 
the first instance of humour quite foreign to the comic " business " 
of earlier comedy. The Old Wives Tale is a play within a play, 
slight enough to be perhaps better described as an interlude. 
Its background of rustic folk-lore gives it additional interest, 
and there is much fun poked at Gabriel Harvey and Stany hurst. 
Perhaps Huanebango, 1 who parodies Harvey's hexameters, 
and actually quotes him on one occasion, may be regarded as 
representing that arch-enemy of Greene and his friends. 

Peele's Works were edited by Alexander Dyce (1828, 1829-1839 
and 1861); by A. H. Bullen (2 vols., 1888). An examination of 
the metrical peculiarities of his work is to be found in F. A. R. 
Lammerhirt's Georg Peele, Unlersuchungen liber sein Leben und 
seine Werke (Rostock, 1882). See also Professor F. B. Gummere, in 
Representative English Comedies (1903); and an edition of The 
Battell of Alcazar, printed for the Malone Society in 1907. 

PEEP-OF-DAY BOYS, an Irish Protestant secret society, 
formed about 1785. Its object was to protect the Protestant 
peasantry, and avenge their wrongs on the Roman Catholics. 
The " Boys " gained their name from the hour of dawn which 

1 Mr Fleay goes so far as to see in the preposterous names of 
Huanebango's kith and kin puns on Harvey's father's trade. 
" Polymachaeroplacidus " he interprets as " Polly-make-a-rope- 
lass " ! 

they chose for their raids on the Roman Catholic villages. 
The Roman Catholics in return formed the society of " The 

PEEPUL, or PIPUL (Ficus religiosa), the " sacred fig " tree 
of India, also called the Bo tree. It is not unlike the banyan, 
and is venerated both by the Buddhists of Ceylon and the 
Vaishnavite Hindus, who say that Vishnu was born beneath its 
shade. It is planted near temples and houses; its sap abounds 
in caoutchouc, and a good deal of lac is obtained from insects 
who feed upon the branches. The fruit is about the size of a 
walnut and is not much eaten. 

PEERAGE (Fr. pairage, med. Lat. paragium; M.E. pere, 
O. Fr. per, peer, later pair; Lat. paris, " equal "). Although 
in England the terms " peerage," " nobility," " House of Lords " 
are in common parlance frequently regarded as synonymous, 
in reality each expresses a different meaning. A man may be 
a peer and yet not a member of the House of Lords, a member 
of the House of Lords and yet not strictly a peer; though all 
peers (as the term is now understood) are members of the 
House of Lords either in esse or in posse. In the United 
Kingdom the rights, duties and privileges of peerage are 
centred in an individual; to the monarchial nations of the 
Continent nobility conveys the idea of family, as opposed to 
personal, privilege. 

Etymologically " peers " are " equals " (pares), and in Anglo- 
Norman days the word was invariably so understood. The 
feudal tenants-in-chief of the Crown were all the 
peers of each other, whether lords of one manor or 
of a hundred; so too a bishop had his ecclesiastical 
peer in a brother bishop, and the tenants of a manor their 
peers in their fellow-tenants. That even so late as the 
reign of John the word was still used in this general sense is 
clear from Magna Carta, for the term " judicium parium " 
therein must be understood to mean that every man had a right 
to be tried by his equals. This very right was asserted by the 
barons as a body in 1233 on behalf of Richard, earl marshal, 
who had been declared a traitor by the king's command, and 
whose lands were forfeited without proper trial. In 1233 the 
French bishop Peter des Roches, Henry III.'s minister, denied 
the barons' right to the claim set up on the ground that the 
king might judge all his subjects alike, there being, he said, no 
peers in England (Math. Paris. 389). The English barons 
undoubtedly were using the word in the sense it held in Magna 
Carta, while the bishop probably had in his mind the French peers 
(pairs de France) , a small and select body of feudatories possessed 
of exceptional privileges. In England the term was general, 
in France technical. The change in England was gradual, 
and probably gathered force as the gulf between the greater 
barons and the lesser widened, until in course of time, for judicial 
purposes, there came to be only two classes, the greater barons 
and the rest of the people. The barons remained triable by 
their own order (i.e. by their peers), whilst the rest of the people 
rapidly became subject to the general practice and procedure 
of the king's justices. The first use of the word " peers " as 
denoting those members of the baronage who were accustomed 
to receive regularly a writ of summons to parliament is found 
in the record of the proceedings against the Despensers in 1321 
(Stubbs, Const. Hist. ii. 347), and from that time this restricted 
use of the word has remained its ordinary sense. 

Properly to understand the growth and constitution of the 
peerage it is necessary to trace the changes which occurred in 
the position of the Anglo-Norman baronage, first Anglo- 
through the gradual strengthening of royal supre- Normaa 
macy with the consequent decay of baronial power Baronage. 
locally, and subsequently by the consolidation of parliamentary 
institutions during the reigns of the first three Edwards. 

Before the conquest the national assembly of England (see 
PARLIAMENT) was the Witan, a gathering of notables owing 
their presence only to personal influence and standing. The Saxon 
The imposition of a modified feudal system resulted WHena- 
in a radical alteration. Membership of the Great i* 1 " '- 
Councils of the Norman kings was primarily an incident of 

4 6 


tenure, one of the obligations the tenants-in-chief were bound 
to perform, although this membership gradually became restricted 
by the operation of the Royal prerogative to a small section 
of the Baronial class and eventually hereditary by custom. The 
Norman Councils may have arisen from the ashes of a Saxon 
Witenagemot, but there is little evidence of any historical 
continuity between the two. The Church in England, as 
in Christendom generally, occupied a position of paramount 
importance and far-reaching influence; its leaders, not alone 
from their special sanctity as ecclesiastics, but as practically 
the only educated men of the period, of necessity were among 
the chief advisers of every ruler in Western Europe. In 
England churchmen formed a large proportion of the Witan, 
the more influential of the great landowners making up the 
rest of its membership. 

In place of the scattered individual and absolute ownership 
of Saxon days the Conqueror became practically the sole 
Norman owner of the soil. The change, though not imme- 
Feudai diately complete, followed rapidly as the country 
Tenure. settled down and the power of the Crown extended 
to its outlying frontiers. As Saxon land gradually passed 
into Norman hands the new owners became direct tenants 
of the king. Provided their loyal and military obligations 
were duly performed they had fixity of tenure for themselves 
and their heirs. In addition fixed money payments were exacted 
on the succession of the heir, when the king's eldest son was 
knighted, his eldest daughter married, or his person ransomed 
from captivity. In like manner and under similar conditions 
the king's tenants, or as they were termed tenants-in-chief, 
sub-granted the greater portion of their holdings to their own 
immediate followers. Under Norman methods the manor was 
the unit of local government and jurisdiction, and when 
land was given away by the king the gift invariably took the 
form of a grant of one or more manors. 

When he brought England into subjection the Conqueror's 
main idea was to exalt the central power of the Crown at the 
expense of its feudatories, and the first two centuries following 
the conquest tell one long tale of opposition by the great tenants- 
in-chief to a steadily growing and unifying royal pressure. With 
this idea of royal supremacy firmly fixed in his mind, William's 
grants, excepting outlying territory such as the marches of 
Wales or the debateable ground of the Scottish border, which 
needed special consideration, were seldom in bulk, but took the 
form of manors scattered over many counties. Under such 
conditions it was practically impossible for a great tenant to 
set up a powerful imperium in imperio (such as the fiefs of 
Normandy, Brittany and Burgundy), as his forces were dis- 
tributed over the country, and could be reached by the long 
arm of royal power, acting through the sheriff of every county, 
long before they could effectively come together for fighting 
purposes. The tenants-in-chief were termed generally barons 
(see BARON) and may be regarded historically as the parents 
of the peers of later days. The pages of Domesday (1086), 
the early Norman fiscal record of England, show how unevenly 
the land was distributed; of the fifteen hundred odd tenants 
mentioned the majority held but two or three manors, while 
a favoured few possessed more than a hundred each. Land 
was then the only source of wealth, and the number of a 
baron's manors might well be regarded as a correct index of his 

The king's tenants owed yet another duty, the service of 
attending the King's Court (curia regis), and out of this custom 
The King's grew tlle P ar l iaments of later days. In theory all 
Cou,^ the king's tenants-in-chief, great and small, had a 
right to be present as incident to their tenure. 
It has therefore been argued by some authorities that as the 
Conqueror's system of tenure constituted him the sole owner 
of the land, attendance at his courts was solely an incident of 
tenure, the Church having been compelled to accept the same 
conditions as those imposed on laymen. But, as already pointed 
out, the change in tenure had not been immediate, and there 
had been no general forfeiture suffered by ecclesiastical bodies; 

consequently throughout the early years of William's reign 
some of the English bishops and abbots attended his courts 
as much by virtue of their personal and ecclesiastical importance 
as by right of tenure. The King's Court was held regularly 
at the three great festivals of the Church and at such other 
times as were deemed advisable. The assembly for several 
generations neither possessed nor pretended to any legislative 
powers. Legislative power was a product of later years, and 
grew out of the custom of the Estates granting supplies only 
on condition that their grievances were first redressed. The 
great bulk of the tenants were present for the purpose of assenting 
to special taxation above and beyond their ordinary feudal 
dues. When necessary a general summons to attend was sent 
through the sheriff of every county, who controlled a system 
of local government which enabled him to reach every tenant. 
In course of time to a certain number of barons and high 
ecclesiastics, either from the great extent of their possessions, 
their official duties about the king or their personal importance, 
it became customary to issue a personal writ of summons, thus 
distinguishing them from the general mass summoned through 
the sheriff. That this custom was in being within a century 
of the Conquest is clear from an incident in the bitter fight for 
supremacy between Archbishop Becket and Henry II. in 1164 
(Stubbs, Const. Hist. i. 504), it being recorded that the king 
withheld the Archbishop's personal summons to parliament, 
and put upon him the indignity of a summons through the sheriff. 
During the succeeding fifty years the line becomes even more 
definite, though it is evident that the Crown sometimes dis- 
regarded the custom, as the barons are found complaining that 
many of their number deemed entitled to a personal summons 
had frequently been overlooked. 

The sequel to these complaints is found in Magna Carta, 
wherein it is provided that the archbishops, bishops, abbots, 
earls and greater barons are to be called up to the Magaa Carta 
council by writ directed to each severally; and all and Personal 
who hold of the king in chief, below the rank of Summons 
greater barons, are to be summoned by a general ^afores 
writ addressed to the sheriff of their shire. 1 Magna Bar-ones. 
Carta thus indicates the existence of two definite 
sections of the king's tenants, a division which had evidently 
persisted for some time. The " greater barons " are the 
immediate parents of the peerages of later days, every member 
of which for more than four centuries had a seat in the House 
of Lords. As for the rest of the tenants-in-chief, poorer in 
estate and therefore of less consequence, it is sufficient here to 
note that they fell back into the general mass of country families, 
and that their representatives, the knights of the shire, after 
some hesitation, at length joined forces with the city and burgher 
representatives to form the House of Commons. 

In 1254, instead of the general summons through the sheriff 
to all the lesser tenants-in-chief, the king requires them to elect 
two knights for each shire to attend the council as 
the accredited representative of their fellows. In 
the closing days of 1264 Simon de Montfort sum- 
moned to meet him early in 1 265 the first parliament worthy of 
the name, a council in which prelates, earls and greater barons, 
knights of the shire, citizens and burghers were present, thus 
constituting a representation of all classes of people. It has been 
argued that this assembly cannot be regarded as a full parlia- 
ment, inasmuch as Simon de Montfort summoned personally 
only such members of the baronage as were favourable to his 
cause, and issued writs generally only to those counties and 
cities upon which he could rely to return representatives in 
support of his policy. Stubbs holds the view that the first 
assembly we ought to regard as a full parliament was the Model 
Parliament which met at Westminster in 1295. This Model 
parliament, unlike Simon's partisan assembly of Parliament 
1 265, was free and representative. To every spiritual Oil29s - 

1 Et ab habendum commune consilium regni . . . summoneri 
faciemus archiepiscopos, episcopos, abbates, comites et majores 
barones sigillatim per litteras nostras et praeterea faciemus summoneri 
in general! per vicecomes et ballivos nostros omnes illos qui de 
nobis tenent in capite (cited in Stubbs, Const. Hist. i. 547 n.). 




and temporal baron accustomed to receive an individual 
writ, one was issued. Every county elected its knights and 
every city or borough of any importance was instructed 
by the sheriff to elect and to return its allotted number of 
representatives. Stubbs's view (Const. Hist. ii. 223) may prob- 
ably be regarded as authoritative, inasmuch as it was adopted 
by Lord Ashbourne in the Norfolk peerage case of 1906 (Law 
Reports [rgoy], A.C. at p. 15). Edward I. held frequent parlia- 
ments throughout his reign, and although many must be 
regarded as merely baronial councils, nevertheless year after 
year, on all important occasions, the knights of the shire and 
the citizens appear in their places. The parliament of Shrews- 
bury in 1283, for instance, has been claimed as a full parliament 
in several peerage cases, but no clear decision on the point 
has ever been given by the Committee for Privileges. It may 
be taken for granted, however, that any assembly held 
since 1295, which did not conform substantially to the model 
of that year, cannot be regarded constitutionally as a full 
parliament. The point is even of modern importance, as in 
order to establish the existence of a barony by writ it must 
be proved that the claimant's ancestor was summoned by 
individual writ to a full parliament, and that either he himself 
or one of his direct descendants was present in parliament. 
It is now convenient to consider the various grades into 
which the members of the peerage are grouped, and their 
relative positions. An examination of the early writs 
issued to individuals shows that the baronage con- 
sisted of archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls 
and barons. In course of time every member of these classes 
came to hold his land by feudal tenure from the Crown, and 
eventually in every instance the writs issued as an incident 
of tenure. It is therefore necessary to discover, if possible, 
what combination of attributes clothed the greater baron with 
a right to receive the king's personal writ of summons. While 
the archbishops and bishops received their writs with regularity, 
the summonses to heads of ecclesiastical houses and greater 
barons were intermittent. The prelate held an office which 
lived on regardless of the fate of its temporary holder, and if 
by reason of death, absence or translation the office became 
vacant, a writ still issued to the " Guardian of the Spiritualities." 
The abbot, on the other hand, often outside the jurisdiction of 
the English Church, and owing allegiance to a foreign order, 
was but the personal representative of a land-holding community. 
It has already been pointed out that the amount of land held 
direct from the king by individuals varied greatly, and that 
the extent of his holding must have had something to do with 
a man's importance. A landless noble in those days was 
inconceivable. The conclusion, then, may be drawn that in 
theory the issue of a writ was at the pleasure of the Crown, and 
that in practice the moving factor in the case of the prelates 
was office and personal importance, and in the case of abbots 
and barons probably, in the main, extent of possession. There 
is nothing however to show that in the early years of the custom 
any person had a right to claim a writ if it were the king's 
pleasure or caprice to withhold it and to treat everyone not 
summoned individually as being duly summoned under the 
general writs issued to the sheriff of the county. 

The next point for consideration is when did the peerage, 
as the baronage subsequently came to be called, develop into 
a body definitely hereditary ? Here again growth 
was gradual and somewhat obscure. Throughout 
the reigns of the Edwards summonses were not 
always issued to the same individual for successive parliaments; 
and it is quite certain that the king never considered the issue 
of one writ to an individual bound the Crown to its repetition 
for the rest of his life, much less to his heirs in perpetuity. 
Again we must look to tenure for an explanation. The custom 
of primogeniture tended to secure estates in strict family 
succession, an'd if extent of possession had originally extracted 
the acknowledgment of a personal summons from the Crown 
it is more than probable that as successive heirs came into their 
inheritance they too would similarly be acknowledged. In 

early days the summons was a burden to be suffered of necessity, 
an unpleasant incident of tenure, in itself undesirable, and 
probably so regarded by the majority of recipients during at 
least the two centuries following the Conquest. The age of the 
Edwards was in the main a rule of settled law, of increase in 
population generally, of growing power in the large landowners 
and of opportunities for those about the person of the king. 
The times were changing, and in place of the idea of the writ 
being a burden, its receipt gradually came to be looked upon 
as a mark of royal favour, a recognition of position and an 
opportunity leading on to fortune. Once such a view was 
established it is easy to understand how desirous any individual 
would be to preserve so valuable a privilege for his posterity; 
and primogeniture with its strict settlement of estates pointed 
out an easy way. The Crown was itself an hereditary dignity; 
and what more natural than that it should be surrounded by an 
hereditary peerage ? Thus the free and indiscriminate choice 
of the Crown became fettered by the custom that once a 
summons had been issued to an individual to sit in parliament 
and he had obeyed that summons he thereby acquired a right 
of summons for the rest of his lifetime; and in later years when 
the doctrine of nobility of blood became established his 
descendants were held to have acquired the same privilege by 
hereditary right. 

The earl's position in the baronage needs some explanation. 
Various suggestions have been made as to Saxon or Norman 
origin of a high official nature, but historical opinion 
seems generally to incline towards the theory that 
the term was a name of dignity conferred by royal prerogative 
on a person already classed among the greater barons. At first 
the dignity was official and certainly not hereditary, and the name 
of a county of which he is said to have been an officer in the king's 
name was not essential to his dignity as an earl. There were 
also men who, though Scottish and Norman earls, and commonly 
so addressed and summoned to parliament, were rated in 
England as barons (Lords Reports, ii. 116, 120; Earldom of 
Norfolk Peerage Case, Law Reports [1907], A.C. p. 18). Earls 
received individual summonses to parliament by the name of 
Earl (q.v.) ; but there is reason to believe, as already mentioned, 
that in early days at any rate they sat not in right of their 
earldoms but by tenure as members of the baronage. 

If we review the political situation at the beginning of the 
I4th century a great change is evident. The line between 
those members of the baronage in parliament and writ 
the rest of the people is firmly and clearly drawn. Supersedes 
Tenure as the sole qualification for presence in the Teaure - 
national assembly has disappeared, and in its place there 
appears for the baronage a system of royal selection and for 
the rest of the people one of representation. The rules and 
customs of law relating to the baronage slowly crystallized so 
as to provide the House of Lords, the history of which for 
generations is the history of the peerage of England, whilst 
the representative part of parliament, after shedding the lower 
clergy, ultimately became the House of Commons. 

Until the reign of Richard II. there is no trace of any use 
of the term baron (q.v.) as importing a personal dignity existing 
apart from the tenure of land, barons owing their seats in parlia- 
ment to tenure and writ combined. This is borne out by the 
fact that a husband was often summoned to parliament in his 
wife's right and name, and while she lived fulfilled those feudal, 
military and parliamentary obligations attached to her lands 
which the physical disabilities of sex prevented her from carrying 
out in her own person (Pike, House of Lords, p. 103). 

Primogeniture, a custom somewhat uncertain in early Anglo- 
Norman days, had rapidly developed into a definite rule of law. 
As feudal dignities were in their origin inseparable pe erage 
from the tenure of land it is not surprising that they becomes a 
too followed a similar course of descent, although Personal 
as the idea of a dignity being exclusively personal Dl * nlty - 
gradually emerged, some necessary deviations from the rules of 
law relating to the descent of land inevitably resulted. In the 
eleventh year of his reign Richard II. created by letters patent 

4 8 


John Beauchamp " Lord de Beauchamp and baron of Kydder- 
mynster, to hold to him and the heirs of his body." These letters 
patent were not founded on any right by tenure of land possessed 
by Beauchamp, for the king makes him " for his good services and 
in respect of the place which he had holden at the coronation (i.e. 
steward of the household) and might in future hold in the king's 
councils and parliaments, and for his noble descent, and his 
abilities and discretion, one of the peers and barons of the king- 
dom of England; willing that the said John and the heirs-male 
of his body issuing, should have the state of baron and should 
be called by the name of Lord de Beauchamp and Baron of 
Kyddermynster." The grant rested wholly on the grace and 
favour of the Crown and was a personal reward for services 
rendered. Here then is a barony entirely a personal dignity 
and quite unconnected with land. From Richard's reign to 
the present day baronies (and indeed all other peerage honours) 
have continued to be conferred by patent. The custom of 
summons by writ was not in any way interfered with, the patent 
operating merely to declare the dignity and to define its devolu- 
tion. Summons alone still continued side by side for many 
generations with summons founded on patent; but after the 
reign of Henry VIII. the former method fell into disuse, and 
during the last two hundred and fifty years there have been 
no new creations by writ of summons alone. 1 So from the 
reign of Richard II. barons were of two classes, the older, and 
more ancient in lineage summoned by writ alone, the honours 
descending to heirs-general, and the newer created by letters 
patent, the terms of which governed the issue of the summons 
and prescribed the devolution of the peerage in the line almost 
invariably of the direct male descendants of the person 
first ennobled. The principle of hereditary succession so clearly 
recognized in the Beauchamp creation is good evidence to show 
that a prescriptive right of hereditary summons probably existed 
in those families whose members had long been accustomed to 
receive individual writs. By the time the House of Lancaster 
was firmly seated on the throne it may be taken that the peerage 
had become a body of men possessing well-defined personal 
privileges and holding personal dignities capable of descending 
to their heirs. 

The early origin of peerages was so closely connected with 
the tenure of land that the idea long prevailed that there were 
Ptera s b or '8 inall y peerages by tenure only, i.e. dignities 
Tenure. * or titl es annexed to the possession (and so following 
it on alienation) of certain lands held in chief of the 
king. The older writers, Glanville (bk. ix. cc. 4, 6) and Bracton 
(bk. ii. c. 16), lend some colour to the view. They are followed, 
but not very definitely, by Coke, Selden and Madox. Black- 
stone, who discusses the question in his Commentaries (bk. i. 
c. xii.), seems to believe that such dignities existed in pre- 
parliamentary days but says further: " When alienations grew 
to be frequent, the dignity of peerage was confined to the lineage 
of the party ennobled, and instead of territorial became per- 
sonal." The Earldom of Arundel case, in 1433, a t first sight seems 
to confirm the theory, but it may be noted that when in later 
years this descent came to be discussed the high authority of 
an act of parliament was found necessary to confirm the succes- 
sion to the dignity. The case is discussed at some length in the 
Lords Reports (ii. 115), the committee regarding it as an anomaly 
from which no useful precedent can be drawn. Other cases 
discussed in the same Report are those of De Lisle, Abergavenny, 
Fitzwalter and Berkeley. The Berkeley case of 1858-1861 (better 
reported 8 H.L.C. 21) is essential for the student who wishes 
to examine the question carefully; and may be regarded as 
finally putting an end to any idea of bare tenure as an existing 
means of establishing a peerage right (see also Cruise on Dignities, 
2nd ed. pp. 60 et seq.). 

The main attribute of a peerage is that hereditary and inalien- 
1 Not intentional at any rate. In some cases where it was in- 
tended to call a son up in his father's barony, a mistake in the name 
has been made with the result that a new peerage by writ of sum- 
mons has been created. The barony of Buller, of Moore Park 
(cr. 1663), now in abeyance, is said to be an instance of such a 

able quality which ennobles the blood of the holder and his 
heirs, or, as a great judge put it in 1625 in the Earldom of 
Oxford case, " he cannot alien or give away this in- 
heritance because it is a personal dignity annexed toafleniWe. 
to the posterity and fixed in the blood " (Dodridge, 
J., at p. 123, Sir W. Jones's Reports). Were the theory of barony 
by tenure accepted it would be possible for the temporary 
holder of such a barony to sell it or even to will it away to a 
stranger possessing none of the holder's blood, with the effect 
that, in the words of Lord Chancellor Campbell (Berkeley case, 
8 H.L.C. 77), " there might be various individuals and various 
lines of peers successively ennobled and created peers of parlia- 
ment by a subject," an impossible condition of affairs in a 
country where the sovereign has always been the' fountain of 
honour. Moreover, while no peerage honour can be extinguished 
or surrendered, the owner of lands can freely dispose of such 
rights as he possesses by sale or transfer. Finally we may accept 
the verdict in the Fitzwalter case of 1669 (Cruise, ibid. p. 66), 
which was adopted by the House of Lords in the Berkeley case: 
" and the nature of a barony by tenure being discussed, it 
was found to have been discontinued for many ages, and not in 
being, and so not fit to be revived or to admit any pretence or 
right of succession thereupon." 

Until the reign of Edward III. the peerage consisted only of 
high ecclesiastics, earls and barons. The earls were barons 
with their special name of dignity added, and their Dukes 
names always appear on the rolls before those of the 
barons. In 1337 King Edward created his son, the Black 
Prince, duke of Cornwall, giving him precedence over the rest 
of the peerage. The letters patent (under which the present 
heir to the throne now holds the dukedom) limited the dignity 
in perpetuity to the first-born son of the king of England. 2 
Subsequently several members of the royal family were created 
dukes, but no subject received such an honour until fifty years 
later, when Richard II. created his favourite Robert de Vere, 
earl of Oxford, duke of Ireland (for life). The original intention 
may have been to confine the dignity to the blood royal, as with 
the exception of de Vere it was some years before a dukedom 
was again conferred on a subject. 

In 1385 Richard II. had created Robert de Vere marquess of 
Dublin, thus importing an entirely new and unknown title into 
the peerage. The grant was, however, only for life, Marquesses 
and was in fact resumed by the Crown in 1387, when 
its recipient was created duke of Ireland. It was not until 1397 
that another creation was made, this time in favour of one of 
the blood royal, John de Beaufort, eldest legitimated son of 
John of Gaunt, who became marquess of Dorset. His title was 
shortly afterwards taken away by Henry IV 's first parliament. 
Subsequently creations were made only at long intervals, that 
of Winchester (1551) being the only one (of old date) under 
which an English marquess at present sits in the House of Lords 
(see MARQUESS). 

Under the name of viscount (q.v.) Henry VI. added yet another 
order, and the last in point of time, to the peerage, creating in 
1440, John, Baron Beaumont, Viscount Beaumont Vlscouatti 
and giving him precedence next above the barons. 
The name of this dignity was also borrowed from the Continent, 
having been in use for some time as a title of honour in the king's 
French possessions. None of the new titles above mentioned 
ever carried with them any official position; they were conferred 
originally as additional honours on men who were already 
members of the peerage. 

The application of the hereditary principle to temporal 
peerages early differentiated their holders from the spiritual 
peers. Both spiritual and temporal peers were 
equally lords of parliament, but hereditary preten- 
sions on the one side and ecclesiastical exclusiveness 
on the other soon drew a sharp line of division between the two 
orders. Gradually the temporal peers, strong in* their doctrine 
of " ennobled " blood, came to consider that theirs was an order 

* .... principi ct ipsius et haeredum suorum Regum Angliae 
filiis primogenitis (The Prince's Case, 8 Co. Rep. 273; 77 E.R. 513). 



above and beyond all other lords of parliament, and before long, 
arrogated to themselves the exclusive right to be called peers, 
and as such the only persons entitled to the privileges of peerage. 

In early parliamentary days it had been the custom to summon 
regularly to attend the Lords for deliberative purposes another 
body of men the judges. Less important than the prelates, 
they also owed their summons to official position, and like them 
were eventually overshadowed by the hereditary principle. 
The force of hereditary right gave to ennobled blood a position 
never possessed by either judge or prelate. It is true the prelate, 
in point of antiquity, was senior to both earl and baron, and in 
many cases superior in extent of possessions; but these attributes 
belonged to his office, the resignation or deprivation of which 
would at any time have caused him to lose his writ of summons. 
The writ issued really to the office. The judge's position was 
even worse. His judicial office evoked the writ, but at any 
moment he might be deprived of that office at the arbitrary 
pleasure of the Crown. It is doubtful whether the judges ever 
had voice and vote in the same sense as the other lords of 
parliament, and even if they had they soon came to be regarded 
merely as counsellors and assessors. 

The pretensions of the lay peers were not admitted without 
a struggle on the part of the prelates, who made the mistake 
of aiming at the establishment of a privileged position for their 
own order while endeavouring to retain every right possessed 
by their lay brethren. They fell between two stools, lost their 
position as peers, and were beaten back in their fight for eccle- 
siastical privilege. In the reign of Richard II. the prelates are 
found clearly defining their position. Neville, archbishop of 
York, de Vere, duke of Ireland and others, were " appealed " 
for treason, and the archbishop of Canterbury took the oppor- 
tunity in parliament of making clear the rights of his order. 
He said " of right and by the custom of the realm of England 
it belongeth to the Archbishop of Canterbury for the time being 
as well as others his suffragans, brethren and fellow bishops, 
abbots and priors and other prelates whatsoever, holding of 
our lord'the king by barony, to be present in person in all the 
king's parliaments whatsoever as Peers of the Realm aforesaid, 
and there with the other Peers of the Realm, and with other 
persons having the right to be there present, to advise, treat, 
ordain, establish and determine as to the affairs of the realm 
and other matters there wont to be treated and to do all else 
which there presses to be done." After this he went on to say 
that as to the particular matters in question they intended to 
be present and to take their part in all matters brought before 
parliament " save our estate and order and that of each of the 
prelates in all things. But because in the present parliament 
there is question of certain matters, in which it is not lawful 
for us or anyone of the prelates according to the institute of the 
Holy Canons in any manner, to take part personally " we intend 
to retire " saving always the rights of our peerage " (Rot. Parl. 
ii Rich. II. No. 6 printed iii. 236-237). At the desire of the 
prelates this statement of their rights was duly enrolled in parlia- 
ment, but their claim to be peers was neither denied nor admitted, 
and the proceedings went on without them. For themselves 
Churchmen never claimed the privilege of trial by peers. 
Whenever they were arraigned they claimed to be altogether 
outside secular jurisdiction, and it was therefore a matter of 
small concern to them whether they were in the hands of peers 
or peasants. Such was the attitude of Becket towards Henry II. 
(Stubbs, Const. Hist. i. 504), of Archbishop Stratford towards 
Edward III. (Pike, pp. 188 seq.), and it was probably with 
the history of these two cases in his mind that the archbishop 
of Richard II. 's reign speaks of the saving rights of his order. 
These rights were never willingly admitted in England, and as 
the pope's power for interference waned so the prelates were 
forced under the ordinary law of the land. Henry VIII. cer- 
tainly never regarded ecclesiastics as peers, as may be gathered 
from a grant early in his reign to the then abbot of Tavistock 
for himself and each succeeding abbot the right to be " one of 
the spiritual and religious lords of parliament." As to abbots, 
the subsequent dissolution of the monasteries put an end to the 

discussion. In this reign also Cranmer and Fisher, though the 
former was archbishop of Canterbury, were tried by a common 
jury, and they certainly claimed no privilege of peerage. The 
Standing Orders of the House of Lords for 1625 contain the 
statement that " Bishops are only Lords of Parliament and not 
Peers " (Lords Journals, iii. 349). In 1640 the " Lords Spiritual " 
were altogether excluded from the House of Lords by act of 
parliament, and were not brought back until the second year 
of the Restoration. From that period there has been no ques- 
tion as to their position. Peers and holders by barony when 
parliaments first met, by the end of the isth century they had put 
themselves outside the pale of the peerage. To-day their ancient 
lands are vested in trustees (Ecclesiastical Commissioners), 
and office alone constitutes a bishop's qualification, and 
that only if he occupies one of the five great sees of Canterbury, 
York, London, Durham and Winchester, or is of sufficient 
seniority in appointment to fill one of the remaining twenty-one 
places on the bench of bishops in the house for there are now 
only twenty-six seats for thirty-six prelates. 

The reign of Henry VIII. brought about far-reaching changes 
in the position of the peerage. When that king ascended the 
throne the hereditary element was in a decided Henry vm. 
minority, but the balance was gradually redressed and the 
until at length a bare hereditary majority was Peerage. 
secured and the dissolution of the monasteries made 
possible. The peers, many now grown fat on abbey lands, 
at once began to consolidate their position; precedents were 
eagerly sought for, and the doctrine of ennobled blood began 
to find definite and vigorous expression. So long, the peers 
declared, as there is any ennobled blood, a peerage 
must exist; and it can be extinguished only by act Blood * 
of parliament, failure of heirs, or upon corruption 
of blood by attainder. Stubbs writes with some contempt of 
the doctrine (Const. Hist. iii. 458 n.), apparently on the ground 
that it is absurd to speak of ennobled blood so long as the children 
of a peer still remain commoners. The doctrine is neither 
unreasonable nor illogical. By it is meant blood in which 
there always exists a capacity to inherit a particular peerage, 
and every person in whose veins the ennobled blood runs is 
competent to occupy the peerage if the chances of nature should 
remove those who are senior to him in the line of descent. A 
good illustration is the popular use of the term " blood royal," 
which of course does not mean that an individual of the blood 
royal necessarily occupies a throne but that he or she is in the 
line of succession to it. Similarly, persons of " ennobled blood " 
are not necessarily peers but in the line of descent to peerages, 
to which they may or may not succeed. (See NOBILITY.) 

The English peer is not like the continental noble the member 
of a caste, but the holder for life of an office clothed with high 
and exceptional legislative and judicial attributes entirely 
dependent on his office and exercisable only in conjunction 
with his fellow peers in parliament assembled. Such privileges 
as he possesses are due primarily to his office rather than to his 
blood. His children are commoners, who though accorded 
courtesy titles by the usage of society have no legal privileges 
not shared with the humblest of British subjects. It is this 
peculiar official quality of an English peerage which saved 
England from the curse of a privileged noble caste such as that 
which so long barred all progress in France and Germany. As 
a result there are hundreds of families in the United Kingdom 
who, commoners there, would yet, from their purity of blood, 
position and influence, be accounted noble in any continental 

From the doctrine of nobility of blood is derived the rule 
of law that no peerage (a Scots peerage is under Scots Law) 
can be surrendered, extinguished, or in any way got 
rid of unless the blood be corrupted. The rule is 
well illustrated by the earldom of Norfolk case 
(Law Reports [1007], A. C. 10) in which its development was 
traced, and the principle authoritatively confirmed. In 1302 
the hereditary earldom of Norfolk (created in 1135) was in the 
possession of Hugh Bygod, one of the most powerful nobles of 


Plantagenet days. The earl got into difficulties, and as some 
say, for a consideration, and others, to spite his brother and 
debtor, surrendered his earldom and all the lands thereto 
belonging, to King Edward I. from whom he subsequently 
received it back with an altered limitation to himself and the 
heirs of his body. As he was a childless old man this was practi- 
cally a short life interest to the exclusion of all his relatives, the 
nearest of whom but for the surrender would have succeeded. 
Soon after Bygod died, and the earldom fell into the hands of 
Edward II. who granted it to his brother Thomas of Brotherton 
in 1312. Lord Mowbray, the lineal descendant of this Thomas, 
recently came forward and claimed the earldom, but in 1906 
the House of Lords decided against his claim on the ground 
that in law Bygod's surrender was invalid, and that therefore 
Edward II. had no valid power to grant this particular earldom 
to Thomas of Brotherton. Historically there is little to support 
such a decision, and indeed this rigid application of the law is 
of comparatively recent date. Without doubt king, nobles and 
lawyers alike were all agreed, right down to Tudor days, that 
such surrenders were entirely valid. Many certainly were made, 
but, according to the decision of 1906, any living heirs of line 
of those nobles who thus got rid of their peerage honours can, 
if their pedigrees be provable, come to the House of Lords with a 
fair chance of reviving the ancient honours. Even as late as 
1663 we find the Crown, naturally with the concurrence of its 
legal advisers, stating in the barony of Lucas patent (1663) that, 
on the appearance of co-heirs to a barony, the honour may be 
suspended or extinguished at the royal pleasure. The royal view 
of the law (at any rate as to extinction) was strongly objected 
to by the Lords, who guarded their privileges in Stuart days 
even more strictly than did the Commons. As early as 1626, 
in the celebrated dispute over the earldom of Oxford, the lord 
great chamberlainship and the baronies of Bolebec, Badlesmere 
and Sandford, Mr Justice Dodridge, who had been called in by 
the Lords to advise them, said that an earl could not give away 
or alien his inheritance, because it was " a personal dignity 
annexed to the posterity and fixed in the blood." Fourteen 
years later, in the Grey de Ruthyn case, the Lords solemnly 
resolved, " That no peer of the realm can drown or extinguish 
his honour (but that it descends unto his descendants), neither 
by surrender, grant, fine nor any other conveyance to the king." 
In 1678 the Lords became, if possible, even more definite, in 
view probably of the fact that the Crown had disregarded the 
Grey de Ruthyn resolution, having in 1660 taken into its hands, 
by surrender of Robert Villiers, 2nd viscount, the viscounty 
of Purbeck. In 1676 the son of the second viscount applied 
for his writ of summons, and on the advice of Sir William Jones, 
the attorney-general, who reported that " this (surrender) was 
a considerable question, never before resolved that he knew of," 
the king referred the whole matter to the Lords. The Lords 
were very explicit, being " unanimously of the opinion, and do 
resolve that no fine now levied, or at any time hereafter to be 
levied by the king, can bar such title of honour (i.e. of a peer 
of the realm), or the right of any person claiming under him that 
levied, or shall levy such fine." On these resolutions passed in 
the seventeenth century, the Lords of 1906 find illegal a surrender 
of 1302. The result seems strange, but it is, at any rate, logical 
from the legal point of view. It was urged that in 1302 no 
real parliament, in the sense applied to those of later years, 
was in existence; and consequently, a resolution founded on 
parliamentary principles should not apply. To this answer 
was made: Although it may be true that the law and practice 
of parliament had not then crystallized into the definite shape 
of even a hundred years later, the " Model Parliament " was 
summoned seven years before Bygod's surrender, and it is neces- 
sary to have some definite occurrence from which to date a 
legal beginning a point of law with which an historian can have 
little sympathy. 

Briefly, perhaps, from the teaching of the case it may be 
permissible to state the rule as follows: In early days the 
Norman and Plantagenet kings took upon themselves to deal 
with the barons in a manner which, though illegal, was suffered 

because no one dared oppose them; but as time went on, becom- 
ing stronger and more determined to enforce their privileges 
and exalt their order the peers were able to compel recognition 
of their rights, and their resolutions in Stuart days were only 
declaratory of law which had always existed, but had been 
systematically disregarded by the Crown. This being so, 
resolutions of the peers deliberately and expressly laid down 
must, when in point, always be followed. 

The application of the doctrine of corruption of blood to 
peerages arises out of their close connexion with the tenure 
of land, peerage dignities never having been regarded Attalaaer 
as personal until well on into the I4th century. an d cor- 
Conviction for any kind of felony and treason ruptloa of 
originally was a form of felony was always followed B/0 * 
by attainder. This resulted in the immediate corruption of 
the blood of the offender, and its capacity for inheritance was 
lost for ever. Such corruption with all its consequences could 
be set aside only by act of parliament. This stringent rule of 
forfeiture was to some extent mitigated by the passing in 1285 
of the statute De Donis Conditionalibus (Blackstone's Commen- 
taries, ii. 1 1 6) which made possible the creation of estates tail, 
and when a tenant-in-tail was attainted forfeiture extended only 
to his life interest. The statute De Donis was soon applied 
by the judges to such dignities as were entailed (e.g. dignities 
conferred by patent with limitations in tail), but it never affected 
baronies by writ, which were not estates in tail but in the nature 
of estates in fee simple descendible to heirs general. In the 
reign of Henry VIII. an act was passed (1534) which brought 
estates tail within the law of forfeiture, but for high treason only. 
The position then became that peerages of any kind were for- 
feitable by attainder following on high treason, while baronies 
by writ remained as before forfeitable for attainder following 
on felony. In 1708, just after the Union with Scotland, an 
act was passed by which on the death of the Pretender and three 
years after Queen Anne's death the effects of corruption of blood 
consequent on attainder for high treason were to be abolished, 
and the actual offender only to be punished (stat. "7 Anne, 
c. 21, 10). Owing to the 1745 rising, the operation of this act 
was postponed until the decease of the Pretender and all his 
sons (stat. 17 Geo. II. c. 39, 3). In 1814 forfeiture for every 
crime other than high and petty treason and murder was re- 
stricted to the lifetime of the person attainted (stat. 54 Geo. 
III. c. 145). Finally in 1870 forfeiture, except upon outlawry, 
was altogether abolished and it was provided that " no judgment 
of or for any treason or felony should cause any attainder or 
corruption of blood, or any forfeiture or escheat." The necessity 
for ascertaining the exact condition of the law with regard to 
attainder throughout the whole period of English parliamentary 
history will be realized when it is remembered that there still 
exist dormant and abeyant peerages dating from 1295 onwards 
which may at any time be the subject of claim before the House 
of Lords, and if any attainders exist in the history of such peerages 
the law governing their consequences is not the law as it exists 
to-day but as it existed when the attainder occurred. The 
dukedom of Atholl case of 1764 is interesting as showing the 
effect of attainder on a peerage where the person attainted does 
not actually succeed. John first duke of Atholl died in 1725 
leaving two sons James and George. George the younger was 
attainted of treason in 1745 and died in 1760, leaving a son John. 
James, the second son of the first duke, who had succeeded his 
father in 1725 died in 1764 without issue. John his nephew then 
claimed the dukedom, and was allowed it on the ground that 
his father never having been in the possession of the dukedom 
his attainder could not bar his son, who succeeds by reason 
of his heirship to his uncle. It would have been otherwise 
had the younger son outlived his brother, for he would then have 
succeeded to the dukedom and so destroyed it by his attainder. 

In many cases there have been passed special parliamentary 
acts of attainder and forfeiture, and these, of course, operate 
apart from the general law. In any event, attainder and 
forfeiture of a dignity, whether resulting from the rules of the 
common law or from special or general acts of parliament can 


only be reversed by act of parliament. The procedure in 
reversing an attainder and recovering a dignity is as follows. 
The Crown signifies its pleasure that a bill of restoration shall 
be prepared and signs it. The bill is then brought in to the 
House of Lords, passed there, and sent to the Commons for 
assent. The last bills of the kind became law in 1876, when 
Earl Cowper procured the removal of the attainder on one of his 
Ormond ancestors and so by purging the blood of corruption 
became entitled to, and was allowed, the barony of Butler of 
Moore Park (created in 1663). There should also be noted the 
Earldom of Mar Restitution Act 1885, which, while mainly con- 
firmatory of a disputed succession, at the same time reversed 
any attainders that existed. 

The House of Lords grew steadily throughout the Tudor 
period, and during the reign of the first two Stuarts underwent 
a still greater increase. In the Great Rebellion the majority of 
the peers were the king's stoutest supporters and thus inevitably 
involved themselves in the ruin of the royal cause. Immediately 
after the execution of Charles I. the Republicans proceeded 
Common- to sweep away everything which savoured of mon- 
weaith archy and aristocracy. The House of Commons 
Abolition of vo t ec } t ne Lords " useless and dangerous," got rid of 

e *" them as a part of parliament by the simple expedient 
of a resolution (Comms. Journs. 1648-1649, vi. in) and placed 
the sole executive power in Cromwell's hands, but there was 
no direct abolition of the peerage as such. Evidently it took 
Cromwell but little time to realize the fallacy, in practice, of 
CromweiFs single-chamber government, as he is found ten 
House of years after the " useless and dangerous " resolu- 
Lords. jj on jj usv establishing a second chamber. 1 What 
to call it aroused much discussion, and eventually the unruly 
Commons consented to speak of and deal with " the other 
house." It is very difficult to realize what was the constitution 
of this body, so short was its life and so contemptuous its treat- 
ment by the Commons. The members of " the other house " 
were summoned by writs under the Great Seal, similar in form 
to those used to summon peers of past days. Some sixty writs 
were issued, and presumably their recipients were entitled 
thereby to sit for the duration of the parliament to which they 
were summoned; but it may be considered as certain that 
Cromwell's lords were never regarded as hereditary peers. 
They were entitled to the courtesy appellation " Lord " and 
appear to have been in the main substantial men existing 
peers, judges, distinguished lawyers and members of well-known 
county families. Judging from Cromwell's speech at the 
opening of parliament, and subsequent entries in Whitelock's 
diaries, the new house appears to have had revising functions 
both of a legislative and judicial nature and also the duty of 
taking cognizance of foreign affairs. Cromwell certainly issued 
two patents of hereditary peerage the barony of Burnell 
and the barony of Gilsland (with which went the viscounty of 
Howard of Morpeth), but neither title was recognized on the 
Restoration, and it does not appear that the possession of these 
titles ever conferred on their holders any hereditary right to a 
writ of summons to sit in "the other house." Whitelock 
himself was promised a viscounty by Cromwell, but no patent 
ever appears to have passed the Great Seal. Eventually business 
between the two houses grew impossible, and Cromwell was 
compelled to dissolve parliament. Richard's first parliament 
also contained Lords as well as Commons, the latter considerately 
voting " to transact business with the persons sitting in the 
other house as an House of Parliament, saving the right of the 
peers who had been faithful to the parliament," the saving 
clause evidently a loophole for the future. The dissolution 
of this parliament and the retirement of the protector Richard 
into private life preceded by only a few months the restoration 
to the throne of Charles II. With the king the peers returned 
to their ancient places. 

From the reign of William of Orange the peerage has been 
freshened by a steady stream of men who as a rule have served 

1 Whitelock's Memorials of English Affairs (in the reign of 
Charles I. and up to the Restoration) (1853 ed. iv. 313). 

their country as statesmen, lawyers and soldiers. Little of 
note occurred in the history of the peerage until the reign of 
Anne. By the Act of Union with Scotland (1707) Scottish 
the Scottish parliament was abolished; but the Repnseata- 
Scottish peerage were given the privilege of " vePeers - 
electing, for each parliament of Great Britain, sixteen of 
their number to represent them in the House of Lords. 
Further creations in the Scottish peerage were no longer to be 
made. The effect of this act was to leave the great majority 
of the Scottish peers outside the House of Lords, as only sixteen 
of their number were to become lords of parliament. Close 
upon a hundred years later Ireland was united with Great 
Britain, the Irish parliament being merged in the Irish Repre- 
parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain sentative 
and Ireland. Twenty-eight Irish peers were to be Peers ~ 
elected for life by their order to represent it in the House of 
Lords. One archbishop and three bishops were also chosen in 
turn to represent the Irish Church in the House of Lords, but 
when that Church was disestablished in 1867 the spiritual 
lords lost their seats. The merger of the three kingdoms had 
an important effect on their peerages. Every peer in his 
own country had been a lord of parliament by hereditary right. 
The English peer (and, as the Acts of Union were passed, the 
peer of Great Britain and the peer of the United Kingdom) 
continued by hereditary right a lord of parliament. The 
Scottish and Irish peers lost this right though by the two Acts 
of Union they retained every other privilege of peerage. Hence- 
forth they were lords of parliament only as and when their 
fellow peers elected them. Thus though not all were lords of 
parliament in esse, every one was always so in posse, and in any 
case it was the hereditary quality of the peerage which either 
actually seated its holder in the House of Lords or made it 
possible for him to get there by the votes of his fellows. 

It now becomes possible to arrive at the modern meaning of 
the term " a peerage," and we may define it as a dignity of 
England, Scotland or Ireland, which, by its heredi- Modem 
tary quality, confers on its holder for the time Meaniagot 
being the right to be or not to be elected a lord of "Peer"**-" 
parliament. The term " peerage " is also used in a collective 

The reign of Anne is remarkable for an attempt made by the 
House of Lords to limit its numbers by law. The queen, 
in order to secure a majority for the court party, Queen Anne 
had created a batch of twelve peers at one time, a aadPeerage 
considerable number in relation to existing peerages; Limitation. 
and it was feared this expedient might be used as a 
precedent. A peerage limitation bill was introduced into the 
House of Lords in 1719. Six new creations were to be allowed, 
but after these the Crown, except in the case of royal princes, 
was to create a new peerage only when an old one became 
extinct. Twenty-five hereditary peerages in Scotland were 
to take the place of the sixteen representative peers for all time. 
The bill passed the Lords, but was eventually thrown out in the 
House of Commons, though not by an overwhelming majority. 

In 1856 it was desired to strengthen the judicial element 
in the House of Lords, and the Crown issued letters patent 
creating Sir James Parke, one of the barons of the 
exchequer, Baron Wensleydale and a peer " for 
and during the term of his natural life." The 
burden of an hereditary peerage is heavy, and many men 
thoroughly well qualified in legal attainments have been known 
to refuse it on the ground of expense alone. This life-peerage 
was thought to be a way out of the difficulty, and it was on 
Lord Chancellor Cranworth's advice that the Crown issued the 
Wensleydale patent. The House of Lords at once realized 
that the creation of life-peers, at the will of the ministry of the 
day, might put the hereditary section into an absolute minority, 
and possibly in time, by form of law, get rid of it altogether. 
Eventually it was decided by the house that " neither the said 
letters patent nor the said letters patent with the usual writ of 
summons enable the grantee to sit and vote in parliament," 
a formal resolution which closed the door in the face of every 

ey * 



person whom the Crown might endeavour to make a life-peer. 
The government of the day accepted the situation, and soon 
afterwards a new patent was made out which followed the usual 
limitation to heirs-male. The precedents in favour of the 
Crown's action were not strong. The essential and outstanding 
attribute of the house was its hereditary character. The whole 
balance of the constitution worked on the pivot of the indepen- 
dence of the peers. They existed as a moderating force in the 
counsels of parliament, and the alteration of the hereditary 
character of the House of Lords might easily have rendered 
it amenable to whatever pressure the government of the day 
might see fit to exercise. In such circumstances its position 
as arbiter between people and government would tend to dis- 
appear. A change fraught with so many serious possibilities 
ought not, it was said, to be made by the simple prerogative 
of the Crown. If so far-reaching an alteration in the law were 
justifiable it was for parliament to make it. Further, it was 
pointed out, there had been no life-creations for centuries, and 
those that are recorded to have been conferred since the crys- 
tallization of our parliamentary system were of such a nature 
that the grantees never sat in the house by virtue of their life- 
honours, inasmuch as they were existing peers or women. Soon 
after the Wensleydale debates the government 
introduced a bill into the House of Lords to authorize 
the creation of two life-peers, who were to be persons 
of at least five years' standing as judges. They were to sit as 
lords of appeal but to be peers for life. Eventually the bill 
disappeared in the House of Commons. In 1869 Earl Russell 
introduced another life-peerage bill of far wider scope. Twenty- 
eight life-peerages might be in existence at any one time, but 
not more than four were to be created in any one year. The 
life peers would be lords of parliament for life. They were to be 
selected by the Crown from the peerages of Scotland and Ireland, 
persons who had sat for ten years in the Commons, distinguished 
soldiers, sailors, civil servants and judges or persons distinguished 
in science, literature or art. The bill received a rough handling 
in committee of the Lords, and the time was evidently not ripe 
for change, as the bill failed to pass its third reading. 

In 1870 attempts were made in the House of Lords to alter 
the position of the Scottish and Irish representative peers. In 
Suggested 1876 the need of further judicial strength in the 
Reforms and Lords was tardily admitted, and an act was passed 
Alterations, authorizing the creation of two lords of appeal in 
ordinary, and power was reserved to appoint two more 
as certain judicial vacancies occurred. They were to be 
entitled to the rank of baron during their lives but were to sit 
and vote in parliament only so long as they held their judicial 
office. Their dignities lasted for life only. Eleven years later 
another act enabled all retired lords of appeal to sit and vote as 
members of the House of Lords for life. To those interested 
in House of Lords reform the pages of Hansard's Parliamen- 
tary Debates are the best authority. In 1888 reform bills were 
introduced by Lords Dunraven and Salisbury, and in 1907 by 
Lord Newton. In December 1908 the publication of a long 
report with sweeping recommendations for reform ended the 
labours of a House of Lords committee which had been appointed 
to consider the question in detail. In the session of 1910, 
following the general election, long discussions took place in 
both houses of parliament. Opinion generally was freely 
expressed that the time had arrived for diminishing the number 
of lords of parliament and for putting into practice the principle 
that hereditary right alone should no longer confer lordship of 
parliament. (See PARLIAMENT.) 

The Scottish peerage, like that of England, owes its origin 

to feudalism. In Anglo-Norman days Scotland was a small 

country, and for some generations after England 

Peerage was sett l e d tne Scottish king's writ ran little beyond 

the foot of the Highlands, and even the Lord of the 

Isles reckoned himself an independent sovereign until the 

beginning of the isth century. The weak and usually ineffective 

control of the Crown resulted in opportunities for acquiring 

personal power which the nobles were not slow to take advantage 

of. Seldom accustomed to act in concert, they soon developed 
particularist tendencies which steadily increased the strength 
of their territorial position. These conditions of existence 
were entirely unfavourable to the establishment of any system 
of parliamentary government such as centralization had made 
possible in England, therefore it is not surprising to find that the 
lesser barons were not relieved of their attendance at the national 
assemblies until well on in the isth century (Burton's Scotland, 
iii. in). Again, when the Scottish earls and barons came to 
parliament, they did not withdraw themselves from the rest 
of the people, it being the custom for the estates of Scotland 
to deliberate together, and this custom persisted until the 
abolition of their parliament by the Act of Union in 1707. The 
territorial spirit of the nobles inevitably led them to regard the 
honour as belonging to, and inseparable from, their land, and 
until comparatively late in Scottish history there is nowhere 
any record of the conferment of a personal dignity unattached 
to land such as that conferred in England on Beauchamp by 
Richard II. This explains the frequent surrenders and altered 
grants which are so common in Scottish peerage history, and 
which, in sharp distinction to the English rule of law, are there 
regarded as perfectly legal. To-day there exists no Scottish 
dukedom (except the royal dukedom of Rothesay), marquessate 
or viscounty created before the reign of James VI. of Scotland 
(and I. of England). Of the existing Scottish peerages sixty- 
three were created in the period between James's accession to 
the English throne and the Act of Union. There are now only 
eighty-seven in all. Unlike one of the English peerages owing its 
origin exclusively to a writ of summons, ancient Scottish 
peerages do not fall into abeyance, and when there are only 
heirs-general, the eldest heir of line succeeds. 

Whenever a new parliament is summoned, proclamation is 
made in Scotland summoning the peers to meet at Holyrood 
to elect sixteen of their number to represent them in such 
parliament. The Scottish peerages are recorded on a roll, 
and this is called over by the lord clerk register before the 
assembled peers seated at a long table. Each peer answers to 
the name of the peerage (it may be one or more) he possesses. 
The roll is then read again and each peer in turn (but only once) 
rises and reads out the list of those sixteen peers for whom he 
votes. Proxies are allowed for absent peers and are handed in 
after the second roll-call. The votes are counted and the lord 
clerk register reads out the names of those elected, makes a 
return, and signs and seals it in the presence of the peers 
assembled. The return eventually finds its way to the House of 
Lords. The Scottish representative peer so elected receives no 
writ of summons to parliament, but attends the House of Lords 
to take the oath, his right to sit being evidenced by the return 
made. It might be thought that the rules of election in so 
important a matter would be more stringent, but the fact 
remains that it is quite possible for an entirely unqualified person 
to attend and vote at Holyrood. No evidence of identity or 
of a man's right to be present is required and the lord clerk 
register is compelled to receive any vote tendered except in 
respect of peerages for which no vote has been given since 1800, 
these being struck off the roll (10 & n Viet. c. 52). Any 
person claiming to represent such a peerage must prove his 
right before the House of Lords, as was done in the case of the 
barony of Fairfax in 1908. It is true that by the act last cited 
any two peers may protest against a vote at Holyrood, and the 
lord clerk register thereupon reports the proceedings to the 
House of Lords, who will consider the question if application 
be made for an inquiry, but nothing is done unless an application 
is made. The right to vote certainly needs better proof than 
that now accepted. For many years the House of Lords main- 
tained that the Crown could not confer a new peerage of Great 
Britain on a Scottish peer, the ground being that the Scottish 
peerage was only entitled to the sixteen representative peers 
given it by the Act of Union, but eventually in 1782 in the case 
of the duke of Hamilton this contention was given up. 

The Anglo-Norman conquerors of Ireland carried with them 
the laws and the system of tenure to which they were accustomed 




in England, and consequently the growth of the baronage 
and the establishment of parliamentary government in Ireland 
proceeded on parallel lines with the changes which 
occurred in England. Until the reign of Henry VIII. 
the Irish were without representation in par- 
liament, but gradually the Irish were admitted, and by the 
creation of new parliamentary counties and boroughs were 
enabled to elect representatives. In 1613 the whole country 
shared in representation (Ball's Legislative Systems of Ireland). 
Just as James I. had added many members to the Scottish 
peerage, so he increased the number of Irish peers. 

In 1800 the Union of Great Britain and Ireland abolished 
the parliament of Ireland. By the Act of Union the Irish peers 
became entitled to elect twenty-eight of their number to repre- 
sent them in the House of Lords. The election is for life, and 
only those peers are entitled to vote at elections of representative 
peers who have proved their right of succession to the satisfaction 
of the lord chancellor, who issues his notice to that effect after 
each individual proof. The names of such peers are added to 
the voting-roll of the peerage, and when voting papers are 
distributed the Irish peers do not meet for election purposes 
as do those of Scotland they are sent only to those peers who 
have proved their right to vote. If any claim to the right to 
vote is rejected by the lord chancellor the claimant must prove 
his case before the Committee for Privileges (barony of Graves, 
1907). When an Irish peer has been elected a representative 
peer he receives, as a matter of course, a writ of summons at 
the beginning of each parliament. The great bulk of the Irish 
peerage owes its existence to creations during the last two 
centuries, only seven of the existing peerages dating back 
beyond the xyth century; of the rest twenty-two were created 
during the year of Union, and thirty-three have been added 
since that date. Some hundred or more years ago ministers 
found the Irish peerage a useful means of political reward, in 
that it was possible to bestow a title of honour, with all 
its social prestige, and yet not to increase the numbers of the 
House of Lords. 

On the death of a representative peer of Scotland or Ireland 
a vacancy occurs and a new election takes place, but in accor- 
dance with modern practice promotion to a United Kingdom 
peerage does not vacate the holder's representative position 
(May's Parliamentary Practice, p. n n.). Scottish and Irish 
peers, if representative, possess all the privileges of peerage 
and parliament enjoyed by peers of the United Kingdom; if 
non-representative all privileges of peerage, except the right to 
a writ of summons to attend parliament and to be present at and 
vote in the trial of peers. A Scottish peer, if non-representa- 
tive, is in the anomalous position of being disabled from serving 
his country in either house of parliament, but an Irish peer 
may sit for any House of Commons constituency out of Ireland, 
though while a member of the Commons his peerage privileges 

Though many peers possess more than one peerage, and 
frequently of more than one country, only that title is publicly 
used which is first in poirft of precedence. It was once argued 
that whenever a barony by writ came into the possession of a 
person already a peer of higher rank, the higher peerage " at- 
tracted" or overshadowed the lower, which thenceforth followed 
the course of descent of the dignity which had attracted it. 
This doctrine is now exploded and cannot be regarded as apply- 
ing to any case except that of the Crown (Baronies of Fitzwalter, 
1660, and De Ros, 1666; Collins's Claims, 168, 261). Every 
peerage descends according to the limitations prescribed in its 
patent of creation or its charter, and where these are non- 
existent (as in the case of baronies by writ) to heirs-general. 

In dealing with English dignities it is essential to realize 
the difference between a mere title of honour and a peerage. 
The Crown as the fountain of honour is capable of conferring 
upon a subject not only any existing title of honour, but 
may even invent one for the purpose. So James I. instituted 
an order of hereditary knights which he termed baronets, 

and Edward VII. created the duchess of Fife " Princess 
Royal " a life dignity. The dignities of prince of Wales, 
earl marshal and lord great chamberlain have been creation* 
for centuries hereditary, and though of high court and must be 
social precedence, of themselves confer no right to according 
a. seat in the House of Lords they are not peerages. 
The grant of a peerage is a very different matter; its holder 
becomes thereby a member of the Upper House of Parlia- 
ment, and therefore the prerogative of the Crown in creat- 
ing such an office of honour must be exercised strictly in 
accordance with the law of the land. The Crown's prerogative 
is limited in several directions. The course of descent must be 
known to the law; and so, in the first place, it follows that a peer 
cannot be created for life with a denial of succession to his 
descendants (unless it be as one of the lords of appeal in ordinary 
under the acts of 1876 and 1887). The courses of descent of 
modern patents are invariably so marked out as ultimately 
to fix the peerage in some male line according to the custom of 
primogeniture, though the immediate successor of the first holder 
may be a woman or even a stranger in blood. The following 
instances may be cited; Amabell, Baroness Lucas, was in 1816 
created Countess de Grey with a limitation to the heirs-male of 
her sister; a nephew afterwards succeeded her and the earldom 
is now held by the marquess of Ripon. Other courses of descent 
known to the law are as follows: Fee simple, which probably 
operates as if to heirs-general, earldoms of Oxford (1155) and 
Norfolk (1135), both probably now in abeyance; and Bedford 
(1367), extinct; to a second son, the eldest being alive, dukedom 
of Dover (1708), extinct, and earldom of Cromartie (1861) called 
out of abeyance in 1895; a son-in-law and his heirs-male by the 
daughter of the first grantee, earldom of Northumberland (1747) ; 
to an elder daughter and her heirs-male, earldom of Roberts 
(1901); to an elder or younger brother and his heirs-male, 
viscounty of Kitchener (1902) and barony of Grimthorpe (1886). 
It is, however, not lawful for the Crown to make what is called 
a shifting limitation to a peerage, i.e. one which might vest a 
peerage in an individual, and then on a certain event happening 
(e.g. his succession to a peerage of higher rank) shift it from him 
to the representative of some other line. Such a limitation 
was held illegal in the Buckhurst case (1864). A peerage may 
not be limited to the grantee and " his heirs-male for ever." 
Such a grant was that of the earldom of Wiltes in 1398. The 
original grantee died without issue, but left a male heir-at-law, 
whose descendants in 1869 claimed the earldom, but the original 
limitation was held invalid. 

There is no limitation on the power of the Crown as to the 
number of United Kingdom peerages which may be created. 
As to Scotland, the Act of Union with that country operates to 
prevent any increase in the number of Scottish peerages, and 
consequently there have been no creations since 1707, with the 
result that the Scottish peerage, as a separate order, is gradually 
approaching extinction. The Irish peerage is supposed always 
to consist of one hundred exclusively Irish peers, and the Crown 
has power to grant Irish peerages up to the limit. When the 
limit is reached no more peerages may be granted until existing 
ones become extinct or their holders succeed to United Kingdom 
peerages. Only four lords of appeal in ordinary may hold 
office at any one time. The number of archbishops and bishops 
capable of sitting in the House of Lords is fixed by various 
statutes at twenty-six, but, as pointed out previously, the 
spiritual lords are not now regarded as peers. 

Since party government became the rule, the new peerages have 
usually been created on the recommendation of the prime 
minister of the day, though the Crown, especially 
in considering the claims of royal blood, is believed /v>in*ers? 
in some instances to take its own course; and 
constitutionally such action is entirely legal. By far the 
greater number of peerage honours granted during the last 
two centuries have been rewards for political services. Usually 
these services are well known, but there exists several instances 
in which_ the reasons for conferring the honour have not been 
quite clear. Until the reign of George III. the peerage was 



comparatively small, but that monarch issued no fewer than 
388 patents of peerage. Many of these have become extinct 
or obscured by higher titles, but the general tendency is in the 
direction of a steady increase, and where the peers of Tudor times 
might be counted by tens their successors of 1910 were numbered 
in hundreds. The full body would be 546 English peers. 
There are also 12 ladies holding English peerages. The Irish 
peerage has 175 members, but 82 of these are also peers of the 
United Kingdom, leaving 28 representative and 65 without 
seats in the House of Lords. Of 87 Scottish peers 51 hold United 
Kingdom peerages, the remainder consisting of 16 representative 
and 20 without seats. 

As centuries have gone by and customs changed, many 
privileges once keenly asserted have either dropped out of 

use or been forgotten. The most important now 
at Peerage m being are a seat in the House of Lords and the 

right to trial by peers. The right to a seat in 
parliament is one sanctioned by centuries of constitutional 
usage. The right of a peer in England to a seat in parliament 
was not, as pointed out in the early part of this article, entirely 
admitted by the Crown until late in the Plantagenet period, 
the king's pleasure as to whom he should summon always 
having been a very material factor in the question. Charles I. 
made a deliberate attempt to recover the ancient discretion 
of the Crown in the issue of writs of summons. The earl of 
Bristol was the subject of certain treasonable charges, and 
though he was never put on his trial the king directed that 
his writ of summons should not issue. The excluded peer 
petitioned the Lords, as for a breach of privilege, and a com- 
mittee to whom the matter was referred reported that there 
was no instance on record in which a peer capable of sitting in 
parliament had been refused his writ. There was a little delay, 
but the king eventually gave in, and the earl had his writ 
(Lords Journals, iii. 544). 

At the beginning of a new parliament every peer entitled 
receives a writ of summons issued under the authority of the 
Great Seal; he presents his writ at the table of the House of 
Lords on his first attendance, and before taking the oath. If 
the peer be newly created he presents his letters-patent creating 
the peerage to the lord chancellor on the woolsack, together 
with the writ of summons which the patent has evoked. A 
peer on succession presents his writ in 'the ordinary way, the 
Journals recording, e.g. that Thomas Walter, Viscount Hampden, 
sat first in Parliament after the death of his father (Lords 
Journals, cxxxix. 4). The form of writ now issued (at the 
beginning of a parliament: for the variation when parliament 
is sitting see Lords Journals, cxxxix. 185) corresponds closely 
to that in use so long ago as the i4th century. It runs as 

George the Fifth by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of 
Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond 
the seas King Defender of the Faith to our right trusty and well- 
beloved Greeting Whereas by the advice and consent of our Council 
for certain arduous and urgent affairs concerning us the state and 
the defence of our said United Kingdom and the Church we have 
ordered a certain Parliament to be holden at our City of Westminster 
on the . . . day of ... next ensuing and there to treat and 
have conference with the prelates great men and peers of our realm 
We strictly enjoining command you upon the faith and allegiance 
by which you are bound to us that the weightiness of the said 
affairs and imminent perils considered (waiving all excuses) you be. 
at the said day and place personally present with us and with the 
said prelates great men and peers to treat and give your counsel 
upon the affairs aforesaid. And this as you regard us and our 
honour and the safety and defence of the said United Kingdom 
and_Church and despatch of the said affairs in no wise do you omit. 

Formerly all peers were required to attend parliament, and 
there are numerous recorded instances of special grants of leave 
of absence, but nowadays there is no compulsion. 

After the right to a summons the principal privilege possessed 
n. TW j by a peer is his right to be tried by his peers on a 

rcers l rteu ... , . . 

by Peer*. charge of treason or felony. Whatever the origin 

of this right, and some writers date it back to 

Saxon times (Trial of Lord Morley, 1678, State Trials vii. 

145), Magna Carta has always been regarded as its con- 
firmatory authority. The important words are: 

" nullus liber homo capiatur imprisonetur aut disseisiatur de libero 
tenemento suo vel libertatibus seu liberis consuetudinibus suis, 
aut utlagetur aut exuletur nee aliquo modo distruatur nee dominus 
rex super ipsum ibit nee super eum mittet nisi per legale judicium 
parium suorum vel per legem terrae." 

The peers have always strongly insisted on this privilege 
of trial by their own order, and several times the heirs of those 
wrongly condemned recovered their rights and heritage on the 
ground that there had been no proper trial by peers (R.D.P., 
v. 24). In 1442 the privilege received parliamentary con- 
firmation (stat. 20 Henry VI. c. 9). If parliament is sitting 
the trial takes place before the House of Lords in full session, 
i.e. the court of our lord the king in parliament, if not then 
before the court of the lord high steward. The office of lord 
high steward was formerly hereditary, but has not been so for 
centuries and is now only granted pro hoc vice. When necessity 
arises the Crown issues a special commission naming some peer 
(usually the lord chancellor) lord high steward pro hoc vice 
(Blackstone's Comm. iv. 258). When a trial takes place in 
full parliament a lord high steward is also appointed, but his 
powers there are confined to the presidency of the court, all 
the peers sitting as judges of law as well as of fact. Should 
the lord high steward be sitting as a court out of parliament 
he summons a number of peers to attend as a jury, but rules 
alone on all points of law and practice, the peers present being 
judges of fact only. Whichever kind of trial is in progress it 
is the invariable practice to summon all the judges to attend 
and advise on points of law. The distinction between the two 
tribunals was fully discussed and recognized in 1760 (Trial of 
Earl Ferrers, Foster's Criminal Cases, 139) . The most recent trial 
was that of Earl Russell for bigamy (reported 1901, A.C. 446). 
Among others are the Kilmarnock, Cromarty and Balmerino 
treason trials in parliament in 1746 (State Trials xviii. 441), and 
in the court of the lord high steward, Lord Morley (treason, 1666, 
State Trials vi. 777), Lord Cornwallis (murder, 1678 State 
Trials vii. 145), Lord Delamere (1686, treason, State Trials xi. 
510). Recently some doubt has been expressed as to the 
origin of the court of the lord high steward. It is said that 
the historical document upon which the practice is founded 
is a forgery. The conflicting views are set forth in Vernon 
Harcourt's His Grace the Steward and Trial of Peers, p. 429, 
and in Pike's Constitutional History of the House of Lords, p. 213. 
In any case, whatever its historical origin, the court for 
centuries as a matter of fact has received full legal recognition 
as part of the constitution. The right to trial By peers 
extends only to cases of treason and felony, and not to those 
of misdemeanour; nor can it be waived by any peer (Co. 3 
Inst. 29; Kelyng's Rep. 56). In the case of R. v. Lord Graves 
(1887), discussed in Hansard's Parliamentary Debates, 3rd series, 
vol. cccx. p. 246, Lord Halsbury points out that the question 
of trial by peers is one of jurisdiction established by law rather 
than a claim of privilege in the discretion of the accused. 
Scottish and Irish peers, whether possessing seats in the House 
of Lords or not, are entitled to trial by peers, the same procedure 
being followed as in the case of members of the House of Lords. 

Peers with a seat in the House of Lords possess practically 
the same parliamentary privileges as do members of the House 
of Commons. Among other privileges peculiar to themselves 
they have the right of personal access to the sovereign (Anson's 
Law of the Constitution, i. 227). In the House of Lords, 
when a resolution is passed contrary to his sentiments, any peer, 
by leave of the house, may " protest," that is, enter his dissent 
on the journals of the house (Blackstone, Comm. i. 162). 
Formerly a peer might vote by proxy (Blackstone, ibid.), but 
since 1868 there has been a standing order discontinuing this 
right. In accordance with resolutions passed by the two 
houses, neither house has power by any vote or declaration 
to clothe itself with new privileges unknown to the law and 
customs of parliament (Commons Journal, xiv. 555). Peeresses 
and non-representative peers of Ireland and Scotland have, 



with the exception of the right to sit in the House of Lords and 
its attendant parliamentary privileges, every peerage privilege: 
a widowed peeress retains her privilege of peerage while un- 
married, but loses it if she marries a commoner (Co. Litt. 166; 
Cowley v. Cowley [1901] A.C. 450). Dissolution of marriage 
probably deprives a peeress of all peerage privileges which she 
acquired by marriage. 

The children of peers are commoners. The eldest son of a peer 
of the rank of earl (and above) is usually known socially by the 
Position of name f n ' s father's next peerage, but the courtesy 
Families of nature f such title is clearly indicated in every public 
Peers or ' e S a ' document, the phraseology employed being 

" John Smith, Esq., commonly known as Viscount 
Blackacre." Several cases are on record in which peers' eldest 
sons have actually borne courtesy titles not possessed as peerage 
honours by their fathers, but inasmuch as such are only accorded 
by courtesy, no question of peerage privilege arises. The yoifnger 
sons of dukes and marquesses are entitled to the prefix Lord " 
before their Christian names, and all the daughters of earls as well 
as of dukes and marquesses are entitled similarly to style them- 
selves " Lady," on the principle that all the daughters are equal 
in rank and precedence. The younger sons of earls and all the 
younger children of viscounts and barons are entitled to the prefix 

Honourable." Usually when the direct heir of a peer dies his 
children are given, by the Crown, on the death of the peer, the 
courtesy titles and precedence they would have enjoyed had their 
father actually succeeded to the peerage. 

An alien may be created a peer, but while remaining an alien 
cannot sit in the House of Lords, nor, if a Scottish or Irish peer, 
can he vote at elections for representative peers. Peer- 
01 ages may be created (l) by writ of summons, (2) by 
Peerages, patent. The writ of summons method is not now used 
except in the case of calling up an eldest son in the barony of his 
father. This does not create a new peerage but only accelerates 
the heir's appearance in the House of Lords. On the father's 
death the peerage remains vested in the son. Should the son die 
without heir the peerage revests in the father. The invariable 
method of creation in all ordinary cases is by patent. The letters 
patent describe the name of the dignity, the person upon whom it 
is conferred, and specify its course of descent. 

Claims to peerages are of two kinds: (l) of right, (2) of grace. 
In theory the Crown, as the fountain of honour, might settle any 
claim without reference to the House of Lords and 
* issue a writ of summons to its petitioner. This would 
Peerages. not m any wa y prevent the House of Lords from 
examining the patent and writ of summons when the favoured 
petitioner or any heir claiming through him came to take his 
seat. If of opinion that the patent was illegal the house might 
refuse admittance, as it did in the Wensleydale case. In the case 
of a petitioner who has persuaded the Crown to terminate in his 
favour as a co-heir the abeyance of an ancient barony and who 
has received his writ of summons, the matter is more difficult. 
The house cannot refuse to admit any person properly summoned 
by the Crown, as the prerogative is unlimited in point of numbers; 
but it can take into account the precedence of the newcomer. If 
he has an old barony he naturally expects its proper place on the 
bench of barons; but if the house thought fit they might compel 
him to prove his pedigree before according any precedence. If 
he refused to do this they would still be bound to admit him, but 
it would be as the junior baron of the house with a peerage dating, 
for parliamentary purposes, from the day of his summons. The 
general result is that the Crown, unless there can be no question 
as to pedigree, seldom terminates an abeyance without referring 
the matter to the House of Lords, and invariably so refers all 
claims which are disputed or which involve any question of law. 1 
The procedure is as follows: The claimant petitions the Crown 
through the home secretary, setting forth his pedigree and stating 
the nature of his claim. The Crown then refers the petition to its 
legal adviser, the attorney-general. The petitioner then in course 
of time appears before the attorney-general with his proofs. Finally 
the attorney-general reports that a prima facie case is, or is not, made 
out. If a case be made out, the Crown, if it does not take immediate 
action, refers the whole matter to the House of Lords, who pass it on 
to their Committee for Privileges for examination and report. 

The Committee for Privileges, which for peerage claims is usually 
constituted of the law lords and one or two other lords interested 
Committee m peerage history, sits as an ordinary court of justice 
forPrlvl- an follows all the rules of law and evidence. The 
leges. attorney-general attends as adviser to the committee 

and to watch the interests of the Crown. According to 
the nature of the case the Committee reports to the house, and 
the house to the Crown, that the petitioner (if successful) (l) has 
made out his claim and is entitled to a writ of summons, or (2) 

1 This was not done in the case of the earldom of Cromartie 
called out of abeyance in 1895. The holder of the title being a 
lady the house has had, as yet, no opportunity of considering the 
validity of the Crown's action. 

has proved his co-heirship to an existing peerage, and has also 
proved the descent of all existing co-heirs. In the first case the 
writ of summons is issued forthwith, but the second, being one of 
abeyance, is a matter for the pleasure of the Crown, which need 
not be exercised at all, but, if exercised, may terminate the abeyance 
in favour of any one of the co-heirs. The seniority of a co-heir 
(though this alone is of little moment), his power to support the 
dignity, and the number of existing co-heirs, are all factors which 
count in the chances of success. 

Reference has already been made in the earlier part of this article 
to the reply of Bishop Peter de Roches to the English barons 
who claimed trial by their peers, and, as was suggested Peers ol 
the bishop probably had in his mind the peers of France. France 
Possibly the word pares, as eventually used in England, 
was borrowed from this source, but this is uncertain. The great 
men known originally as the twelve pairs de France, were the feudal 
holders of large territories under the nominal sway of the king of 
France. They were the (archbishop) duke of Rheims, the (bishop) 
dukes of Langres and Laon, the (bishop) counts of Beauvais, Noyon 
and Chalons, the dukes of Burgundy, Normandy and Aquitaine, 
and the counts of Flanders, Toulouse and Champagne. These 
magnates, nominally feudatories, were practically independent 
rulers, and their position can in no way be compared to that of 
the English baronage. It is said that this body of peers was in- 
stituted in the reign of Philip Augustus, though some writers even 
ascribe its origin to Charlemagne. Some of the peers were present 
at Philip's coronation in 1179, and later again at the alleged trial 
of John of England when his fief of Normandy, was adjudged 
forfeit to the French Crown. 

As the central power of the French kings grew, the various fiefs 
lost their independence and became united to the Crown, with the 
exception of Flanders which passed into the hands of the emperor 
Charles V. In the I4th century the custom arose for the sovereign 
to honour his more important nobles by granting them the title 
of Peer of France. At first the grant was confined to the royal 
dukes, but later it was conferred on others, amongst whom late 
in the 1 7th century appears the archbishop of Paris. To several 
counties and baronies the honour of a peerage was added, but 
most of these eventually became reunited with the Crown. As a 
legislative body a chamber of peers in France was first founded 
by Louis XVIII. in 1814; it was hereditary anrt modelled on the 
English House of Lords. The revolution of 1830 reduced its 
hereditary quality to life tenure, and in the troubles of 1848 the 
chamber itself finally disappeared. 

Austria, Hungary and Portugal are other countries possessing 
peerages which to some extent follow the English model , In 
Austria there is a large hereditary nobility and those other 
members of it in whose families the legislative dignity Peerages 
is hereditary by nomination of the emperor sit in the 
Herrenhaus or Austrian Upper Chamber, together with certain pre- 
lates and a large number of nominated life-members. In Hungary 
all those nobles who possess the right of hereditary peerage (as 
admitted by the act of 1885 and subsequent acts) and who pay 
a land tax of certain value, are members of the House of Magnates, 
of which they form a large majority, the remainder of the mem- 
bers being Roman Catholic prelates, representatives of Protestant 
churches and life peers. In Portugal until recent years the House 
of Peers was an hereditary body,, but it is now practically a 
chamber of life-peers. (G. E.) 

PEERLKAMP, PETRUS HOFMAN (1786-1865), Dutch 
classical scholar and critic, descended from a family of French 
refugees named Perlechamp, was born at Groningen on the 
and of February 1786. He was professor of ancient literature 
and universal history at Leiden from 1822 to 1849, when 
he resigned his post and retired to Hilversum near Utrecht, 
where he died on the 27th of March 1865. He was the founder 
of the subjective method of textual criticism, which consisted 
in rejecting in a classical author whatever failed to come up to 
the standard of what that author, in the critic's opinion, ought to 
have written. His ingenuity in this direction, in which he went 
much farther than Bentley, was chiefly exercised on the Odes 
of Horace (the greater part of which he declared spurious), 
and the Aeneid of Virgil. He also edited the Ars poetica and 
Satires of Horace, the Agricola of Tacitus, the romance of 
Xenophon of Ephesus, and was the author of a history of the 
Latin poets of the Netherlands (De vita, doctrina, et facilitate 
N ederlandorum qui carmina latino, composuerunt, 1838). 

See L. M tiller, Gesch. der klassischen Philologie in den Niederlanden 
(1869), and J. E. Sandys, Hist, of Class. Schol. (1908), iii. 276. 

Russian novelist, was born on his father's estate, in the province 
of Kostroma, on the ioth/22nd of March 1820. In his auto- 
biography he describes his family as belonging to the ancient 


Russian nobility, but his more immediate progenitors were all 
very poor, and unable to read or write. His grandfather 
ploughed the fields as a simple peasant, and his father, as 
Peesemsky himself said, was washed and clothed by a rich 
relative, and placed as a soldier in the army, from which he retired 
as a major after thirty years' service. During childhood 
Peesemsky read eagerly the translated works of Walter Scott 
and Victor Hugo, and later those of Shakespeare, Schiller, 
Goethe, Rousseau, Voltaire and George Sand. From the 
gymnasium of Kostroma he passed through Moscow University, 
and in 1884 entered the government service as a clerk in the 
office of the Crown domains in his native province. Between 
1854 and 1872, when he finally quitted the civil service, he 
occupied similar posts in St Petersburg and Moscow. His 
early works exhibit a profound disbelief in the higher qualities 
of humanity, and a disdain for the other sex, although he appears 
to have been attached to a particularly devoted and sensible 
wife. His first novel, Boyarstchina, was forbidden for its 
unflattering description of the Russian nobility. His principal 
novels are Tufak ("A Muff"), 1850; Teesicha doush ("A 
Thousand Souls "), 1862, which is considered his best work of 
the kind; and Vzbalomoucheneoe more (" A Troubled Sea "), 
giving a picture of the excited state of Russian society about 
the year 1862. He also produced a comedy, Gorkaya soudbina 
(" A Bitter Fate "), depicting the dark sides of the Russian 
peasantry, which obtained for him the Ouvaroff prize of the 
Russian Academy. In 1856 he was sent, together with other 
literary men, to report on the ethnographical and commercial 
condition of the Russian interior, his particular field of inquiry 
having been Astrakhan and the region of the Caspian Sea. 
His scepticism in regard to the liberal reforms of the 'sixties 
made him very unpopular among the more progressive writers 
of that time. He died at Moscow on the 2nd of February 1881 
(Jan. 21, Russian style). 

PEGASUS (from Gr. Tnjybs, compact, strong), the famous 
winged horse of Greek fable, said to have sprung from the trunk 
of the Gorgon Medusa when her head was cut off by Perseus. 
Belleropbon caught him as he drank of the spring Peirene on 
the Acrocorinthus at Corinth, or received him tamed and 
bridled at the hands of Athena (Pindar, 01. xiii. 63; Pausanias 
ii. 4). Mounted on Pegasus, Bellerophon slew the Chimaera 
and overcame the Solymi and the Amazons, but when he tried 
to fly to heaven on the horse's back he threw him and continued 
his heavenward course (Apollodorus ii. 3). Arrived in heaven, 
Pegasus served Zeus, fetching for him his thunder and lightning 
(Hesiod, Theog. 281). Hence some have thought that Pegasus 
is a symbol of the thundercloud. According to O. Gruppe 
(Griechische Mythologie, i. 75, r23) Pegasus, like Arion the 
fabled offspring of Demeter and Poseidon, was a curse-horse, 
symbolical of the rapidity with which curses were fulfilled. In 
later legend he is the horse of Eos, the morning. The erroneous 
derivation from 70^17, " a spring of water," may have given 
birth to the legends which connect Pegasus with water; e.g. 
that his father was Poseidon, that he was born at the springs 
of Ocean, and that he had the power of making springs rise 
from the ground by a blow of his hoof. When Mt Helicon, 
enchanted by the song of the Muses, began to rise to heaven, 
Pegasus stopped its ascent by stamping on the ground (Antoninus 
Liberalis 9), and where he struck the earth Hippocrene (horse- 
spring), the fountain of the Muses, gushed forth (Pausanias 
ii. 31, ix. 31). But there are facts that speak for an independent 
mythological connexion between horses and water, e.g. the 
sacredness of the horse to Poseidon, the epithets Hippios and 
Equester applied to Poseidon and Neptune, the Greek fable 
of the origin of the first horse (produced by Poseidon striking 
the ground with his trident), and the custom in Argolis of 
sacrificing horses to Poseidon by drowning them in a well. 
From his connexion with Hippocrene Pegasus has come to be 
regarded as the horse of the Muses and hence as a symbol of 
poetry. But this is a modern attribute of Pegasus, not known 
to the ancients, and dating only from the Orlando innamorato 
of Boiardo. 

See monograph by F. Hannig, Breslauer philologische Abhand- 
lungen (1902), vol. viii., pt. 4. 

PEGAU, a town of Germany, in the kingdom of Saxony, 
situated in a fertile country, on the Elster, 18 m. S.W. from 
Leipzig by the railway to Zeitz. Pop. (1905), 5656. It has 
two Evangelical churches, that of St Lawrence being a fine 
Gothic structure, a 16th-century town-hall; a very old hospital 
and an agricultural school. Its industries embrace the manu- 
facture of felt, boots and metal wares. 

Pegau grew up round a monastery founded in 1096, but does 
not appear as a town before the close of the I2th century. 
Markets were held here and its prosperity was further enhanced 
by its position on a main road running east and west. In the 
monastery, which was dissolved in 1539, a valuable chronicle 
was compiled, the Annales pegatiienses, covering the period 
from 1039 to 1227. 

See Filssel, Anfang und Ende des Klosters St Jacob zu Pegau 
(Leipzig, 1857) ; and Dillner, Grossel and Gunther, Altes und neues 
aus Pegau (Leipzig, 1905). The Annales pegavienses are published 
in Bd. XVI. of the Monumenta Germaniae historica. Scriptores. 

PEGMATITE (from Gr. Tnjyua, a bond), the name given by 
Haiiy to those masses of graphic granite which frequently occur 
in veins. They consist of quartz and alkali feldspars in crystalline 
intergrowth (see PETROLOGY, Plate II. fig. 6). The term was 
subsequently used by Naumann to signify also the coarsely 
crystalline veins rich in quartz, feldspar and muscovite, which 
often in great numbers ramify through outcrops of granite and 
the surrounding locks. This application of the name has now 
obtained general acceptance, and has been extended by many 
authors to include vein-rocks of similar structure and geological 
relationships, which occur with syenites, diorites and gabbros. 
Only a few of these pegmatites have graphic structure or mutual 
intergrowth of their constituents. Many of them are exceedingly 
coarse-grained; in granite-pegmatites the feldspars may be 
several feet or even yards in diameter, and other minerals such 
as apatite and tourmaline often occur in gigantic crystals. Peg- 
matites consist of minerals which are found also in the rocks 
from which they are derived, e.g. granite-pegmatites contain 
principally quartz and feldspar while gabbro-pegmatites 
consist of diallage and plagioclase. Rare minerals, however, 
often occur in these veins in exceptional amount and as very 
perfect crystals. The minerals of the pegmatites are always 
those which were last to separate out from the parent rock. 
As the basic minerals are the first formed the pegmatites contain 
a larger proportion of the acid or more siliceous components 
which were of later origin. In granite-pegmatites there is little 
hornblende, biotite or sphene, but white mica, feldspar and quartz 
make up the greater part of the veins. In gabbro-pegmatites 
olivine seldom occurs, but diallage and plagioclase occur in 
abundance. In this respect the pegmatites and aplites agree; 
both are of more acid types than the average rock from which 
they came, but the pegmatites are coarsely crystalline while 
the aplites are fine-grained. Segregations of the early minerals 
of a rock are frequent as nodules, lumps and streaks scattered 
through its mass, and often dikes of basic character (lampro- 
phyres, &c.) are injected into the surrounding country. These 
have been grouped together as intrusions of melanocrate facies 
(/wXaj, black, Kp&ros, strength, predominance) because in 
them the dark basic minerals preponderate. The aplites and 
pegmatites, on the other hand, are leucocrate (Xew6s, white), 
since they are of acid character and contain relatively large 
amounts of the white minerals quartz and feldspar. 

Pegmatites are associated with plutonic or intrusive rocks and 
were evidently formed by slow crystallization at considerable 
depths below the surface: nothing similar to them is known 
in lavas. They are very characteristic of granites, especially 
those which contain muscovite and much alkali feldspar; in 
gabbros, diorites and syenites piegmatite dikes are comparatively 
rare. The coarsely crystalline structure may be ascribed to 
slow crystallization; and is partly the result of the rocks, in 
which the veins lie, having been at a high temperature when the 
minerals of the pegmatites separated out. In accordance 
with this we find that pegmatite veins are nearly always restricted 



to the area occupied by the parent rock (e.g. the granite), or 
to its immediate vicinity, and within the zone which has been 
greatly heated by the plutonic intrusion, viz. the contact aureole. 
Another very important factor in producing the coarse crystal- 
lization of the pegmatite veins is the presence of abundant 
water vapour and other gases which served as mineralizing 
agents and facilitated the building together of the rock molecules 
in large crystalline individuals. 

Proof that these vapours were important agents in the forma- 
tion of pegmatites is afforded by many of the minerals con- 
tained in the veins. Boron, fluorine, hydrogen, chlorine and 
other volatile substances are essential components of some of 
these minerals. Thus tourmaline, which contains boron and 
fluorine, may be common in the pegmatites but rare in the 
granite itself. Fluorine or chlorine are present in apatite, 
another frequent ingredient of granite pegmatites. Muscovite 
and gilbertite both contain hydrogen and fluorine; topaz is 
rich in fluorine also and all of these are abundant in some 
pegmatites. The stimulating effect which volatile substances 
exert on crystallizing molten masses is well known to experi- 
mental geologists who, by mixing tungstates and fluorides with 
fused powders, have been able to produce artificial minerals 
which they could not otherwise obtain. Most pegmatites are 
truly igneous rocks so far as their composition goes, but in their 
structure they show relations to the aqueous mineral veins. 
Many of them for example have a comby structure, that is to 
say, their minerals are columnar and stand perpendicular to the 
walls of the fissure occupied by the vein. Sometimes they have 
a banding owing to successive deposits having been laid down 
of different character; mica may be external, then feldspar, and 
in the centre a leader or string of pure quartz. In pegmatite 
veins also there are very frequently cavities or vugs, which are 
lined by crystals with very perfect faces. These bear much 
resemblance to the miarolitic or drusy cavities common in 
granite, and like them were probably filled with the residual 
liquid which was left over after the mineral substances were 
deposited in crystals. 

Pegmatites are very irregular not only in distribution, width 
and persistence, but also in composition. The relative abun- 
dance of the constituent minerals may differ rapidly and much 
from point to point. Sometimes they are rich in mica, in 
enormous crystals for which the rock is mined or quarried 
(India). Other pegmatites are nearly pure feldspar, while others 
are locally (especially near their terminations) very full of 
quartz. They may in fact pass into quartz veins (alaskites) 
some of which are auriferous (N. America). Quartz veins of 
another type are very largely developed, especially in regions 
of slate and phyllite; they are produced by segregation of 
dissolved silica from the country rock and its concentration 
into cracks produced by stretching of the rock masses during 
folding. In these segregation veins, especially when the beds 
are of feldspathic nature, crystals of albite and orthoclase may 
appear, in large or small quantity. In this v/ay a second type 
of pegmatite (segregation pegmatite) is formed which is very 
difficult to distinguish from true igneous veins. These two 
have, however, much in common as regards the conditions 
under which they were formed. Great pressures, presence of 
water, and a high though not necessarily very high temperature 
were the principal agencies at work. 

Granite pegmatites are laid down after their parent mass had 
solidified and while it was cooling down: sometimes they contain 
such minerals as garnet, not found in the main mass, and showing 
that the temperature of crystallization was comparatively low. 
Another special feature of these veins is the presence of minerals 
containing precious metals or rare earths. Gold occurs in not a few 
cases; tin in others, while sulphides such as copper pyrites are found 
also. Beryl is the commonest of the minerals of the second group : 
spodumene is another example, and there is much reason to hold 
that diamond is a native of some of the pegmatites of Brazil and 
India, though this is not yet incontestably proved. The syenite- 
pegmatites of south Norway are remarkable both for their coarse 
crystallization and for the great number of rare rfiinerals they have 
yielded. Among these may be mentioned laavenite, rinkite, rosen- 
buschite, mosandrite, pyrochlore, perofskite and lamprophyllite. 

(J. S. F. 

PEGNITZ, a river of Germany. It rises near Lindenhard 
in Upper Franconia (Bavaria) from two sources. At first it 
is called the Fichtenohe, but at Buchau it takes the name of the 
Pegnitz, and flowing in a south-westerly direction disappears 
below the small town of Pegnitz in a mountain cavern. It 
emerges through three orifices, enters Middle Franconia, and 
after flowing through the heart of the city of Nuremberg falls 
into the Regnitz at Furth. 

See Specht, Das Pegnitzgebiet in Bezug auf seinen Wasserhaushalt 
(Munich, 1905). 

The Pegnitz Order (Order of the society of Pegnitz shepherds), 
also known as " the crowned flower order on the Pegnitz," was 
one of the societies founded in Germany in the course of the I7th 
century for the purification and improvement of the German 
language, especially in the domain of poetry. Georg Philipp 
Harsdorffer and Johann Klaj instituted the order in Nuremberg 
in 1644, and named it after the river. Its emblem was the passion 
flower with Pan's pipes, and the motto Mil Nutzen erfreulich, 
or Alle zu einem Ton einslimmig. The members set themselves 
the task of counteracting the pedantry of another school of 
poetry by imagination and gaiety, but lacking imagination 
and broad views they took refuge in allegorical subjects and 
puerile trifling. The result was to debase rather than to raise 
the standard of poetic art in Germany. At first the meetings 
of the order were held in private grounds, but in 1681 they were 
transferred to a forest near Kraftshof or Naunhof. In 1794 
the order was reorganized, and it now exists merely as a literary 

See Tittman, Die niirnberger Dichterschule (Gottingen, 1847); 
and the Festschrift zur 2$o-jahrigen Jubelfeier des pegnesischen 
Blumenordens (Nuremberg, 1894). 

Florentine merchant and writer, was a factor in the service 
of the mercantile house of the Bardi, and in this capacity we 
find him at Antwerp from 1315 (or earlier) to 1317; in London 
in 1317 and apparently for some time after; in Cyprus from 
1324 to 1327, and again (or perhaps in unbroken continuation 
of his former residence) in 1335. In this last year he obtained 
from the king of Little Armenia (i.e. medieval Cilicia, &c.) a grant 
of privileges for Florentine trade. Between 1335 and 1343, 
probably in 1339-1340, he compiled his Libra di divisamenti 
di paesi e di misuri di mercalanzie e d'altre cose bisognevoli di 
sapere a' mercatanti, commonly known as the Pratica delta 
mercatura (the name given it by Pagnini). Beginning with a 
sort of glossary of foreign terms then in use for all kinds of taxes 
or payments on merchandise as well as for " every kind of place 
where goods might be bought or sold in cities," the Pralica 
next describes some of the chief trade routes of the i4th century, 
and many of the principal markets then known to Italian 
merchants; the imports and exports of various important 
commercial regions; the business customs prevalent in each of 
those regions; and the comparative value of the leading moneys, 
weights and measures. The most distant and extensive trade 
routes described by Pegolotti are: (i) that from Tana or Azov 
to Peking via Astrakhan, Khiva, Otrar, Kulja and Kanchow 
(Gittarchan, Organci, Ottrarre, Armalecco and Camexu in the 
Pratica); (2) that from Lajazzo on the Cilician coast to Tabriz 
in north Persia via Sivas, Erzingan and Erzerum (Salvastro, 
Arzinga and Arzerone); (3) that from Trebizond to Tabriz. 
Among the markets enumerated are: Tana, Constantinople, 
Alexandria, Damietta, and the ports of Cyprus and the Crimea. 
Pegolotti's notices of ports on the north of the Black Sea are very 
valuable; his works show us that Florentine exports had now 
gained a high reputation in the Levant. In other chapters 
an account is given of 14th-century methods of packing goods 
(ch. 29); of assaying gold and silver (ch. 35); of shipment; 
of "London in England in itself" (ch. 62); of monasteries 
in Scotland and England (" Scotland of England," Scozia di 
Inghilterra) that were rich in wool (ch. 63). Among the latter 
are Newbattle, Balmerino, Cupar, Dunfermline, Dundrennan, 
Glenluce, Coldingham, Kelso, Newminster near Morpeth, 
Furness, Fountains, Kirkstall, Kirstead, Swineshead, Sawley 


and Calder. Pegolotti's interest in England and Scotland is 
chiefly connected with the wool trade. 

There is only one MS. of the Pratica, viz. No. 2441 in the Riccar- 
dian Library at Florence (241 fob., occupying the whole volume), 
written in 1471 ; and one edition of the text, in vol. iii. of Gian 
Francesco Pagnini's Delia Decima e delle altre gravezze impaste dal 
commune di Firenze (Lisbon and Lucca really Florence -1766) ; 
Sir Henry Yule, Cathay, ii. 279-308, translated into English the 
most interesting sections of Pegolotti, with valuable commentary 
(London, Hakluyt Society, 1866). See also W. Heyd, Commerce 
du Levant, ii., 12, 50, 58, 78-79, 85-86, 112-119 (Leipzig, 1886); H. 
Kiepert, in Silzungsberichte der philos.-hist. Cl. der berliner Akad., 
p. 901, &c. (Berlin, 1881); C. R. Beazley, Dawn of Modern 
Geography, iii. 324-332, 550, 555 (Oxford, 1906). 

PEGU, a town and former capital of Lower Burma, giving 
its name to a district and a division. The town is situated 
on a river of the same name, 47 m. N.E. of Rangoon by rail; 
pop. (1901), 14,132. It is still surrounded by the old walls, 
about 40 ft. wide, on which have been built the residences of 
the British officials. The most conspicuous object is the Shwe- 
maw-daw pagoda, 324 ft. high, considerably larger and even 
more holy than the Shwe-dagon pagoda at Rangoon. Pegu 
is said to have been founded in 573, as the first capital of the 
Takings; but it was as the capital of the Toungoo dynasty 
that it became known to Europeans in the i6th century. About 
the middle of the i8th century it was destroyed by Alompra; 
but it rose again, and was important enough to be the scene 
of fighting in both the first and second Burmese Wars. It gave 
its name to the province (including Rangoon) which was annexed 
by the British in 1852. 

The district, which was formed in 1883, consists of an alluvial 
tract between the Pegu Yoma range and the Sittang river: 
area, 4276 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 339,572, showing an increase of 
43% in the decade. Christians numbered nearly 9000, mostly 
Karens. Almost the only crop grown is rice, which is exported 
in large quantities to Rangoon. The district is traversed by 
the railway, and also crossed by the Pegu-Sittang canal, navi- 
gable for 85 m., with locks. 

The division of Pegu comprises the five districts of Rangoon 
city, Hanthawaddy, Tharrawaddy, Pegu and Prome, lying east 
of the Irrawaddy: area 13,084 sq. m.; pop. (1901), 1,820,638. 

Pegu has also given its name to the Pegu Yoma, a range of hills 
running north and south for about 200 m., between the Irrawaddy 
and Sittang rivers. The height nowhere exceeds 2000 ft. 
but the slopes are steep and rugged. The forests yield teak 
and other valuable timber. The Pegu river, which rises in 
this range, falls into the Rangoon river just below Rangoon 
city, after a course of about 180 m. 

PEILE, JOHN (1838-1910), English philologist, was born 
at Whitehaven on the 24th of April 1838. He" was educated at 
Repton and Christ's College, Cambridge. After a distinguished 
career (Craven scholar, senior classic and chancellor's medallist), 
he became fellow and tutor of his college, reader of comparative 
philology in the university (1884-1891), and in 1887 was elected 
master of Christ's. He took a great interest in the higher 
education of women and became president of Newnham College. 
He was the first to introduce the great philological works of 
George Curtius and Wilhelm Corssen to the English student 
in his Introduction to Greek and Latin Etymology (1869). He 
died at Cambridge on the Qth of October 1910, leaving 
practically completed his exhaustive history of Christ's College. 

PEINE, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of 
Hanover, 16 m. by rail N.W. of Brunswick, on the railway to 
Hanover and Hamburg. Pop. (1905), 15,421. The town has 
a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church and several schools. 
Its industries include iron and steel works, breweries, distilleries 
and brickyards, and the manufacture of starch, sugar, malt, 
machinery and artificial manure. There are also large horse 
and cattle markets held here. Peine was at one time a strongly 
fortified place, and until 1803 belonged to the bishopric of 

PEINE FORTE ET DURE (French for "hard and severe 
punishment "), the term for a barbarous torture inflicted on those 
who, arraigned of felony, refused to plead and stood silent, or 

challenged more than twenty jurors, which was deemed a con- 
tumacy equivalent to a refusal to plead. By early English law 
a prisoner, before he could be tried, must plead " guilty " or 
" not guilty." Before the i3th century it was usual to imprison 
and starve till submission, but in Henry IV. 's reign the peine 
was employed. The prisoner was stretched on his back, and 
stone or iron weights were placed on him till he either submitted 
or was pressed to death. Pressing to death was abolished in 
1772; " standing mute " on an arraignment of felony being then 
made equivalent to conviction. By an act of 1828 a plea of 
" not guilty " was to be entered against any prisoner refusing 
to plead, and that is the rule to-day. An alternative to the 
peine was the tying of the thumbs tightly together with whip- 
cord until pain forced the prisoner to speak. This was said to be 
a common practice at the Old Bailey up to the igth century. 

Among recorded instances of the' infliction of the peine are: 
Juliana Quick (1442) for high treason in speaking derisively of 
Henry VI.; Margaret Clitherow, "the martyr of York" (1586); 
Walter Calverly, of Calverly, Yorks, for the murder of his children 
(1605); and Major Strangways at Newgate, charged with murder of 
his brother-in-law (1657). In this last case it is said that upon the 
weights being placed in position several cavalier friends of Strang- 
ways sprang on his body and put him out of his pain. In 1721 one 
Nathaniel Hawes lay under a weight of 250 Ib for seven minutes, 
finally submitting. The peine was last employed in 1741 at 
Cambridge assizes, when a prisoner was so put to death ; the penalty 
of thumb-tying having first been tried. In 1692 at Salem, Massa- 
chusetts, Giles Corey, accused of witchcraft, refusing to plead, was 
pressed to death. This is believed to be the only instance of the 
infliction of the penalty in America. 

PEIPUS, or CHUDSKOYE OZERO, a lake of north-west Russia, 
between the governments of St Petersburg, Pskov, Livonia and 
Esthonia. Including its southern extension, sometimes known 
as Lake Pskov, it has an area of 1356 sq. m. Its shores are 
flat and sandy, and in part wooded; its waters deep, and they 
afford valuable fishing. The lake is fed by the Velikaya, which 
enters it at its southern extremity, and by the Embach, which 
flows in half way up its western shore; it drains into the Gulf of 
Finland by the Narova, which issues at its north-east corner. 

PEIRAEUS, or PIRAEUS (Gr. Ueipaievs), the port town 
of Athens, with which its history is inseparably connected. 
Pop. (1907), 67,982. It consists of a rocky promontory, contain- 
ing three natural harbours, a large one on the north-west which 
is still one of the chief commercial harbours of the Levant, and 
two smaller ones on the east, which were used chiefly for naval 
purposes. Themistocles was the first to urge the Athenians 
to take advantage of these harbours, instead of using the sandy 
bay of Phaleron ; and the fortification of the Peiraeus was begun 
in 493 B.C. Later on it was connected with Athens by the Long 
Walls in 460 B.C. The town of Peiraeus was laid out by the 
architect Hippodamus of Miletus, probably in the time of 
Pericles. The promontory itself consisted of two parts the 
hill of Munychia, and the projection of Acte; on the opposite 
side of the great harbour was the outwork of Eetioneia. The 
most stirring episode in the history of the Peiraeus is the seizure 
of Munychia by Thrasybulus and the exiles from Phyle, and the 
consequent destruction of the " 30 tyrants " in 404 B.C. The 
three chief arsenals of the Peiraeus were named Munychia, 
Zea and Cantharus, and they contained galley slips for 82, 196 
and 94 ships respectively in the 4th century B.C. 

See under ATHENS. Also Angelopoulos, Hepl UtipatSis <u rSir 
\i/j.ivav aiiTou (Athens, 1898). 

PEIRCE, BENJAMIN (1809-1880), American mathematician 
and astronomer, was born at Salem, Massachusetts, on the 
4th of April 1809. Graduating at Harvard College in 1829, 
he became mathematical tutor there in 1831 and professor in 
1833. He had already assisted Nathaniel Bowditch in his 
translation of the Mecanique celeste, and now produced a series 
of mathematical textbooks characterized by the brevity and 
terseness which made his teaching unattractive to inapt pupils. 
Young men of talent, on the contrary, found his instruction 
most stimulating, and after Bowditch's death in 1838 Peirce 
stood first among American mathematicians. His researches 
into the perturbations of Uranus and Neptune (Proc. Amer. 



Acad., 1848) gave him a wider fame; he became in 1849 con- 
sulting astronomer to the American Nautical Almanac, and for 
this work prepared new tables of the moon (1852). A discussion 
of the equilibrium of Saturn's rings led him to conclude in 1855 
that they must be of a fluid nature. From 1867 to r8;4 he was 
superintendent of the Coast Survey. In 1857 he published his 
best known work, the System of Analytical Mechanics, which 
was, however, surpassed in brilliant originality by his Linear 
Associative Algebra (lithographed privately in a few copies, 
1870; reprinted in the Amer. Journ. Math., 1882). He died at 
Cambridge, Mass., on the 6th of October 1880. 

See New Amer. Cyclopaedia (Ripley and Dana), vol. xiii. (1861); 
T. J. J. See, Popular Astronomy, iii. 49; Nature, xxii. 607; R. Grant, 
Hist, of Phys. Astronomy, pp. 205, 292; J. C. Ppggendorff, Biog. 
lit. Handworterbuch; Month. Notices Roy. Astr. Society, xli. 191. 

PEISANDER, of Camirus in Rhodes, Greek epic poet, sup- 
posed to have flourished about 640 B.C. He was the author 
of a Heracleia, in which he introduced a new conception of the 
hero, the lion's skin and club taking the place of the older 
Homeric equipment. He is also said to have fixed the number 
of the " labours of Hercules " at twelve. The-work, which accord- 
ing to Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, vi. ch. 2) was simply 
a plagiarism from an unknown Pisinus of Lindus, enjoyed 
so high a reputation that the Alexandrian critics admitted the 
author to the epic canon. From an epigram (20) of Theocritus 
we learn that a statue was erected in honour of Peisander by 
his countrymen. He is to be distinguished from Peisander 
of Laranda in Lycia, who lived during the reign of Alexander 
Severus (A.D. 222-235), ar >d wrote a poem on the mixed marriages 
of gods and mortals, after the manner of the Eoiai of Hesiod. 

See fragments in G. Kinkel, Epicorum graecorum fragmenta (1878) ; 
also F. G. Welcker, Kleine Schriften, vol. i. (1844), on the twelve 
labours of Hercules in Peisander. 

PEISISTRATUS, (6057-527 B.C.), Athenian statesman, was 
the son of Hippocrates. He was named after Peisistratus, the 
youngest son of Nestor, the alleged ancestor of his family; he 
was second cousin on his mother's side to Solon, and numbered 
among his ancestors Codrus the last great king of Athens. Thus 
among those who became " tyrants " in the Greek world he 
gained his position as one of the old nobility, like Phalaris of 
Agrigentum, and Lygdamis of Naxos; but unlike Orthagoras of 
Sicyon, who had previously been a cook. Peisistratus, though 
Solon's junior by thirty years, was his lifelong friend (though this 
is denied), nor did their friendship suffer owing to their political 
antagonism. From this widely accepted belief arose the almost 
certainly false statement that Peisistratus took part in Solon's 
successful war against Megara, which necessarily took place 
before Solon's archonship (probably in 600 B.C.). Aristotle's 
Constitution of Athens (ch. 17) carefully distinguishes Solon's 
Megarian War from a second in which Peisistratus was no doubt 
in command, undertaken between 570 and 565 to recapture 
Nisaea (the port of Megara) which had apparently been recovered 
by the Megarians since Solon's victory (see Sandys on The 
Constitution of Athens, ch. 14, i, note, and E. Abbott, History 
of Greece, vol. i. app. p. 544). Whatever be the true explanation 
of this problem, it is certain (i) that Peisistratus was regarded 
as a leading soldier, and (2) that his position was strengthened 
by the prestige of his family. Furthermore (3) he was a man 
of great ambition, persuasive eloquence and wide generosity; 
qualities which especially appealed at that time to the classes 
from whom he was to draw his support hence the warning of 
Solon (Frag. II. B) : " Fools, you are treading in the footsteps 
of the fox; can you not read the hidden meaning of these charm- 
ing words?" Lastly, (4) and most important, the times were 
ripe for revolution. In the article on SOLON (ad fin.) it is shown 
that the Solonian reforms, though they made a great advance 
in some directions, failed on the whole. They were too moderate 
to please the people, too democratic for the nobles. It was 
found that the government by Boule and Ecclesia did not mean 
popular control in the full sense; it meant government by the 
leisured classes, inasmuch as the industrious farmer or herdsman 
could not leave his work to give his vote at the Ecclesia, or do 
his duty as a councillor. Partly owing to this, and partly to 

ancient feuds whose origin we cannot trace, the Athenian people 
was split up into three great factions known as the Plain (Pedieis) 
led by Lycurgus and Miltiades, both of noble families; the Shore 
(Par alt) led by the Alcmaeonidae, represented at this time by 
Megacles, who was strong in his wealth and by his recent marriage 
with Agariste, daughter of Cleisthenes of Sicyon; the Hill or 
Upland (Diacreis, Diacrii) led by Peisistratus, who no doubt 
owed his influence among these hillmen partly to the possession 
of large estates at Marathon. In the two former divisions 
the influence of wealth and birth predominated; the hillmen 
were poorly housed, poorly clad and unable to make use of the 
privileges which Solon had given them. 1 Hence their attachment 
to Peisistratus, the " man of the people," who called upon them 
to sweep away the last barriers which separated rich and poor, 
nobles and commoners, city and countryside. Lastly, there 
was a class of men who were discontented with the Solonian 
constitution: some had lost by his Seisachtheia, others had 
vainly hoped for a general redistribution. These men saw their 
only hope in a revolution. Such were the factors which enabled 
him to found his tyranny. 

To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories 
which even before, though especially after, the appearance of 
the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the 
chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible. For 
a summary of these hypotheses see J. E. Sandys's edition of the 
Constitution of Athens (p. 56, c. 14 note). The following is in 
brief the sequence of events: In 560 B.C. Peisistratus drove 
into the market-place, showed to an indignant assembly marks 
of violence on himself and his mules, and claimed to be the 
victim of assault at the hands of political enemies. The people 
unhesitatingly awarded their " champion " a bodyguard of 
fifty men (afterwards four hundred) armed with clubs. With 
this force he proceeded to make himself master of the Acropolis 
and tyrant of Athens. The Alcmaeonids fled and Peisistratus 
remained in power for about five years, during which Solon's 
death occurred. In 555 or 554 B.C. a coalition of the Plain 
and the Coast succeeded in expelling him. His property was 
confiscated and sold by auction, but in his absence the strife 
between the Plain and the Coast was renewed, and Megacles, 
unable to hold his own, invited him to return. The condition 
was that their families should be allied by the marriage of 
Peisistratus to Megacles' daughter Coesyra. A second coup d'etat 
was then effected. A beautiful woman, it is said, by name 
Phya, was disguised as Athena and drove into the Agora with 
Peisistratus at her side, while proclamations were made that 
the goddess herself was restoring Peisistratus to Athens. The 
ruse was successful, but Peisistratus soon quarrelled with 
Megacles over Coesyra. By a former marriage he already had 
two sons, Hippias and Hipparchus, now growing up, and in his 
first tyranny or his first exile he married an Argive, Timonassa, 
by whom he had two other sons lophon and Hegesistratus, the 
latter of whom is said to be identical with Thessalus (Ath. Pol. 
c. 17), though from Thucydides and Herodotus we gather that 
they were distinct e.g. Herodotus describes Hegesistratus as 
a bastard, and Thucydides says that Thessalus was legitimate. 
Further it is suggested that Peisistratus was unwilling to have 
children by one on whom lay the curse of the Cylonian outrage. 
The result was that in the seventh year (or month, see Ath. Pol. 
c. 15. i, Sandys's note) Megacles accused him of neglecting his 
daughter, combined once more with the third faction, and 
drove the tyrant into an exile lasting apparently for ten or eleven 
years. During this period he lived first at Rhaecelus and later 
near Mt Pangaeus and on the Strymon collecting resources of 
men and money. He came finally to Eretria, and, with the help 
of the Thebans and Lygdamis of Naxos, whom he afterwards 
made ruler of that island, he passed over to Attica and defeated 
the Athenian forces at the battle of Pallenis or Pellene. From 
this time till his death he remained undisputed master of Athens. 
The Alcmaeonids were compelled to leave Athens, and from 

1 It is suggested with probability that the Diacrii were rather 
the miners of the Laurium district (P. M. Ure, Journ. Hell. Stud., 
1906, pp. 131-142). 



the other noble families which remained he exacted 400 hostages 
whom he put in the care of his ally Lygdamis. 

In the heyday of the Athenian democracy, citizens both 
conservative and progressive, politicians, philosophers and 
historians were unanimous in their denunciation of " tyranny." 
Yet there is no doubt that the rule of Peisistratus was most 
beneficial to Athens both in her foreign and in her internal 
relations, (i) During his enforced absence from Athens he 
had evidently acquired a far more extended idea of the future 
of Athens than had hitherto dawned on the somewhat parochial 
minds of her leaders. He was friendly with Thebes and Argos; 
his son Hegesistratus he set in power at Sigeum (see E. Abbott, 
Hist, of Gr. vol. i. xv. 9) and his friend Lygdamis at Naxos. 
From the mines of Thrace, and perhaps from the harbour dues 
and from the mines of Laurium, he derived a large revenue; 
under his encouragement, Miltiades had planted an Athenian 
colony on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese; he had even 
made friends with Thessaly and Macedonia, as is evidenced by 
the hospitality extended by them to Hippias on his final ex- 
pulsion. Finally, he did not allow his friendliness with Argos 
to involve him in war with Sparta, towards whom he pursued a 
policy of moderation. (2) At home it is admitted by all authori- 
ties that his rule was moderate and beneficent, and that he was 
careful to preserve at least the form of the established constitu- 
tion. It is even said that, being accused of murder, he was ready 
to be tried by the Areopagus. Everything which he did during 
his third period of rule was in the interests of discipline and order. 
Thus he hired a mercenary bodyguard, and utilized for his own 
purposes the public revenues; he kept the chief magistracies 
(through which he ruled) in the hands of his family; he imposed 
a general tax 1 of 10% (perhaps reduced by Hippias to 5%) 
on the produce of the land, and thus obtained control over the 
fleet and spread the burden of it over all the citizens (see the 
spurious letter of Peisistratus to Solon, Diog. La'ert. i. 53 ; Thuc. 
vi. 54 and Arnold's note ad loc.; Boeckh iii. 6; Thirlwall c. xi., 
pp. 72-74; and Grote). But the great wisdom of Peisistratus is 
shown most clearly in the skill with which he blinded the people 
to his absolutism. Pretending to maintain the Solonian con- 
stitution (as he could well afford), he realized that people would 
never recognize the deception if a sufficient degree of prosperity 
were ensured. Secondly, he knew that the greater the propor- 
tion of the Athenians who were prosperously at work in the 
country and therefore did not trouble to interfere in the work 
of government the less would be the danger of sedition, whose seeds 
are in a crowded city. Hence he appears to have encouraged 
agriculture by abating the tax on small farms, and even by 
assisting them with money and stock. Secondly, he established 
deme law-courts to prevent people from having recourse to 
the city tribunals; it is said that he himself occasionally " went 
on circuit," and on one of these occasions was so struck by the 
plaints of an old farmer on Hymettus, that he remitted all 
taxation on his land. Thus Athens enjoyed immunity from 
war and internecine struggle, and for the first time for years 
was in enjoyment of settled financial prosperity (see Constitution 
of Athens, c. 16. 7 6 ri Kpbvov /3ios). 

The money which he accumulated he put to good use in the 
construction of roads and public buildings. Like Cleisthenes 
of Sicyon and Feriander of Corinth, he realized that one great 
source of strength to the nobles had been their presidency over 
the local cults. This he diminished by increasing the splendour 
of the Panathenaic festival every fourth year and the Dionysiac 2 
rites, and so created a national rather than a local religion. 
With the same idea he built the temple of the Pythian Apollo and 
began, though he did not finish, the temple of Zeus (the magni- 
ficent columns now standing belong to the age of Hadrian). 

* It should be noted as against this, the general account, that 
Thucydides, speaking apparently with accuracy, describes the tax 
as tUoffTTi (5%); the Constitution of Athens speaks of (the familiar) 
HCKHTJI (10%). 

2 Dionysus, as the god of the rustics, was especially worshipped 
at Icaria, near Marathon, and so was the god of the Diacrii. It 
seems likely that Peisistratus, to please his supporters, originated 
the City-Dionysia. 

To him are ascribed also the original Parthenon on the Acropolis, 
afterwards burned by the Persians, and replaced by the Parthenon 
of Pericles. It is said that he gave a great impetus to the 
dramatic representations which belonged to the Dionysiac 
cult, and that it was under his encouragement that Thespis 
of Icaria, by impersonating character, laid the foundation of 
the great Greek drama of the 5th and 4th centuries. Lastly, 
Peisistratus carried out the purification of Delos, the- sacred 
island of Apollo of the lonians; all the tombs were removed 
from the neighbourhood of the shrine, the abode of the god of 
light and joy. 

We have spoken of his services to the state, to the poor, to 
religion. It remains to mention his alleged services to literature. 
All we can reasonably believe is that he gave encouragement 
to poetry as he had done to architecture and the drama; Onoma- 
critus, the chief of the Orphic succession, and collector of the 
oracles of Musaeus, was a member of his household. Honestly, 
or to impress the people, Peisistratus made considerable use of 
oracles (e.g. at the battle of Pellene), and his descendants, by 
the oracles of Onomacritus, persuaded Darius to undertake 
their restoration. As to the library of Peisistratus, we have no 
good evidence; it may perhaps be a fiction of an Alexandrian 
writer. There is strong reason for believing the story that he 
first collected the Homeric poems and that his was the text 
which ultimately prevailed (see HOMER). 

It appears that Peisistratus was benevolent to the last, and, 
like Julias Caesar, showed no resentment against enemies and 
calumniators. What Solon said of him in his youth was true 
throughout, " there is no better-disposed man in Athens, save 
for his ambition." He was succeeded by his sons Hippias 
and Hipparchus, by whom the tyranny was in various ways 
brought into disrepute. 

It should be observed that the tyranny of Peisistratus is one 
of the many epochs of Greek history on which opinion has almost 
entirely changed since the age of Grote. Shortly, his services 
to Greece and to the world may be summed up under three heads: 
In foreign policy, he sketched out the plan on which Athens 
was to act in her external relations. He advocated (a) alliances 
with Argos, Thessaly and Macedon, (6) ascendancy in the Aegean 
(Naxos and Delos), (c) control of the Hellespontine route 
(Sigeum and the Chersonese), (d) control of the Strymon valley 
(Mt Pangaeus and the Strymon). Further, his rule exemplifies 
what is characteristic of all the Greek tyrannies the advantage 
which the ancient monarchy had over the republican form 
of government. By means of his sons and his deputies (or 
viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave 
Athens a widespread influence in the centres of commerce, 
and brought her into connexion with the growing sources 
of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek 
world. (2) His importance in the sphere of domestic policy 
has been frequently underrated. It may fairly be held that 
the reforms of Solon would have been futile had they not been 
fulfilled and amplified by the genius of Peisistratus. (3) It 
was under his auspices that Athens began to take the lead in 
literature. From this period we must date the beginning 
of Athenian literary ascendancy. But see ATHENS. 

AUTHORITIES. Ancient: Herod, i. 50; Plut. Solon 30; Arist. 
Politics, v. 12, 5-1315 b.; Constitution of Athens (Ath. Pol.) cc. 14-19. 
On the chronological problems see also P. Meyer, Arist. Pol. and 
the Ath. Pol. pp. 48-9; Gomperz, Die Schrift v. Staatswesen, &c. 
(1891); Bauer, Lit. and hist. Forsch. z. Arist. Ath. Pol. (50 sqq.). 
On the characteristics of the Peisistratid tyranny see Greenidge, 
Handbook of Creek Constitutional History, pp. 26 sqq. ; and the histories 
of Greece. On the question of the family of Peisistratus see Wilamo- 
witz-Moellendorff, Aristoteles und Athen (Berlin, 1893) and a criticism 
by E. M. Walker in the Classical Review, vol. viii. p. 206, col. 2. 

(J. M. M.) 

PEKIN, a city and the county-seat of Tazewell county, 
Illinois, U.S.A., on the Illinois river, in the central part of the 
state, about u m. S. of Peoria, and about 56 m. N. of Springfield. 
Pop. (1910), 9897. It is served by the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe, the Chicago & Alton, the Chicago, Peoria & 
St Louis, the Illinois Central, the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago 
& St Louis, the Peoria Railway Terminal Company, the Peoria 



& Pekin Union and (for freight between Peoria and Pekin) the 
Illinois Valley Belt railways. Situated in a rich agricultural 
region and in the Illinois coalfields, Pekin is a shipping point 
and grain market of considerable importance, and has various 
manufactures. The value of the factory products in 1905 was 
$1,121,130. Pekin was first settled about 1830, was incorpor- 
ated in 1839, and re-incorporated in 1874. 

PEKING, or PEKIN, the capital of the Chinese Empire, situated 
in 39 57' N. and 116 29' E., on the northern extremity of the 
great alluvial delta which extends southward from its walls for 
700 m. For nine centuries Peking, under various names and 
under the dominion of successive dynasties, has, with some 
short intervals, remained an imperial city. Its situation near 
the northern frontier recommended it to the Tatar invaders as 
a convenient centre for their power, and its peculiarly fortunate 
position as regards the supernatural terrestrial influences per- 
taining to it has inclined succeeding Chinese monarchs to accept 
it as the seat of their courts. In 986 it was taken by an invading 
force of Khitan Tatars, who adopted it as their headquarters 
and named it Nanking, or the " southern capital." During the 
early part of the 1 2th century the Chinese recaptured it and re- 
duced it from the rank of a metropolis to that of a provincial 
city of the first grade, and called it Yen-shan Fu. In 1151 it 
fell into the hands of the Kin Tatars, who made it a royal 
residence under the name of Chung-tu, or " central capital." 
Less than a century later it became the prize of Jenghiz Khan, 
who, having his main interests centred on the Mongolian steppes, 
declined to move his court southwards. His great successor, 
Kublai Khan (1280-1294), rebuilt the town, which he called 
Yenking, and which became known in Chinese as Ta-tu, or 
" great court," and in Mongolian as Khanbalik (Cambaluc), or 
" city of the khan." During the reign of the first emperor of 
the dynasty (1368-1399) which succeeded that founded by 
Jenghiz Khan the court resided at the modern Nanking, but 
the succeeding sovereign Yung-lo (1403-1425) transferred his 
court to Pe-king (i.e. " north-court "), which has ever since been 
the seat of government. For further history see CAMBALUC. 

During the periods above mentioned the extent and boundaries 
of the city varied considerably. Under the Kin dynasty the 
walls extended to the south-west of the Tatar portion of the 
present city, and the foundations of the northern ramparts of 
the Khan-balik of Kublai Khan are still to be traced at a distance 
of about 2 m. north beyond the existing walls. The modern 
city consists of the nei ch' eng, or inner city, commonly known to 
foreigners as the " Tatar city," and the wai ch'Sng, or outer 
city, known in the same way as the " Chinese city." These 
names are somewhat misleading, as the inner city is not enclosed 
within the outer city, but adjoins its northern wall, which, being 
longer than the nei ch'eng is wide, outflanks it considerably at 
both ends. The outer walls of the double city contain an area 
of about 25 sq. m., and measure 30 m. in circumference. Unlike 
the walls of most Chinese cities, those of Peking are kept in 
perfect order. Those of the Tatar portion, which is the oldest 
part of the city, are 50 ft. high, with a width of 60 ft. at the base 
and 40 ft. at the top, while those of the Chinese city, which were 
built by the emperor Kia-tsing in 1543, measure 30 ft. in height, 
and have a width of 25 ft. at the base and 15 ft. at the top. The 
terre-plein is well and smoothly paved, and is defended by a 
crenellated parapet. The outer faces of the walls are strength- 
ened by square buttresses built out at intervals of 60 yds., and 
on the summits of these stand the guard-houses for the troops 
on duty. Each of the sixteen gates of the city is protected by 
a semi-circular enceinte, and is surmounted by a high tower 
built in galleries and provided with countless loopholes. 

Peking suffered severely during the Boxer movement and the 
siege of the legations in the summer of 1900. Not only were 
most of the foreign buildings destroyed, but also a large number 
of important Chinese buildings in the vicinity of the foreign 
quarter, including the ancient Hanlin Yuen, the boards of war, 
rites, &c. Almost the whole of the business quarter, the 
wealthiest part of the Chinese city, was laid in ashes (see 
CHINA: History). 

The population of Peking is reckoned to be about 1,000,000, 
a number which is out of all proportion to the immense area 
enclosed within its walls. This disparity is partly accounted 
for by the facts that large spaces, notably in the Chinese city, 
are not built over, and that the grounds surrounding the imperial 
palace, private residences and temples are very extensive. One 
of such enclosures constitutes the British legation, and most 
of the other foreign legations are similarly, though not so 
sumptuously, lodged. Viewed from the walls Peking looks like 
a city of gardens. Few crowded neighbourhoods are visible, 
and the characteristic features of the scene which meets the eye 
are the upturned roofs of temples, palaces, and mansions, gay 
with blue, green and yellow glazed tiles, glittering among the 
groves -of trees with which the city abounds. It is fortunate 
that the city is not close-built or crowded, for since the first 
advent of foreigners in Peking in 1860 nothing whatever had been 
done until 1900 to improve the streets or the drainage. The 
streets as originally laid out were wide and spacious, but being 
unpaved and undrained they were no better than mud tracks 
diversified by piles of garbage and foul-smelling stagnant pools. 
Such drainage as had at one time existed was allowed to get 
choked up, giving rise to typhoid fever of a virulent type. Some 
attempt has been made to improve matters by macadamizing 
one of the principal thoroughfares, but it will be the labour of a 
Hercules to cleanse this vast city from the accumulated filth of 
ages of neglect. 

Enclosed within the Tatar city is the Hwang ch'tng, or 
" Imperial city," which in its turn encloses the Tsze-kin ch'Sng, 
or " Forbidden city," in which stands the emperor's palace. 
On the north of the Tsze-kin ch'tng, and separated from it by 
a moat, is an artificial mound known as the Kings/tan, or " Pros- 
pect Hill." This mound, which forms a prominent object in 
the view over the city, is about 150 ft. high, and is topped with 
five summits, on each of which stands a temple. It is encircled 
by a wall measuring upwards of a mile in circumference, and is 
prettily planted with trees, on one of which the last emperor 
of the Ming dynasty (1644), finding escape from the Manchu 
invaders impossible, hanged himself. On the west of Prospect 
Hill is the Si yuan, or " Western Park," which forms part of 
the palace grounds. This park is tastefully laid out, and is 
traversed by a lake, which is mainly noticeable from the remark- 
ably handsome marble bridge which crosses it from east to west. 
Directly northwards from Prospect Hill stands the residence of 
the T'itu, or "governor of the city," and the Bell and the Drum 
Towers, both of which have attained celebrity from the nature 
of their contents the first from the huge bell which hangs in it, 
and the second from the appliances it contains for marking the 
time. The bell is one of five which the emperor Yung-lo ordered 
to be cast. In common with the others, it weighs 120,000 Ib, 
is 14 ft. high, 34 ft. in circumference at the rim, and 9 in. thick. 
It is struck by a wooden beam swung on the outside, and only 
at the changes of the night-watches, when its deep tone may be 
heard in all parts of the city. In the Drum Tower incense-sticks, 
specially prepared by the astronomical board, are kept burning 
to mark the passage of time, in which important duty their 
accuracy is checked by a clepsydra. Another of Yung-lo's 
bells is hung in a Buddhist temple outside the north-west angle 
of the city wall, and is covered both on the inside and outside 
with the Chinese texts of the Lankavatara Sutra, and the Sad- 
dharma pundarika Sutra. 

Turning southwards we come again to the Forbidden City, the 
central portion of which forms the imperial palace, where, in halls 
which for the magnificence of their proportions and barbaric 
splendour are probably not to be surpassed anywhere, the Son 
of Heaven holds his court. In the eastern and western portions 
of this city are situated the residences of the highest dignitaries 
of the empire; while beyond its confines on the south stand the 
offices of the six official boards which direct the affairs of the 
eighteen provinces. It was in the " yamen " of one of these 
boards the Li Pu or board of rites that Lord Elgin signed 
the treaty at the conclusion of the war in 1860 an event which 
derives especial interest from the fact of its having been the first 



occasion on which a European plenipotentiary ever entered 
Peking accompanied by all the pomp and circumstance of his 

Outside the Forbidden City the most noteworthy building is 
the Temple of Heaven, which stands in the outer or Chinese 
city. Here at early morning on the zist of December the 
emperor offers sacrifice on an open altar to Shang-ti, and at 
periods of drought or famine presents prayers for relief to the 
same supreme deity. The altar at which these solemn rites 
are performed consists of a triple circular marble terrace, 210 ft. 
wide at the base, 150 in the middle and 90 at the top. The 
uppermost surface is paved with blocks of the same material 
forming nine concentric circles, the innermost consisting of nine 
blocks, and that on the outside of eighty-one blocks. On the 
central stone, which is a perfect circle, the emperor kneels. 
In the same temple stands the altar of prayer for good harvests, 
which is surmounted by a triple-roofed circular structure 99 ft. 
in height. The tiles of these roofs are glazed porcelain of the 
most exquisite deep-blue colour, and add a conspicuous element 
of splendour to the shrine. 

The other powers of nature have shrines dedicated to them in 
the altar: to the Earth on the north of the city, the altars to the 
Sun and Moon outside the north-eastern and north-western 
angles respectively of the Chinese city, and the altar of agricul- 
ture inside the south gate of the Chinese city. Next to these 
in religious importance comes the Confucian temple, known as 
the Kwo-tsze-kien. Here there is no splendour; everything is 
quite plain; and one hall contains all that is sacred in the 
building. There the tablets of " the soul of the most holy 
ancestral teacher, Confucius," and of his ten principal disciples 
stand as objects of worship for their countless followers. In one 
courtyard of this temple are deposited the celebrated ten stone 
drums which bear poetical inscriptions commemorative of the 
hunting expeditions of King Suan (827-781 B.C.), in whose reign 
they are believed, though erroneously, to have been cut; and 
in another stands a series of stone tablets on which are inscribed 
the names of all those who have obtained the highest literary 
degree of Tsin-shi for the last five centuries. 

In the south-eastern portion of the Tatar city used to stand 
the observatory, which was built by order of Kublai Khan in 
1296. During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign 
of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution 
was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose 
guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were con- 
structed. The inhabitants of Peking being consumers only, 
and in no way producers, the trade of the city is very small, 
though the city is open to foreign commerce. In 1897 a railway 
was opened between Tientsin and Peking. This was only 
effected after great opposition from the ultra-Conservatives, 
but once accomplished the facilities were gladly accepted by all 
classes, and the traffic both in goods and passengers is already 
enormous. Out of deference to the scruples of the ultra-Conser- 
vatives, the terminus was fixed at a place called Lu-Kou-ch'iao, 
some 4 m. outside the walls, but this distance has since been 
covered by an electric tramway. The trunk line constructed 
by the Franco-Belgian syndicate connects Lu-Kou-ch'iao, the 
original terminus, with Hankow hence the name Lu-Han by 
which this trunk line is generally spoken of, Lu being short for 
Lu-Kou-ch'iao and Han for Hankow. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. A Williamson, Journeys in North China, Man- 
churia and Eastern Mongolia (2 vols., London, 1870) ; S. W. Williams, 
The Middle Kingdom, revised ed. (New York, 1883); A Favier, 
Peking, histoire et description (Peking, 1900 contains over 800 
illustrations, most of them reproductions of the work of Chinese 
artists) ; N. Oliphant, A Diary of the Siege of the Legations in Peking 
during the Summer of 1900 (London, 1901); A. H. Smith, China in 
Convulsion (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1902). (R. K. D.) 

PELAGIA, ST. An Antiochene saint of this name, a virgin of 
fifteen years, who chose death by a leap from the housetop 
rather than dishonour, is mentioned by Ambrose (De virg. iii. 
7, 33! Ep. xxxvii. ad Simplic.), and is the subject of two sermons 
by Chrysostom. Her festival was celebrated on the 8th of 
October (Wright's Syriac Marlyrology). In the Greek synaxaria 

the same day is assigned to two other saints of the name of 
Pelagia one, also of Antioch, and sometimes called Margarito 
and also " the sinner "; the other, known as Pelagia of Tarsus, 
in Cilicia. The legend of the former of these two is famous. 
She was a celebrated dancer and courtesan, who, in the full 
flower of her beauty and guilty sovereignty over the youth of 
Antioch, was suddenly converted by the influence of the holy 
bishop Nonnus, whom she had heard preaching in front of a 
church which she was passing with her gay train of attendants 
and admirers. Seeking out Nonnus, she overcame, his canonical 
scruples by her tears of genuine penitence, was baptized, and, 
disguising herself in the garb of a male penitent, retired to a 
grotto on the Mount of Olives, where she died after three years 
of strict penance. This story seems to combine with the name 
of the older Pelagia some traits from an actual history referred 
to by Chrysostom (Horn, in Malth. Ixvii. 3). In associating 
St Pelagia with St Marina, St Margaret (q.v.), and others, of 
whom either the name or the legend recalls Pelagia, Hermann 
Usener has endeavoured to show by a series of subtle deductions 
that this saint is only a Christian travesty of Aphrodite. But 
there is no doubt of the existence of the first Pelagia of Antioch, 
the Pelagia of Ambrose and Chrysostom. The legends which 
have subsequently become connected with her name are the 
result of a very common development in literary history. 

See Acta sanctorum, October, iv. 248 seq.; H. Usener, Legenden 
der heiligen Pelagia (Bonn, 1879); H. Delehaye, The Legends of the 
Saints (London, 1907), pp. 197-205. (H. DE.) 

PELAGIUS, the name of two popes. 

PELAGIUS I., pope from 555 to 561, was a Roman by birth, 
and first appears in history at Constantinople in the rank of 
deacon, and as apocrisiarius of Pope Silverius, whose over- 
throw in favour of Vigilius his intrigues promoted. Vigilius 
continued him in his diplomatic appointment, and he was 
sent by the emperor Justinian in 542 to Antioch on eccle- 
siastical business; he afterwards took part in the synod at 
Gaza which deposed Paul of Alexandria. He had amassed some 
wealth, which on his return to Rome he so employed among the 
poor as to secure for himself great popularity; and, when Vigilius 
was summoned to Byzantium in 544, Pelagius, now archdeacon, 
was left behind as his vicar, and by his tact in dealing with Totila, 
the Gothic invader, saved the citizens from murder and outrage. 
He appears to have followed his master to Constantinople, and 
to have taken part in the Three Chapters controversy; in 553, 
at all events, he signed the " constitutum " of Vigilius in favour 
of these, and for refusing, with him, to accept the decrees of the 
fifth general council (the 2nd of Constantinople, 553) shared 
his exile. Even after Vigilius had approved the comdemnation 
of the Three Chapters, Pelagius defended them, and even pub- 
lished a book on the subject. But when Vigilius died (June 7, 
555), he accepted the council, and allowed himself to be desig- 
nated by Justinian to succeed the late pope. It was in these 
circumstances that he returned to Rome; but most of the clergy, 
suspecting his orthodoxy, and believing him to have had some 
share in the removal of his predecessor, shunned his fellowship. 
He enjoyed, however, the support of Narses, and, after he had 
publicly purged himself of complicity in Vigilius's death in the 
church of St Peter, he met with toleration in his own immediate 
diocese. The rest of the western bishops, however, still held 
aloof, and the episcopate of Tuscany caused his name to be 
removed from the diptychs. This elicited from him a circular, 
in which he asserted his loyalty to the four general councils, 
and declared that the hostile bishops had been guilty of schism. 
The bishops of Liguria and Aemilia, headed by the archbishop 
of Milan, and those of Istria and Venice, headed by Paulinus of 
Aquileia, also withheld their fellowship; but Narses resisted 
the appeals of Pelagius, who would have invoked the secular 
arm. Childebert, king of the Franks, also refused to interfere. 
Pelagius died on the 4th of March 561, and was succeeded by 
John III. 

PELAGIUS II., a native of Rome, but of Gothic descent, was 
pope from 579 to 590, having been consecrated successor of 
Benedict I., without the sanction of the emperor, on the 26th of 


November. To make his apologies for this irregularity he sent 
Deacon Gregory, who afterwards became Pope Gregory the Great, 
as his apocrisiarius to Constantinople. In 585 he sought to 
heal the schism which had subsisted since the time of Pelagius I. 
in connexion with the Three Chapters, but his efforts were 
without success. In 588 John, patriarch of Constantinople, by 
reviving the old and disputed claim to the title of oecumenic 
patriarch, elicited a vigorous protest from Pelagius; but the 
decretal which professes to convey the exact words of the 
document is now known to be false. He died in January 590, 
and was succeeded by Gregory I. 

PELAGIUS (c. 360- c. 420), early British theologian. Of the 
origin of Pelagius almost nothing is known. The name is 
supposed to be a graecized form of the Cymric Morgan (sea- 
begotten). His contemporaries understood that he was of 
British (probably of Irish) birth, and gave him the appellation 
Brito. He was a large ponderous person, heavy both in body 
and mind (Jerome, " stolidissimus et Scotorum pultibus prae- 
gravatus "). He was influenced by the monastic enthusiasm 
which had been kindled in Gaul by Athanasius (336), and which, 
through the energy of Martin of Tours (361), rapidly communi- 
cated itself to the Britons and Scots. For, though Pelagius 
remained a layman throughout his life, and though he never 
appears in any strict connexion with a coenobite fraternity, 
he yet adhered to monastic discipline ("veluti monachus "), 
and distinguished himself by his purity of life and exceptional 
sanctity (" egregie Christianus ") He seems to have been one 
of the earliest, if not the very earliest, of that remarkable series 
of men who issued from the monasteries of Scotland and Ireland, 
and carried back to the Continent in a purified form the religion 
they had received from it. Coming to Rome in the beginning of 
the 5th century (his earliest known writing is of date 405), he 
found a scandalously low tone of morality prevalent. But his 
remonstrances were met by the plea of human weakness. To 
remove this plea by exhibiting the actual powers of human 
nature became his first object. It seemed to him that the 
Augustinian doctrine of total depravity and of the consequent 
bondage of the will both cut the sinew of all human effort and 
threw upon God the blame which really belonged to man. His 
favourite maxim was, " If I ought, I can." 

The views of Pelagius did not originate in a conscious reaction 
against the influence of the Augustinian theology, although each 
of these systems was developed into its ultimate form by the 
opposition of the other. Neither must too much weight be 
allowed to the circumstance that Pelagius was a monk, for he was 
unquestionably alive to the delusive character of much that 
passed for monkish sanctity. Yet possibly his monastic training 
may have led him to look more at conduct than at character, 
and to believe that holiness could be arrived at by rigour 
of discipline. This view of things suited his matter-of-fact 
temperament. Judging from the general style of his writings, 
his religious development had been equable and peaceful, not 
marked by the prolonged mental conflict, or the abrupt transi- 
tions, which characterized the experience of his great opponent. 
With no great penetration he saw very clearly the thing before 
him, and many of his practical counsels are marked by sagacity, 
and are expressed with the succinctness of a proverb (" corpus 
non frangendum, sed regendum est "). His interests were 
primarily ethical; hence his insistence on the freedom of the will 
and his limitation of the action of divine grace. 

The peculiar tenets of Pelagius, though indicated in the 
commentaries which he published at Rome previous to 409, 
might not so speedily have attracted attention had they not 
been adopted by Coelestius, a much younger and bolder man than 
his teacher. Coelestius, probably an Italian, had been trained 
as a lawyer, but abandoned his profession for an ascetic life. 
When Rome was sacked by the Goths (410) the two friends 
crossed to Africa. There Pelagius once or twice met with 
Augustine, but very shortly sailed for Palestine, where he justly 
expected that his opinions would be more cordially received. 
Coelestius remained in Carthage with the view of receiving 
ordination. But Aurelius, bishop of Carthage, being warned 

against him, summoned a synod, at which Paulinus, a deacon 
of Milan, charged Coelestius with holding the following six 
errors: (i) that Adam would have died even if he had not sinned; 
(2) that the sin of Adam injured himself alone, not the human 
race; (3) that new-born children are in the same condition in 
which Adam was before the fall; (4) that the whole human race 
does not die because of Adam's death or sin, nor will the race 
rise again because of the resurrection of Christ; (5) that the law 
gives entrance to heaven as well as the gospel; (6) that even before 
the coming of Christ there were men who were entirely without 
sin. To these propositions a seventh is sometimes added, " that 
infants, though unbaptized, have eternal life," a corollary from 
the third. Coelestius did not deny that he held these opinions, 
but he maintained that they were open questions, on which the 
Church had never pronounced. The synod, notwithstanding, 
condemned and excommunicated him. Coelestius, after a futile 
appeal to Rome, went to Ephesus, and there received ordination. 
In Palestine Pelagius lived unmolested and revered, until in 
415 Orosius, a Spanish priest, came from Augustine, who in the 
meantime had written his De peccatorum mentis, to warn Jerome 
against him. The result was that in June of that year Pelagius 
was cited by Jerome before John, bishop of Jerusalem, and 
charged with holding that man may be without sin, if only he 
desires it. This prosecution broke down, and in December of 
the same year Pelagius was summoned before a synod of fourteen 
bishops at Diospolis (Lydda). The prosecutors on this occasion 
were two deposed Gallican bishops, Heros of Aries and Lazarus 
of Aix, but on account of the illness of one of them neither could 
appear. The proceedings, being conducted in various languages 
and by means of interpreters, lacked certainty, and justified 
Jerome's application to the synod of the epithet " miserable." 
But there is no doubt that Pelagius repudiated the assertion of 
Coelestius, that " the divine grace and help is not granted to 
individual acts, but consists in free will, and in the giving of the 
law and instruction." At the same time he affirmed that a 
man is able, if he likes, to live without sin and keep the command- 
ments of God, inasmuch as God gives him this ability. The 
synod was satisfied with these statements, and pronounced 
Pelagius to be in agreement with Catholic teaching. Pelagius 
naturally plumed himself on his acquittal, and provoked Augus- 
tine to give a detailed account of the synod, in which he shows 
that the language used by Pelagius was ambiguous, but that, 
being interpreted by his previous written statements, it involved 
a denial of what the Church understood by grace and by man's 
dependence on it. The North African Church as a whole 
resented the decisions of Diospolis, and in 416 sent up from 
their synods of Carthage and Mileve (in Numidia) an appeal to 
Innocent, bishop of Rome, who, flattered by the tribute thus 
paid to the see of Rome, decided the question in favour of the 
African synods. And, though his successor Zosimus wavered 
for some time, he at length fell in with what he saw to be the 
general mind of both the ecclesiastical and the civil powers. 
For, simultaneously with the largely attended African synod 
which finally condemned Pelagianism in the West, an imperial 
edict was issued at Ravenna by Honorius on the 3oth of April 
418, peremptorily determining the theological question and 
enacting that not only Pelagius and Coelestius but all who 
accepted their opinions should suffer confiscation of goods 
and irrevocable banishment. Thus prompted, Zosimus drew 
up a circular inviting all the bishops of Christendom to subscribe 
a condemnation of Pelagian opinions. Nineteen Italian bishops 
refused, among them Julian of Eclanum in Apulia, a man of good 
birth, approved sanctity and great capacity, who now became 
the recognized leader of the movement. But not even his 
acuteness and zeal could redeem a cause which was rendered 
hopeless when the Eastern Church (Ephesus, 431) confirmed the 
decision of the West. Pelagius himself disappears after 420; 
Coelestius was at Constantinople seeking the aid of Nestorius 
in 428. 

Pelagianism. The system of Pelagius is a consistent whole, 
each part involving the existence of every other. Starting from 
the idea that " ability limits obligation," and resolved that men 

6 4 


should feel their responsibility, he insisted that man is able to do 
all that God commands, and that there is, and can be, no sin where 
the will is not absolutely free-^-able to choose good or evil. The 
favourite Pelagian formula, " Si necessitatis est, peccatum non est; 
si voluntatis, vitari potest," had an appearance of finality which 
imposed on superficial minds. The theory of the will involved in 
this fundamental axiom of Pelagianism is that which is commonly 
known as the " liberty of indifference," or " power of contrary 
choice " a theory which affirms the freedom of the will, not in the 
sense that the individual is self-determined, but in the sense that in 
each volition and at each moment of life, no matter what the previous 
career of the individual has been, the will is in equipoise, able to 
choose good or evil. We are born characterless (non pleni), and with 
no bias towards good or evil (ut sine virtute, ita et sine vitio). It 
follows that we are uninjured by the sin of Adam, save in so far as 
the evil example of our predecessors misleads and influences us (non 
propagine sed exemplo). There is, in fact, no such thing as original 
sin, sin being a thing of will and not of nature; for if it could be of 
nature our sin would be chargeable on God the creator. This will, 
capable of good as of evil, being the natural endowment of man, is 
found in the heathen as well as in the Christian, and the heathen may 
therefore perfectly keep such law as they know. But, if all men have 
this natural ability to do and to be all that is required for perfect 
righteousness, what becomes of grace, of the aid of the Holy Spirit, 
and, in a word, of Christianity ? Pelagius vacillates considerably 
in his use of the word " grace." Sometimes he makes it equivalent 
to natural endowment. Indeed one of his most careful statements 
is to this effect: " We distinguish three things the ability, the will, 
the act (posse, velle, esse). The ability is in nature, and must be 
referred to God, who has bestowed this on His creature; the other 
two, the will and the act, must be referred to man, because they flow 
from the fountain of free will " (Aug., De gr. Christi, ch. 4). But at 
other times he admits a much wider range to grace, so as to make 
Augustine doubt whether his meaning is not, after all, orthodox. 
But, when he speaks of grace " sanctifying," " assisting," and so 
forth, it is only that man may " more easily " accomplish what he 
could with more difficulty accomplish without grace. A decisive 
passage occurs in the letter he sent to the see of Rome along with his 
Confessio fidei : " We maintain that free will exists generally in all 
mankind, in Christians, Jews and Gentiles; they have all equally 
received it by nature, but in Christians only is it assisted by grace. 
In others this good of their original creation is naked and unarmed. 
They shall be judged and condemned because, though possessed of 
free will, by which they might come to the faith and merit the grace 
of God, they make an ill use of their freedom ; while Christians shall 
be rewarded because, by using their free will aright, they merit the 
grace of the Lord and keep His commandments ' (ibid. chs. 33, 34). 
Pelagius allowed to grace everything but the initial determining 
movement towards salvation. He ascribed to the unassisted human 
will power to accept and use the proffered salvation of Christ. It 
was at this point his departure from the Catholic creed could be 
made apparent: Pelagius maintains, expressly and by implication, 
that it is the human will which takes the initiative, and is the 
determining factor in the salvation of the individual; while the 
Church maintains that it is the divine will that takes the initiative 
by renewing and enabling the human will to accept and use the 
aid or grace offered. 

Semipelagianism. It was easy for Augustine to show that this 
was an " impia opinio " ; it was easy for him to expose the defective 
character of a theory of the will which implied that God was not 
holy because He i necessarily holy ; it was easy for him to show that 
the positions of Pelagius were anti-Scriptural (see AUGUSTINE) ; 
but, though his arguments prevailed, they did not wholly convince, 
and the rise of Semipelagianism an attempt to hold a middle course 
between the harshness of Augustinianism and the obvious errors of 
Pelagianism is full of significance. This earnest and conciliatory 
movement discovered itself simultaneously in North Africa and in 
southern Gaul. In the former Church, which naturally desired to 
adhere to the views of its own great theologian, the monks of Adrum- 
etum found themselves either sunk to the verge of despair or pro- 
voked to licentiousness by his predestinarian teaching. When this 
was reported to Augustine he wrote two elaborate treatises to show 
that when God ordains the end He also ordains the means, and if 
any man is ordained to life eternal he is thereby ordained to holiness 
and zealous effort. But meanwhile some of the monks themselves 
had struck out a via media which ascribed to God sovereign grace 
and yet left intact man's responsibility. A similar scheme was 
adopted by Cassian of Marseilles (hence Semipelagians are often 
spoken of as Massilians), and was afterwards ably advocated by 
Vincent of Lerins and Faustus of Rhegium. These writers, in 
opposition to Pelagius, maintained that man was damaged by 
the fall, and seemed indeed disposed to purchase a certificate of 
orthodoxy by the abusive epithets they heaped upon Pelagians 
(ranae, muscae moriturae, &c.). The differentia of Semipelagianism 
is the tenet that in regeneration, and all that results from it, the divine 
and the human will are co-operating (synergistic) coefficient factors. 
After finding considerable acceptance, this theory was ultimately 
condemned, because it retained the root-principle of Pelagianism 
that man has some ability to will good and that the beginning of 
salvation may be with man. The Councils of Orange and Valence 

(529), however, which condemned Semipelagianism, did so with 
the significant restriction that predestination to evil was not to be 
taught a restriction so agreeable to the general feeling of the 
Church that, three centuries after, Gottschalk was sentenced to be 
degraded from the priesthood, scourged and imprisoned for teaching 
reprobation. The questions raised by Pelagius continually recur, 
but, without tracing the strife as sustained by Thomists and Jansen- 
ists on the one side and the Jesuits and Armmians on the other, this 
article can only indicate the general bearing of the controversy on 
society and the Church. 

The anthropology of Pelagius was essentially naturalistic. It 
threatened to supersede grace by nature, to deny all immediate 
divine influence, and so to make Christianity practically useless. 
Pelagius himself did not carry his rationalism through to its issues; 
but the logical consequence of his system was, as Augustine per- 
ceived, the denial of the atonement and other central truths of 
revealed religion. And, while the Pelagians never existed as a sect 
separate from the Church Catholic, yet wherever rationalism has 
infected any part of the Church there Pelagianism has sooner or 
later appeared; and the term " Pelagian " has been continued to 
denote views which minimize the effects of the fall and unduly 
magnify man's natural ability. These views and tendencies have 
appeared in theologies which are not in other respects rationalistic, 
as, e.g. in Arminianism; and their presence in such theologies is 
explained by the desire to remove everything which might seem to 
discourage human effort. 

It is not easy to determine how far the vices which ate so deeply 
into the life of the Church of the middle ages were due to the sharp- 
ness with which some of the severer features of the Augustinian 
theology were defined during the Pelagian controversy. The 
pernicious belief in the magical efficacy of the sacraments and the 
consequent detective ethical power of religion, the superstitious 
eagerness to accept the Church's creed without examining or really 
believing it, the falsity and cruelty engendered and propagated 
by the idea that in the Church's cause all weapons were justifiable, 
these vices were undoubtedly due to the belief that the visible church 
was the sole divinely-appointed repository of grace. And the 
sharply accentuated tone in which Augustinianism affirmed man's 
inability quickened the craving for that grace or direct agency of 
God upon the soul which the Church declared to be needful and 
administered through her divinely appointed persons and sacra- 
ments, and thus brought a decided impulse to the development of 
the sacerdotal system. 

Again, although it may fairly be doubted whether, as Baur 
supposes, Augustine was permanently tainted with the Manichaean 
notion of the inherent evil of matter, it can scarcely be questioned 
that his views on marriage as elicited by the Pelagian controversy 
gave a considerable impulse to the already prevalent idea of the 
superiority of virginity. When the Pelagians declared that Augus- 
tine's theory of original sin discredited marriage by the implication 
that even the children of the regenerate were born in sin, he could 
only reply (De nuptiis et concupiscentia) that marriage now cannot 
partake of the spotless purity of the marriage of unfallen man, and 
that, though what is evil in concupiscence is made a good use of in 
marriage, it is still a thing to be ashamed of not only with the 
shame of natural modesty (which he does not take into account) 
but with the shame of guilt. So that, even although he is careful 
to point out the advantages of marriage, an indelible stigma is still 
left even on the lawful procreation of children. 

" The Pelagians deserve respect," says Harnack, " for their 
purity of motive, their horror of the Manichaean leaven and the 
opus operatum, their insistence on clearness, and their intention 
to defend the Deity. But we cannot but decide that their doctrine 
fails to recognize the misery of sin and evil, that in its deepest roots 
it is godless, that it knows, and seeks to know, nothing of redemption 
and that it is dominated by an empty formalism (a notional mytho- 
logy), which does justice at no single point to actual quantities, 
and on a closer examination consists of sheer contradictions. In the 
form in which this doctrine was expressed by Pelagius and in fact 
also by Julian-^-i.e. with all the accommodations to which he 
condescended, it was not a novelty. But in its fundamental 
thought it was; or rather, it was an innovation because it abandoned 
in spite of all accommodations in expression, the pole of the 
mystical doctrine of redemption, which the Church had steadfastly 
maintained side by side with the doctrine of freedom." 

In the Pelagian controversy some of the fundamental differences 
between the Eastern and Western theologies appear. The former laid 
stress on " the supernatural character of Christianity as a fact in 
the objective world " and developed the doctrines of the Trinity and 
the Incarnation; the Western emphasized " the supernatural charac- 
ter of Christianity as an agency in the subjective world " and 
developed the doctrines of sin and grace. All the Greek fathers 
from Origen to Chrysostum had been jealous for human freedom and 
loath to make sin a natural power, though of course admitting a 
general state of sinfulness. The early British monasteries had been 
connected with the Orient. Pelagius was familiar with the Greek 
language and theology, and when he came to Rome he was much in 
the company of Rufinus and his circle who were endeavouring to 
propagate Greek theology in the Latin Church. 

LITERATURE. Pelagius's Gommentarii in epistolas Pauli, Libellus 


fidei ad Innocenlium and Epistola ad Demetriadem are preserved 
in Jerome's works (vol. v. of Martiani's ed., vol. xi. of Vallarsi's). 
The last-named was also published separately by Semler (Halle, 
1775). There are of course many citations in the Anti-Pelagian 
Treatises of Augustine. On the Commentaries see Journal of Theol. 
Studies, vii. 568, viii. 526; an edition is being prepared for the 
Cambridge Texts and Studies by A. Souter. 

See also F. Wiggers, Darstellung des Augustinismus und Pelagianis- 
mus (2 vols., Berlin, 1831-1832 ; Eng. trans, of vol. i., by R. Emerson, 
Andover, 1840); J. L. Jacobi, Die Lehre d. Pelagius (Leipzig, 1842); 
F. Klasen, Die innere Entivickelung des Pelagianismus (Freiburg, 
1882) ; B. B. Warfield, Two Studies in the History of Doctrine (New 
York, 1893) ; A. Haniack, History of Dogma, Eng. trans., v. 168-202 ; 
F. Loofs, Dogmengeschischte and art. in Hauck-Herzog's Real- 
encyklo. fur prot. Theologie u. Kirche (end of vol. xv.), where a full 
bibliography is given. (M. D.) 

PELASGIANS, a name applied by Greek writers to a pre- 
historic people whose traces were believed to exist in Greek lands. 
If the statements of ancient authorities are marshalled in order 
of their date it will be seen that certain beliefs cannot be traced 
back beyond the age of this or that author. Though this does 
not prove that the beliefs themselves were not held earlier, it 
suggests caution in assuming that they were. In the Homeric 
poems there are Pelasgians among the allies of Troy: in the 
catalogue, Iliad, ii. 840-843, which is otherwise in strict geogra- 
phical order, they stand between the Hellespontine towns and 
the Thracians of south-east Europe, i.e. on the Hellespontine 
border of Thrace. Their town or district is called Larissa and 
is fertile, and they are celebrated for their spearmanship. Their 
chiefs are Hippothous and Pylaeus, sons of Lethus son of 
Teutamus. Iliad, x. 428-429, describes their camping ground 
between the town of Troy and the sea; but this obviously 
proves nothing about their habitat in time of peace. Odyssey, 
xvii. 175-177, notes Pelasgians in Crete, together with two appa- 
rently indigenous and two immigrant peoples (Achaeans and 
Dorians), but gives no indication to which class the Pelasgians 
belong. In Lemnos (Iliad, vii. 467; xiv. 230) there are no 
Pelasgians, but a Minyan dynasty. Two other passages (Iliad, 
ii. 681-684; x vi. 233-235) apply the epithet " Pelasgic " to a 
district called Argos about Mt Othrys in south Thessaly, and 
to Zeus of Dodona. But in neither case are actual Pelasgians 
mentioned; the Thessalian Argos is the specific home of Hellenes 
and Achaeans, and Dodona is inhabited by Perrhaebians and 
Aenianes (Iliad, ii. 750) who are nowhere described as Pelasgian. 
It looks therefore as if " Pelasgian " were here used connota- 
tively, to mean either " formerly occupied by Pelasgian " or 
simply " of immemorial age." 

Hesiod expands the Homeric phrase and calls Dodona " seat 
of Pelasgians " (fr. 225); he speaks also of a personal Pelasgus 
as father of Lycaon, the culture-hero of Arcadia; and a later 
epic poet, Asius, describes Pelasgus as the first man, whom 
the earth threw up that there might be a race of men. Hecataeus 
makes Pelasgus king of Thessaly (expounding Iliad, ii. 681-684) ; 
Acusilaus applies this Homeric passage to the Peloponnesian 
Argos, and engrafts the Hesiodic Pelasgus, father of Lycaon, 
into a Peloponnesian genealogy. Hellanicus a generation later 
repeats this blunder, and identifies this Argive and Arcadian 
Pelasgus with the Thessalian Pelasgus of Hecataeus. For 
Aeschylus (Supplices i, sqq.) Pelasgus is earthborn, as in Asius, 
and rules a kingdom stretching from Argos to Dodona and the 
Strymon; but in Prometheus 879, the " Pelasgian " land simply 
means Argos. Sophocles takes the same view (Inachus, fr. 256) 
and for the first time introduces the word " Tyrrhenian " into 
the story, apparently as synonymous with Pelasgian. 

Herodotus, like Homer, has a denotative as well as a conno- 
tative use. He describes actual Pelasgians surviving and 
mutually intelligible (a) at Placie and Scylace on the Asiatic 
shore of the Hellespont, and (b) near Creston on the Strymon; 
in the latter area they have " Tyrrhenian " neighbours. He 
alludes to other districts where Pelasgian peoples lived on under 
changed names; Samothrace and Antandrus in Troas are 
probably instances of this. In Lemnos and Imbros he describes 
a Pelasgian population who were only conquered by Athens 
shortly before 500 B.C., and in this connexion he tells a story of 
earlier raids of these Pelasgians on Attica, and of a temporary 
xxi. 3 

settlement there of Hellespontine Pelasgians, all dating from a 
time " when the Athenians were first beginning to count as 
Greeks." Elsewhere " Pelasgian " in Herodotus connotes 
anything typical of, or surviving from, the state of things in 
Greece before the coming of the Hellenes. In this sense all 
Greece was once " Pelasgic "; the clearest instances of Pelasgian 
survival in ritual and customs and antiquities are in Arcadia, 
the " Ionian " districts of north-west Peloponnese, and Attica, 
which have suffered least from hellenization. In Athens itself 
the prehistoric wall of the citadel and a plot of ground close 
below it were venerated in the 5th century as " Pelasgian "; so 
too Thucydides (ii. 17). We may note that all Herodotean 
examples of actual Pelasgi lie round, or near, the actual Pelasgi 
of Homeric Thrace; that the most distant of these is confirmed 
by the testimony of Thucydides (iv. 106) as to the Pelasgian 
and Tyrrhenian population of the adjacent seaboard: also 
that Thucydides adopts the same general Pelasgian theory of 
early Greece, with the refinement that he regards the Pelasgian 
name as originally specific, and as having come gradually into 
this generic use. 

Ephorus, relying on Hesiodic tradition of an aboriginal Pelas- 
gian type in Arcadia, elaborated a theory of the Pelasgians as a 
warrior- people spreading (like " Aryans ") from a " Pelasgian 
home," and annexing and colonizing all the parts of Greece 
where earlier writers had found allusions to them, from Dodona 
to Crete and the Troad, and even as far as Italy, where again 
their settlements had been recognized as early as the time of 
Hellanicus, in close connexion once more with " Tyrrhenians." 

The copious additional information given by later writers 
is all by way either of interpretation of local legends in the light 
of Ephorus's theory, or of explanation of the name" Pelasgoi "; 
as when Philochorus expands a popular etymology " stork-folk " 
(ireXacryoi 7reXap7of) into a theory of their seasonal migrations; 
or Apollodorus says that Homer calls Zeus Pelasgian " because 
he is not far from every one of us," &n TTJS 77}$ TeXas tariv. 
The connexion with Tyrrhenians which began with Hellanicus, 
Herodotus and Sophocles becomes confusion with them in the 
3rd century, when the Lemnian pirates and their Attic kinsmen 
are plainly styled Tyrrhenians, and early fortress-walls in Italy 
(like those on the Palatine in Rome) are quoted as " Arcadian " 

Modern writers have either been content to restate or amplify 
the view, ascribed above to Ephorus, that " Pelasgian " simply 
means " prehistoric Greek," or have used the name Pelasgian 
at their pleasure to denote some one element in the mixed 
population of the Aegean Thracian, Illyrian (Albanian) or 
Semitic. G. Sergi (Origine e diffusions delta stirpe mcditer- 
ranea, Rome, 1895; Eng. trans. The Mediterranean Race, 
London, 1901), followed by many anthropologists, describes 
as " Pelasgian " one branch of the Mediterranean or Eur-African 
race of mankind, and one group of types of skull within that race. 
The character of the ancient citadel wall at Athens, already 
mentioned, has given the name " Pelasgic masonry " to all 
constructions of large unhewn blocks fitted roughly together 
without mortar, from Asia Minor to Spain. 

For another view than that here taken see ACHAEANS; also 
GREECE: Ancient History, 3, " Homeric Age." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Besides sections on the subject in all principal 
histories of Greece and bibliographies in G. Busolt, Gr. Geschichte, 
i 2 (Gotha, 1893, 164-182) ; and K. F. Hermann (Thumser), Gr. Staats- 
alterthumer, 6, see S. Bruck, Quae veteres de Pelasgis tradiderint 
(Breslau, 1884) ; B. Giseke, Thrakisch-pelasgische Stdmme auf der 
Balkanhalbinsel (Leipzig, 1858); F. G. Hahn, Albanesische Studien 
(Jena, 1854); P. Volkmuth, Die Pelasger als Semiten (Schaffhausen, 
1860); H. Kiepert, Monatsbericht d. berl. Akademie (1861), pp. 114 
sqq.; K. Pauli, Eine vorgriechische^ InschriU auf Lemnos (Leipzig, 
1886); E. Meyer, " Die Pelasger " in Forschungen z. alien Geschichte 
(Halle, 1892), i. 124; W. Ridgeway, Early Age of Greece (Cambridge, 
1901), vol. i. ; J. L. Myres, " A History of the Pelasgian Theory " 
(in Journal of Hellenic Studies, xxvii. 170); H. Marsh, Horae 
pelasgicae (Cambridge, 1815); L. Benloew, La Greet avant les Grecs 
(Paris, 1877). (J. L. M.) 

PELEUS, in Greek legend, king of the Myrmidones of Phthia 
in Thessaly, son of Aeacus, king of Aegina, and brother (or 



intimate friend) of Telamon. The two brothers, jealous of the 
athletic prowess of their step-brother Phocus, slew him; but the 
crime was discovered, and Peleus and Telamon were banished. 
Peleus took refuge in Phthia with his uncle Eurytion, who 
purified him from the guilt of murder, and gave him his daughter 
Antigone to wife, and a third of the kingdom as her dowry. 
Having accidentally killed his father-in-law at the Calydonian 
boar-hunt, Peleus was again obliged to flee, this time to lolcus, 
where he was purified by Acastus. The most famous event in 
the life of Peleus was his marriage with the sea-goddess Thetis, 
by whom he became the father of Achilles. The story ran that 
both Zeus and Poseidon had sought her hand, but, Themis 
(or Prometheus or Proteus) having warned the former that a 
son of Thetis by Zeus would prove mightier than his father, 
the gods decided to marry her to Peleus. Thetis, to escape a 
distasteful union, changed herself into various forms, but at 
last Peleus, by the instructions of Chiron, seized and held her 
fast till she resumed her original shape, and was unable to 
offer further resistance. The wedding (described in the fine 
Epilhalamium of Catullus) took place in Chiron's cave on Mt 
Pelion. Peleus survived both his son Achilles and his grandson 
Neoptolemus, and was carried away by Thetis to dwell for ever 
among the Nereids. 

See Apollodorus iii. 12, 13; Ovid, Metam. xi; Pindar, 'Isthmia, 
viii. 70, Nemea, iv. 101; Catullus, Ixiv.; schol. Apoll. Rhod. iv. 816; 
Euripides, Andromache, 1242-1260. 

PELEW ISLANDS (Ger. Palauinseln, also Palao), a group of 
twenty-six islands in the western Pacific Ocean, between 2 35' 
and 9 N., and 130 4' and 134 40' E., belonging to Germany. 
They lie within a coral barrier reef, and in the south the islands 
are of coral, but in the north of volcanic rocks. They are well 
wooded, the climate is healthy, and the water-supply good. 
A few rats and bats represent the indigenous mammals, but the 
sea is rich in fish and molluscs; and Dr Otto Finsch (Journ. des 
Museum Godefroy, 1875) enumerated 56 species of birds, of 
which 12 are peculiar to the group. The total area is 175 sq. m., 
the largest islands being Babeltop (Babelthuap, Baobeltaob and 
other variants), Uruktapi (Urukthopel), Korror, Nyaur, Peleliu 
and Eilmalk (Irakong). The population is about 3100. The 
natives are Micronesians, and are darker and shorter than their 
kinsmen, the Caroline Islanders. They usually have the frizzly 
hair of the Melanesians, and paint their bodies in brilliant colours, 
especially yellow. The men vary in height from 5 ft. to 5 ft. 5 in., 
the women from 4 ft. 9 to 5 ft. 2 in. The skull shows a strong 
tendency to brachycephalism. Two curious customs may be 
noted the institution of an honourable order bestowed by the 
king, called klilt; and a species of mutual aid society, sometimes 
confined to women, and possessing considerable political influ- 
ence. There are five kinds of currency in the islands, consisting 
of beads of glass and enamel, to which a supernatural origin is 

The islands were sighted in 1543 by Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, 
who named them the Arrecifos. The origin of the 
name Islas Palaos is doubtful. The islands were bought by 
Germany from Spain in 1899, and are administered together 
with the western Carolines, Yap being the administrative 

See K. Semper, Die Palau-Inseln (Leipzig, 1873); J. S. Kubary, 
Die sozialen Einrichtungen der Palauer (Berlin, 1885) ; A. A. Marche, 
et Palouan (Paris, 1887). 

PELF, a term now chiefly used of money and always in a 
derogatory sense. The word originally meant plunder, pillage 
(O. Fr. Pelfre, probably from Lat. pilare, to deprive of hair, pilus), 
and this significance is still kept in the related word " pilfer," to 
make petty thefts. 

PELHAM, the name of an English farrfily, derived from Pelham 
in Hertfordshire, which was owned by a certain Walter de 
Pelham under Edward I., and is alleged to have been in the 
possession of the same family before the Norman conquest. 
The family dignities included the barony of Pelham of Laughton 
(1706-1768), the earldom of Clare (1714-1768), the dukedom of 
Newcastle (1715-1768), the barony of Pelham of Stanmer from 

1762, the earldom of Chichester from 1801 and the earldom of 
Yarborough from 1837. 

JOHN DE PELHAM, who was one of the captors of John II. of 
France at Poitiers, acquired land at Winchelsea by his marriage 
with Joan Herbert, or Finch. His son, JOHN DE PELHAM (d. 
1429), was attached to the party of John of Gaunt and his son 
Henry IV. In 1393 he received a life appointment as constable 
of Pevensey Castle, an honour subsequently extended to his 
heirs male, and he joined Henry on his invasion in 1399, if he 
did not actually land with him at Ravenspur. He was knighted 
at Henry's coronation, and represented Sussex in parliament 
repeatedly during the reign of Henry IV., and again in 1422 and 
1427. As constable of Pevensey he had at different times the 
charge of Edward, duke of York, in 1405; Edmund, earl of 
March, with his brother Roger Mortimer in 1406; James I. of 
Scotland in 1414; Sir John Mortimer in 1422, and the queen 
dowager, Joan of Navarre, from 1418 to 1422. He was con- 
stantly employed in the defence of the southern ports against 
French invasion, and his powers were increased in 1407 by his 
appointment as chief butler of Chichester and of the Sussex 
ports, and in 1412 by the grant of the rape of Hastings. He 
was treasurer of England in 1412-1413, and although he was 
superseded on the accession of Henry V. he was sent in the 
next year to negotiate with the French court. He was included 
among the executors of the wills of Henry IV., of Thomas, duke 
of Clarence, and of Henry V. He died on the I2th of February 
1429, and was succeeded by his son John, who took part in 
Henry V.'s expedition to Normandy in 1417. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth Sir WILLIAM PELHAM (c. 1530- 
1587), third son of Sir William Pelham (d. 1538) of Laughton, 
Sussex, became lord justice of Ireland. He was captain of 
pioneers at the siege of Leith in 1560, and served at the siege 
of Havre in 1562, and with Coligny at Caen in 1563. He then 
returned to Havre, at that time occupied by English troops, 
and was one of the hostages for the fulfilment of its surrender 
to Charles IX. in 1564. After his return to England he fortified 
Berwick among other places, and was appointed lieutenant- 
general of ordnance. He was sent to Ireland in IS79, when he 
was knighted by Sir William Drury, the lord justice. Drury 
died in October, and Pelham was provisionally made his 
successor, an appointment subsequently confirmed by Elizabeth. 
Alarmed by the proceedings of Gerald Fitzgerald, i$th earl of 
Desmond, and his brother John Desmond, he proclaimed the 
earl a traitor. Elizabeth protested strongly against Pelham's 
action, which was justified by the sack of Youghal by Desmond. 
Thomas Butler, loth earl of Ormonde, was entrusted with the 
campaign in Munster, but Pelham joined him in February 1 580, 
when it was believed that a Spanish descent was about to be 
made in the south-west. The English generals laid waste 
northern Kerry, and proceeded to besiege Carrigafoyle Castle, 
which they stormed, giving no quarter to man, woman or child. 
Other strongholds submitted on learning the fate of Carrigafoyle, 
and were garrisoned by Pelham, who hoped with the concourse 
of Admiral Winter's fleet to limit the struggle to Kerry. He 
vainly sought help from the gentry of the county, who sym- 
pathized with Desmond, and were only brought to submission by 
a series of " drives." After the arrival of the new deputy, Lord 
Grey of Wilton, Pelham returned to England on the ground of 
health. He had retained his office as lieutenant-general of 
ordnance, and was now made responsible for debts incurred 
during his absence. Leicester desired his services in the Nether- 
lands, but it was only after much persuasion that Elizabeth set 
him free to join the army by accepting a mortgage on his estates 
as security for his liabilities. The favour shown by Leicester 
to Pelham caused serious jealousies among the English officers, 
and occasioned a camp brawl in which Sir Edward Norris 
was injured. Pelham was wounded at Doesburg in 1586, and 
accompanied Leicester to England in 1587. Returning to the 
Netherlands in the same year he died at Flushing on the 24th of 
November 1587. His half-brother, Sir Edmund Pelham (d. 
1606), chief baron of the exchequer in Ireland, was the first 
English judge to go on circuit in Ulster. 



Sir William married Eleanor, daughter of Henry Neville, 
earl of Westmorland, and was the ancestor of the Pelhams of 
Brocklesby, Lincolnshire. In the fourth generation Charles 
Pelham died in 1763 without heirs, leaving his estates to his 
great-nephew Charles Anderson (1749-1823), who thereupon 
assumed the additional name of Pelham, and was created Baron 
Yarborough in 1794. His son Charles (1781-1846), who was 
for many years commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron, was 
created earl of Yarborough and Baron Worsley in 1837. Charles 
Alfred Worsley, the 4th earl (b. 1859), exchanged the name of 
Anderson- Pelham for that of Pelham in 1905. He married in 
1886 Marcia Lane-Fox, eldest daughter of the izth Baron 
Conyers, who became in 1892 Baroness Conyers in her own 

Sir NICHOLAS PELHAM (1517-1560), an elder half-brother of 
Sir William Pelham, defended Seaford against the French in 
1545, and sat for Arundel and for Sussex in parliament. He 
was the ancestor of the earls of Chichester. His second son, 
Sir THOMAS PELHAM (d. 1 6 24) , was created a baronet in 1 6 1 1 . His 
descendant, Sir THOMAS PELHAM, 4th baronet (c. 1650-1712), 
represented successively East Grinstead, Lewes and Sussex in 
parliament, and was raised to the House of Lords as Baron 
Pelham of Laughton in 1706. By his second marriage with 
Grace (d. 1700), daughter of Gilbert Holies, 3rd earl of Clare, 
and sister of John Holies, duke of Newcastle, he had five daugh- 
ters, and two sons Thomas Pelham, earl of Clare, duke of 
Newcastle-on-Tyne and ist duke of Newcastle-under-Lyme (see 
NEWCASTLE, DUKES OF), and Henry Pelham (q.v.Y The duke 
of Newcastle died without heirs, and the dukedom of Newcastle- 
under-Lyme descended to his nephew, Henry Fiennes Clinton, 
afterwards known as Pelham-Clinton, and his heirs, but the 
barony of Pelham of Laughton became extinct. In 1762 
Newcastle had been created Baron Pelham of Stanmer, with 
reversion to his cousin and heir-male, THOMAS PELHAM (1728- 
1805), who became commissioner of trade (1754), lord of the 
admiralty (1761-1764), comptroller of the household (1765- 
1774), privy councillor (1765), surveyor-general of the customs 
of London (1773-1805), chief justice in eyre (1774-1775) and 
keeper of the wardrobe (1775-1782), and was created earl of 
Chichester in 1801. His third son, George (1766-1827), was 
successively bishop of Bristol, Exeter and Lincoln. THOMAS 
PELHAM, 2nd earl of Chichester (1756-1826), son of the ist 
earl, was surveyor-general of ordnance in Lord Rockingham's 
ministry (1782), and chief secretary for Ireland in the coalition 
ministry of 1783. In 1795 he became Irish chief secretary 
under Pitt's government, retiring in 1798; he was home secre- 
tary from July 1801 to August 1803 under Addington, who 
made him chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster in 1803. 
Pelham went out of office in 1804, and in the next year 
succeeded to the earldom. He was joint postmaster-general 
from 1807 to 1823, and for the remaining three years of his 
life postmaster-general. His son and heir, HENRY THOMAS 
PELHAM (1804-1886), 3rd earl, was an ecclesiastical commissioner 
from 1850 until his death, and was greatly interested in various 
religious, philanthropic and educational movements; and two 
other sons were well-known men Frederick Thomas Pelham 
(1808-1861), who became a rear-admiral in 1858, and subse- 
quently lord-commissioner of the admiralty, and John Thomas 
Pelham (1811-1894), who was bishop of Norwich from 1857 to 
1893. The third earl's son, Walter John Pelham (1838-1892), 
succeeded his father in 1886, and his nephew Jocelyn Brudenell 
Pelham (b. 1871) became 6th earl of Chichester in 1905. 

PELHAM, HENRY (1696-1754), prime minister of England, 
younger brother of Thomas Holies Pelham, duke of Newcastle, 
was born in 1696. He was a younger son of Thomas, ist Baron 
Pelham of Laughton (1650-1712; cr. 1706) and of Lady Grace 
Holies, daughter of the 3rd earl of Clare (see above). He was 
educated by a private tutor and at Christ Church, Oxford, 
which he entered in July 1710. As a volunteer he served in 
Dormer's regiment at the battle of Preston in 1715, spent some 
time on the Continent, and in 1717 entered parliament for 
Seaford, Sussex. Through strong family influence and the 

recommendation of Walpole he was chosen in 1721 a lord of the 
Treasury. The following year he was returned for Sussex county. 
In 1724 he entered the ministry as secretary of war, but this 
office he exchanged in 1730 for the more lucrative one of 
paymaster of the forces. He made himself conspicuous by 
his support of Walpole on the question of the excise, and in 
1743 a union of parties resulted in the formation of an adminis- 
tration in which Pelham was prime minister, with the office of 
chancellor of the exchequer; but rank and influence made his 
brother, the duke of Newcastle, very powerful in the cabinet, 
and, in spite of a genuine attachment, there were occasional 
disputes between them, which led to difficulties. Being strongly 
in favour of peace, Pelham carried on the war with languor and 
indifferent success, but the country, wearied of the interminable 
struggle, was disposed to acquiesce in his foreign policy almost 
without a murmur. The king, thwarted in his favourite 
schemes, made overtures in 1746 to Lord Bath, but his purpose 
was upset by the resignation of the two Pelhams (Henry and 
Newcastle), who, however, at the king's request, resumed office. 
Pelham remained prime minister till his death on the 6th of 
March 1754, when his brother succeeded him. His very defects 
were among the chief elements of Pelham's success, for one with 
a strong personality, moderate self-respect, or high conceptions 
of statesmanship could not have restrained the discordant 
elements of the cabinet for any length of time. Moreover, he 
possessed tact and a thorough acquaintance with the forms of the 
house. Whatever quarrels or insubordination might exist 
within the cabinet, they never broke out into open revolt. Nor 
can a high degree of praise be denied to his financial policy, 
especially his plans for the reduction of the national debt and 
the simplification and consolidation of its different branches. 
He had married in 1 726 Lady Catherine Manners, daughter of the 
2nd duke of Rutland; and one of his daughters married Henry 
Fiennes Clinton, 2nd duke of Newcastle. 

See W. Coxe, Memoirs of the Pelham Administration. (2 vols., 
1829). For the family history see Lower, Pelham Family (1873); 
also the Pelham and Newcastle MSS. in the British Museum. 

PELHAM, HENRY FRANCIS (1846-1907), English scholar 
and historian, was born at Berg Apton, Norfolk, on the igth 
of September 1846, son of the Hon. John Thomas Pelham 
(1811-1894), bishop of Norwich, third son of the 2nd earl of 
Chichester. He was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, 
Oxford, where he took a first class in literae humaniores in 
1869. He was a tutor of Exeter College from 1869 to 1890. In 
1887 he became university reader in ancient history, and two 
years later was elected to the Camden professorship. He 
became curator of the Bodleian library in 1892, and in 1897 
president of Trinity College. He was also a fellow of Brasenose 
College, honorary fellow of Exeter, a fellow of the British 
Academy and of other learned societies, and a governor of 
Harrow School. His chief contribution to ancient history was 
his article on Roman history in the gth edition of the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica (1886), which was republished with additions 
as the Outlines of Roman History (1890). His university lectures, 
though perhaps lacking in inspiration, were full of original 
research and learning. His death on the I3th of February 1907 
not only prevented the publication in systematic form of his own 
important researches, but also delayed the appearance of much 
that had been left in MS. by H. Furneaux and A. H. J. Greenidge, 
and was at the time under his charge. Apart from the Outlines 
he published only The Imperial Domains and the Colonate (1890), 
The Roman Frontier System (1895), and articles in periodicals 
of which the most important was an article in the Quarterly 
Review on the early Caesars (April, 1905). He did much for the 
study of archaeology at Oxford, materially assisted the Hellenic 
Society and the British School at Athens, and was one of the 
founders of the British School at Rome. He married in 1873 
Laura Priscilla, daughter of Sir Edward North Buxton. 

PELIAS, in Greek legend, son of Poseidon and Tyro, daughter 
of Salmoneus. Because Tyro afterwards married her father's 
brother Cretheus, king of lolcus in Thessaly, to whom she bore 
Aeson, Pheres and Amythaon, Pelias was by some thought to be 



the son of Cretheus. He and his twin-brother Neleus were 
exposed by their mother, but were nurtured by a herdsman. 
When grown to manhood they were acknowledged by their 
mother. After the death of Cretheus, Pelias made himself master 
of the kingdom of lolous, having previously quarrelled with 
Neleus, who removed to Messenia, where he founded Pylos. 
In. order to rid himself of Jason, Pelias sent him to Colchis in 
quest of the golden fleece, and took advantage of his absence 
to put to death his father, Aeson, his mother and brother. 
When Jason returned he sought to avenge the death of his 
parents, and Medea persuaded the daughters of Pelias to cut in 
pieces and boil their father, assuring them that he would thus 
be restored to youth. Acastus, son of Pelias, drove out Jason 
and Medea and celebrated funeral games in honour of his father, 
which were celebrated by the poet Stesichorus and represented 
on the chest of Cypselus. The death of Pelias was the subject 
of Sophocles' Rhizotomoi (Root-cutters), and in the Tyro he 
treated another portion of the legend. Peliades (the daughters 
of Pelias) was the name of Euripides' first play. 

PELICAN (Fr. Pelican; Lat. Pelecanus or Pdicanus), a large 
fish-eating water-fowl, remarkable for the enormous pouch 
formed by the extensible skin between the lower jaws of its long, 
and apparently formidable but in reality very weak, bill. The 
ordinary pelican, the Onocrotalus of the ancients, to whom it was 
well known, and the Pelecanus onocrotalus of ornithologists, 
is a very abundant bird in some districts of south-eastern 
Europe, south-western Asia and north-eastern Africa, occasionally 
straying, it is believed, into the northern parts of Germany and 
France; but the possibility of such wanderers having escaped 
from confinement is always to be regarded, 1 since few zoological 
gardens are without examples. Its usual haunts are the shallow 
margins of the larger lakes and rivers, where fishes are plentiful, 
since it requires for its sustenance a vast supply of them. The 
nest is formed among reeds, placed on the ground and lined with 
grass. Therein two eggs, with white, chalky shells, are com- 
monly laid. The young during the first twelvemonth are of a 
greyish-brown, but when mature almost the whole plumage, 
except the black primaries, is white, deeply suffused by a rich 
blush of rose or salmon-colour, passing into yellow on the crest 
and lower part of the neck in front. A second and somewhat 
larger species, Pelecanus crispus, also inhabits Europe, but has 
a more eastern distribution. This, when adult, is readily dis- 
tinguishable from the ordinary bird by the absence of the blush 
from its plumage, and by the curled feathers that project from 
and overhang each side of the head, which with some difference 
of coloration of the bill, pouch, bare skin round the eyes and 
irides give it a wholly distinct expression. Two specimens of the 
humerus have been found in the English fens (Ibis, 1868, p. 363; 
Proc. Zool. Society, 1871, p. 702), thus proving the existence of 
the bird in England at no very distant period, and one of them 
being that of a young example points to its having been bred 
in this country. It is possible from their large size that they 
belonged to P. crispus. Ornithologists have been much divided 
in opinion as to the number of living species of the genus Pele- 
canus (cf. op. til., 1868, p. 264; 1869, p. 571; 1871, p. 631) the 
estimate varying from six to ten or eleven; but the former is the 
number recognized by M. Dubois (Bull. Mus. de Belgique, 1883). 
North America has one, P. erythrorhynchus, very similar to 
P. onocrotalus both in appearance and habits, but remarkable 
for a triangular, horny excrescence developed on the ridge of the 
male's bill in the breeding season, which falls off without leaving 
trace of its existence when that is over. Australia has P. 
conspicillatus, easily distinguished by its black tail and wing- 
coverts. Of more marine habit are P. philippensis and P.fuscus, 
the former having a wide range in Southern Asia, and, it is said, 
reaching Madagascar, and the latter common on the coasts of 
the warmer parts of both North and South America. 
The genus Pelecanus as instituted by Linnaeus included the 
1 This caution was not neglected by the prudent, even so long ago 
as Sir Thomas Browne's days; for he, recording the occurrence of a 
pelican in Norfolk, was careful to notice that about the same time one 
of the pelicans kept by the king (Charles II.) in St James's Park, 
had been lost. 

cormorant (q.v.) and gannet (q.v.) as well as the true pelicans, 
and for a long while these and some other distinct groups, as the 
snake-birds (q.v.), frigate-birds (q.v.) and tropic -birds (q.v.), 
which have all the four toes of the foot connected by a web, were 
regarded as forming a single family, Pelecanidae; but this name 
has now been restricted to the pelicans only, though all are 
still usually associated in the suborder Steganopodes of Ciconii- 
form birds. It may be necessary to state that there is no founda- 
tion for the venerable legend of the pelican feeding her young 
with blood from her own breast, which has given it an important 
place in ecclesiastical heraldry, except that, as A. D. Bartlett 
suggested (Proc. Zool. Society, 1869, p. 146), the curious bloody 
secretion ejected from the mouth of the flamingo may have 
given rise to the belief, through that bird having been mistaken 
for the " Pelican of the wilderness." 2 (A. N.) 

PELION, a wooded mountain in Thessaly in the district of 
Magnesia, between Volo and the east coast. Its highest point 
(mod. Plessidi) is 5340 ft. It is famous in Greek mythology; 
the giants are said to have piled it on Ossa in order to scale 
Olympus, the abode of the gods; it was the home of the centaurs, 
especially of Chiron, who had a cave near its summit, and 
educated many youthful heroes; the ship " Argo " was built 
from its pine-woods. On its summit was an altar of Zeus 
Actaeus, in whose honour an annual festival was held in the 
dog-days, and worshippers clad themselves in skins. 

PELISSE (through the Fr. from Lat. pellicia: sc. veslis, a 
garment made of fur, pellis, skin), properly a name of a cloak 
made of or lined with fur, hence particularly used of the fur- 
trimmed " dolman " worn slung from the shoulders by hussar 
regiments. The word is now chiefly employed as the name of a 
long-sleeved cloak of any material worn by women and children. 

PEllSSIER, AIMABLE JEAN JACQUES (1794-1864), duke 
of Malakoff, marshal of France, was born on the 6th of November 
1794 at Maromme (Seine Inferieure), of a family of prosperous 
artisans or yeoman, his father being employed in a powder- 
magazine. After attending the military college of La Fleche 
and the special school of St Cyr, he in 1815 entered the army as 
sub-lieutenant in an artillery regiment. A brilliant examination 
in 1819 secured his appointment to the staff. He served as 
aide-de-camp in the Spanish campaign of 1823, and in the 
expedition to the Morea in 1828-29. In 1830 he took part in 
the expedition to Algeria, and on his return was promoted to 
the rank of chef d'escadron. After some years' staff service in 
Paris he was again sent to Algeria as chief of staff of the province 
of Oran with the rank of lieutenant-colonel, and remained there 
till the Crimean War, taking a prominent part in many important 
operations. The severity of his conduct in suffocating a whole 
Arab tribe in the Dahra or Dahna caves, near Mustaganem, where 
they had taken refuge (June 18, 1845), awakened such indig- 
nation in Europe that Marshal Soult, the minister of war, publicly 
expressed his regret; but Marshal Bugeaud, the governor-general 
of Algeria, not only gave it his approval, but secured 
for Pelissier the rank of general of brigade, which he held till 
1850, when he was promoted general of division. After the 
battles of October and November 1854 before Sevastopol, 
Pelissier was sent to the Crimea, where on the i6th of May 1855 
he succeeded Marshal Canrobert as commander-in-chief of the 
French forces before Sevastopol (see CRIMEAN WAR). His 
command was marked by relentless pressure of the enemy and 
unalterable determination to conduct the campaign without 
interference from Paris. His perseverance was crowned with 

1 The legend was commonly believed in the middle ages. 
Epiphanius, bishop of Constantly, in his Physiologus (1588), writes 
that the female bird, in cherishing her young, wounds them with 
loving, and pierces their sides, and they die. After three days the 
male pelican comes and finds them dead, and his heart is pained. 
He smites his own side, and as he stands over the wounds of the dead 
young ones the blood trickles down, and thus are they made alive 
again. The pelican " in his piety " -4.e. in this pious act of reviving 
his offspring was a common subject for 15th-century emblem 
books; it became a symbol of self-sacrifice, a type of Christian 
redemption and of the Eucharistic doctrine. The device was 
adopted by Bishop Fox in 1516 for his new college of Corpus Christi, 
Oxford. [H. CH.l 



success in the storming of the Malakoff on the 8th of September. 
On the 1 2th he was promoted to be marshal. On his return to 
Paris he was named senator, created duke of Malakoff (July 22, 
1856), and rewarded with a grant of 100,000 francs per annum. 
From March 1858 to May 1859 he was French ambassador in 
London, whence he was recalled to take command of the army 
of observation on the Rhine. In the same year he became 
grand chancellor of the Legion of Honour. In 1860 he was 
appointed governor-general of Algeria, and he died there on the 
2 and of May 1864. 

See Marbaud, Le Marechal Pelissier (1863); Castillo, Portraits 
historiques, 2nd series (1859). 

PELL, JOHN (1610-1685), English mathematician, was born 
on the ist of March 1610 at Southwick in Sussex, where his 
father was minister. He was educated at Steyning, and entered 
Trinity College, Cambridge, at the age of thirteen. During his 
university career he became an accomplished linguist, and even 
before he took his M.A. degree (in 1630) corresponded with 
Henry Briggs and other mathematicians. His great reputation 
and the influence of Sir William Boswell, the English resident, 
with the states-general procured his election in 1643 to the chair 
of mathematics in Amsterdam, whence he removed in 1646, 
on the invitation of the prince of Orange, to Breda, where he 
remained till 1652. 

From 1654 to 1658 Pell acted as Cromwell's political agent 
to the Protestant cantons of Switzerland. On his return to 
England he took orders and was appointed by Charles II. to 
the rectory of Fobbing in Essex, and in 1673 he was presented 
by Bishop Sheldon to the rectory of Laindon in the same county. 
His devotion to mathematical science seems to have interfered 
alike with his advancement in the Church and with the proper 
management of his private affairs. For a time he was confined 
as a debtor in the king's bench prison. He lived, on the 
invitation of Dr Whistler, for a short time in 1682 at the College 
of Physicians, but died on the I2th of December 1685 at the 
house of Mr Cothorne, reader of the church of St Giles-in-the 
Fields. Many of Pell's manuscripts fell into the hands of Dr 
Busby, master of Westminster School, and afterwards came into 
the possession of the Royal Society; they are still preserved in 
something like forty folio volumes, which contain, not only 
Pell's own memoirs, but much of his correspondence with the 
mathematicians of his time. 

The Diophantine analysis was a favourite subject with Pell; 
he lectured on it at Amsterdam; and he is now best remembered 
for the indeterminate equation ai 2 + l=y 2 , which is known by his 
name. This problem was proposed by Pierre de Fermat first to 
Bernhard Frenicle de Bessy, and in 1657 to all mathematicians. 
Pell's connexion with the problem simply consists of the publication 
of the solutions of John Wallis and Lord Brounker in his edition of 
Branker's Translation of Rhonius's Algebra (1668). His chief works 
are: Astronomical History of Observations of Heavenly Motions and 
Appearances (1634); Ediptica prognostica (1634); Controversy with 
Longomontanus concerning the Quadrature of the Circle (1646?); 
An Idea of the Matliematics, I2mo (1650); A Table of Ten Thousand 
Square Numbers (fol. ; 1672). 

PELLA, the capital of ancient Macedonia under Philip II. 
(who transferred the seat of government hither from Edessa) 
and Alexander the Great, who was born here. It seems to have 
retained some importance up to the time of Hadrian. Scanty 
remains exist and some springs in the neighbourhood are still 
known as the baths of Pel. The site (identified by Leake) is 
occupied by the village of Neochori (Turk. Yeni-Keui) about 
32m. north-west of Salonika. 

PELLAGRA (Ital. pelle agra, smarting skin), the name given, 
from one of its early symptoms, to a peculiar disease, of com- 
paratively modern origin. For some time it was supposed to 
be practically confined to the peasantry in parts of Italy (particu- 
larly Lombardy) and France, and in the Asturias (mal de la 
rosa), Rumania and Corfu. But it has recently been identified 
in various outlying parts of the British Empire (Barbadoes, 
India) and in both Lower and Upper Egypt; also among the 
Zulus and Basutos. In the United States sporadic cases had 
been observed up to 1906, but since then numerous cases have 
been reported. It is in Italy, however, that it has been most 

prevalent. The malady is essentially chronic in character. 
The indications usually begin in the spring of the year, declining 
towards autumn, and recurring with increasing intensity and 
permanence in the spring seasons following. A peasant who 
is acquiring the malady feels unfit for work, suffers from head- 
aches, giddiness, singing in the ears, a burning of the skin, 
especially in the hands and feet, and diarrhoea. At the same 
time a red rash appears on the skin, of the nature of erysipelas, 
the red or livid spots being tense and painful, especially where 
they are directly exposed to the sun. About July or August 
of the first season these symptoms disappear, the spots on the 
skin remaining rough and dry. The spring attack of the year 
following will probably be more severe and more likely to leave 
traces behind it; with each successive year the patient becomes 
more like a mummy, his skin shrivelled and sallow, or even 
black at certain spots, as in Addison's disease, his angles pro- 
truding, his muscles wasted, his movements slow and languid, 
and his sensibility diminished. Meanwhile there are more special 
symptoms relating to the nervous system, including drooping 
of the eyelid, dilatation of the pupil, and other disorders of 
vision, together with symptoms relating to the digestive system, 
such as a red and dry tongue, a burning feeling in the mouth, 
pain on swallowing, and diarrhoea. After a certain stage the 
disease passes into a profound disorganization of the nervous 
system; there is a tendency to melancholy, imbecility, and a 
curious mummified condition of body. After death a general 
tissue degeneration is observed. 

The causation of this obscure disease has recently come up 
for new investigation in connexion with the new work done in 
relation to sleeping-sickness and other tropical diseases. So 
long as it was supposed to be peculiar to the Italian peasantry, 
it was associated simply with their staple diet, and was regarded 
as due to the eating of mouldy maize. It was by his views in 
this regard that Lombroso (q.v.) first made his scientific reputa- 
tion. But the area of maize consumption is now known to be 
wider than that of pellagra, and pellagra is found where maize 
is at least not an ordinary diet. In 1905 Dr L. W. Sambon, at 
the meeting of the British Medical Association, suggested that 
pellagra was probably protozoal in origin, and subsequently 
he announced his belief that the protozoon was communicated 
by sand-flies, just as sleeping-sickness by the tsetse fly; and this 
opinion was supported by the favourable action of arsenic in 
the treatment of the disease. His hypothesis was endorsed 
by Sir Patrick Manson, and in January 1910 an influential 
committee was formed, to enable Dr Sambon to pursue his 
investigations in a pellagrous area. 

politician and journalist, was born in Paris on the 28th of June 
1846, the son of Eugene Pelletan (1813-1884), a writer of some 
distinction and a noted opponent of the Second Empire. 
Camille Pelletan was educated in Paris, passed as licentiate 
in laws, and was qualified as an " archiviste paleographe." 
At the age of twenty he became an active contributor to 
the press, and a bitter critic of the Imperial Government. 
After the war of 1870-71 he took a leading place among 
the most radical section of French politicians, as an opponent 
of the " opportunists " who continued the policy of Gambetta. 
In 1880 he became editor of Justice, and worked with success 
to bring about a revision of the sentences passed on the 
Communards. In 1881 he was chosen member for the tenth 
arrondissement of Paris, and in 1885 for the Bouches du 
Rhone, being re-elected in 1889, 1893 and 1898; and he was 
repeatedly chosen as " reporter " to the various bureaus. Dur- 
ing the Nationalist and Dreyfus agitations he fought vigorously 
on behalf of the Republican government and when the coalition 
known as the "Bloc" was formed he took his place as a Radical 
leader. He was made minister of marine in the cabinet of 
M. Combes, June 1902 to January 1905, but his administration 
was severely criticized, notably by M. de Lanessan and other naval 
experts. During the great sailors' strike at Marseilles in 1904 
he showed pronounced sympathy with the socialistic aims and 
methods of the strikers, and a strong feeling was aroused that 


his Radical sympathies tended to a serious weakening of the 
navy and to destruction of discipline. A somewhat violent 
controversy resulted, in the course of which M. Pelletan's 
indiscreet speeches did him no good; and he became a common 
subject for ill-natured caricatures. On the fall of the Combes 
ministry he became less prominent in French politics. 

PELLICANUS, CONRAD (1478-1556), German theologian, 
was born at Ruffach in Alsace, on the 8th of January 1478. 
His German name, Kursner, was changed to Pellicanus by his 
mother's brother Jodocus Gallus, an ecclesiastic connected with 
the university of Heidelberg, who supported his nephew for sixteen 
months at the university in 1491-1492. On returning to Ruffach, 
he taught gratis in the Minorite convent school that he might 
borrow books from the library, and in his sixteenth year resolved 
to become a friar. This step helped his studies, for he was sent 
to Tubingen in 1496 and became a favourite pupil of the guardian 
of the Minorite convent there, Paulus Scriptoris, a man of 
considerable general learning. There seems to have been at 
that time in south-west Germany a considerable amount of 
sturdy independent thought among the Franciscans; Pellicanus 
himself became a Protestant very gradually, and without any 
such revulsion of feeling as marked Luther's conversion. At 
Tubingen the future " apostate in three languages " was able 
to begin the study of Hebrew. He had no teacher and no 
grammar; but Paulus Scriptoris carried him a huge codex of 
the prophets on his own shoulders all the way from Mainz. He 
learned the letters from the transcription of a few verses in the 
Star of the Messiah of Petrus Niger, and, with a subsequent hint 
or two from Reuchlin, who also lent him the grammar of Moses 
Kimhl, made his way through the Bible for himself with the help 
of Jerome's Latin. He got on so well that he was not only 
a useful helper to ReuchHn but anticipated the manuals of the 
great Hebraist by composing in 1501 the first Hebrew grammar 
in the European tongue. It was printed in 1503, and afterwards 
included in Reysch's Margarita philosophica. Hebrew remained 
a favourite study to the last. Pellican's autobiography de- 
scribes the gradual multiplication of accessible books on the 
subjects, and he not only studied but translated a vast mass of 
rabbinical and Talmudic texts, his interest in Jewish literature 
being mainly philological. The chief fruit of these studies is 
the vast commentary on the Bible (Zurich, 7 vols., 1532-1539), 
which shows a remarkably sound judgment on questions of the 
text, and a sense for historical as opposed to typological exegesis. 

Pellicanus became priest in 1501 and continued to serve his 
order at Ruffach, Pforzheim, and Basel till 1526. At Basel 
he did much laborious work for Froben's editions, and came to 
the conclusion that the Church taught many doctrines of which 
the early doctors of Christendom knew nothing. He spoke his 
views frankly, but he disliked polemic; he found also more 
toleration than might have been expected, even after he became 
active in circulating Luther's books. Thus, supported by the 
civic authorities, he remained guardian of the convent of his 
order at Basel from 1519 till 1524, and even when he had to 
give up his post, remained in the monastery for two years, 
professing theology in the university. At length, when the 
position was becoming quite untenable, he received through 
Zwingli a call to Zurich as professor of Greek and Hebrew, and 
formally throwing off his monk's habit, entered on a new life. 
Here he remained till his death on the 6th of April 1556. 

Pellicanus's scholarship, though not brilliant, was really 
extensive; his sound sense, and his singularly pure and devoted 
character gave him a great influence. He was remarkably free 
from the pedantry of the time, as is shown by his views about 
the use of the German vernacular as a vehicle of culture (Chron. 
I 3S> 36). As a theologian his natural affinities were with 
Zwingli, with whom he shared the advantage of having grown 
up to the views of the Reformation, by the natural progress 
of his studies and religious life. Thus he never lost his sym- 
pathy with humanism and with its great German representative, 

Pellicanus's Latin autobiography (Chronicon C.P.R.) is one of the 
most interesting documents of the period. It was first published 

by Riggenbach in 1877, and in this volume the other sources for his 
life are registered. See also Emil Silberstein, Conrad Pellicanus; 
ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des Studiums der hebr. Sprache (Berlin, 

PELLICIER, GUILLAUME (c. 1490-1568), French prelate 
and diplomatist, was educated by his uncle, the bishop of 
Maguelonne, whom he succeeded in 1529. In 1536 he had 
the seat of his bishopric transferred to Montpellier. Appointed 
ambassador at Venice in 1539, he fulfilled his mission to the 
entire satisfaction of Francis I., but on the discovery of the 
system of espionage he had employed the king had to recall him 
in 1542. Returning to his diocese, he was imprisoned in the 
chateau of Beaucaire for his tolerance of the Reformers, so he 
replaced his former indulgence by severity, and the end of his 
episcopate was disturbed by religious struggles. He was a 
man of wide learning, a humanist and a friend of humanists, 
and took a keen interest in the natural sciences. 

See].2l\er,LaDiplomatiefranc,aise . . . d'apres le correspondence 
de G. Pellicier (Paris, 1881); and A. Tausserat-Radel, Correspondance 
politique de Guillaume Pellicier (Paris, 1899). 

PELLICO, SILVIO (1788-1854), Italian dramatist, was born 
at Saluzzo in Piedmont on the 24th of June 1788, the earlier 
portion of his life being passed at Pinerolo and Turin under 
the tuition of a priest named Manavella. At the age of ten 
he composed a tragedy under the inspiration of Caesarotti's 
translation of the Ossianic poems. On the marriage of his twin 
sister Rosina with a maternal cousin at Lyons he went to reside 
in that city, devoting himself during four years to the study of 
French literature. He returned in 1810 to Milan, where he 
became professor of French in the Collegio degli Orfani Militari. 
His tragedy Francesca da Rimini, was brought out with success 
by Carlotta Marchionni at Milan in 1818. Its publication was 
followed by that of the tradegy Eitfemio da Messina, but the 
representation of the latter was forbidden. Pellico had in the 
meantime continued his work as tutor, first to the unfortunate 
son of Count Briche, and then to the two sons of Count Porro 
Lambertenghi. He threw himself heartily into an attempt to 
weaken the hold of the Austrian despotism by indirect educa- 
tional means. Of the powerful literary executive which gathered 
about Counts Porro and Confalonieri, Pellico was the able 
secretary the management of the Conciliatore, which appeared 
in 1818 as the organ of the association, resting largely upon him. 
But the paper, under the censorship of the Austrian officials, 
ran for a year only, and the society itself was broken up by the 
government. In October 1820 Pellico was arrested on the 
charge of carbonarism and conveyed to the Santa Margherita 
prison. After his removal to the Piombi at Venice in February 
1821, he composed several Cantiche and the tragedies Ester d'En- 
gaddi and Iginia d'Asti. The sentence of death pronounced 
on him in February 1822 was finally commuted to fifteen years 
carcere duro, and in the following April he was placed in the 
Spielberg at Briinn. His chief work during this part of his 
imprisonment was the tragedy Leoniero da Derlona, for the 
preservation of which he was compelled to rely on his memory. 
After his release in 1830 he commenced the publication of his 
prison compositions, of which the Ester was played at Turin 
in 1831, but immediately suppressed. In 1832 appeared his 
Gismonda da Mendrizio, Erodiade and the Leoniero, under the 
title of Tre nuovi tragedie, and in the same year the work which 
gave him his European fame, Le Mie prigioni, an account of 
his sufferings in prison. The last gained him the friendship 
of the Marchesa di Barolo, the reformer of the Turin prisons, 
and in 1834 he accepted from her a yearly pension of 1200 francs. 
His tragedy Tommaso Moro had been published in 1833, his 
most important subsequent publication being the Opere inedite 
in 1837. On the decease of his parents in 1838 he was received 
into the Casa Barolo, where he remained till his death, assisting 
the marchesa in her charities, and writing chiefly upon religious 
themes. Of these works the best known is the Dei Doveri degli 
uomini, a series of trite maxims which do honour to his piety 
rather than to his critical judgment. A fragmentary biography 
of the marchesa by Pellico was published in Italian and English 
after her death. He died on the 3ist of January 1854, and was 


buried in the Campo Santo at Turin. His writings are defective 
in virility and breadth of thought, and his tragedies display 
neither the insight into character nor the constructive power 
of a great dramatist. It is in the simple narrative and naive 
egotism of Le Mie prigioni that he has established his strongest 
claim to remembrance, winning fame by his misfortunes rather 
than by his genius. 

See Piero Maroncelli, Addizioni alle mie prigioni (Paris, 1834); 
the biographies by Latour; Gabriele Rosselli ; Didier, Revue des 
deux mondes (September 1842) ; De Lomenie, Galerie des contemp. 
illustr. iv. (1842); Chiala (Turin, 1852); Nollet-Fabert (1854); 
Giorgio Briano (1854); Bourdon (1868); Rivieri (1899-1901). 

PELLISSON, PAUL (1624-1693), French author, was born at 
B6ziers on the 3oth of October 1624, of a distinguished Calvinist 
family. He studied law at Toulouse, and practised at the bar 
of Castres. Going to Paris with letters of introduction to 
Valentin Conrart, who was a co-religionist, he became through 
him acquainted with the members of the academy. Pellisson 
undertook to be their historian, and in 1653 published a Relation 
contenant I'histoire de I'academie franfaise. This panegyric 
was rewarded by a promise of the next vacant place and by 
permission to be present at their meetings. In 1657 Pellisson 
became secretary to the minister of finance, Nicolas Fouquet, 
and when in 1661 the minister was arrested, his secretary was 
imprisoned in the Bastille. Pellisson had the courage to stand 
by his fallen patron, in whose defence he issued his celebrated 
Memoir e in 1661, with the title Discours au roi, par un de ses 
fideles sujets sur le proces de M. de Fouquet, in which the facts 
in favour of Fouquet are marshalled with great skill. Another 
pamphlet, Seconde defense de M. Fouquet, followed. Pellisson 
was released in 1666, and from this date sought the royal favour. 
He became historiographer to the king, and in that capacity 
wrote a fragmentary Histoire de Louis XIV., covering the years 
1660 to 1670. In 1670 he was converted to Catholicism and 
obtained rich ecclesiastical preferment. He died on the 7th 
of February 1693. He was very intimate with Mile de 
Scudery, in whose novels he figures as Herminius and Acante. 
His sterling worth of character made him many friends and 
justified Bussy-Rabutin's description of him as " encore plus 
honnete homme que bel esprit." 

See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, vol. xiv. ; and F. L. Marcon, 
tude sur la vie el les ceuvres de Pellisson (1859). 

PELLITORY, in botany, the common name for a small hairy 
perennial herb which grows on old walls, bedgebanks and 
similar localities, and is known botanically as Parietaria offici- 
nalis (Lat. paries, a wall). It has a short woody rootstock from 
which spring erect or spreading stems i to 2 ft. long, bearing 
slender leafy branches, and axillary clusters of small green 
flowers. It belongs to the nettle order (Urticaceae), and is 
nearly allied to the nettle, Urtica, but its hairs are not stinging. 

PELLOUX, LUIGI (1830- ), Italian general and politician, 
was born on the ist of March 1839, at La Roche, in Savoy, of 
parents who retained their Italian nationality when Savoy was 
annexed to France. Entering the army as lieutenant of artillery 
in 1857, he gained the medal for military valour at the battle 
of Custozza in 1866, and in 1870 commanded the brigade of 
artillery which battered the breach in the wall of Rome at Porta 
Pia. He was elected to the Chamber in 1881 as deputy for 
Leghorn, which he represented until 1895, and joined the party 
of the Left. He had entered the war office in 1870, and in 1880 
became general secretary, in which capacity he introduced many 
useful reforms in the army. After a succession of high military 
commands he received the appointment of chief of the general 
staff in 1896. He was minister of war in the Rudini and Giolitti 
cabinets of 1891-1893. In July 1896 he resumed the portfolio 
of war in the Rudini cabinet, and was appointed senator. In 
May 1897 he secured the adoption of the Army Reform Bill, 
fixing Italian military expenditure at a maximum of 9,560,000 
a year, but in December of that year he was defeated in the 
Chamber on the question of the promotion of officers. Resigning 
office, he was in May 1898 sent as royal commissioner to Bari, 
where, without recourse to martial law, he succeeded in restoring 

public order. Upon the fall of Rudini in June 1898, General 
Pelloux was entrusted by King Humbert with the formation 
of a cabinet, and took for himself the post of minister of the 
interior. He resigned office in May 1899, but was again en- 
trusted with the formation of the ministry. He took stern 
measures against the revolutionary elements in southern Italy, 
and his new cabinet was essentially military and conservative. 
The Public Safety Bill for the reform of the police laws, taken 
over by him from the Rudini cabinet, and eventually promul- 
gated by royal decree, was fiercely obstructed by the Socialist 
party, which, with the Left and Extreme Left, succeeded in 
forcing General Pelloux to dissolve the Chamber in May 1900, 
and to resign office after the general election in June. In the 
autumn of 1901 he was appointed to the command of the Turin 
army corps. 

PELOMYXA, so named by R. Greeff, a genus of Lobose 
Rhizopoda (q.v.), naked, multinucleate, with very blunt rounded 
pseudopodia, formed by eruption (see AMOEBA), often containing 
peculiar vesicles (glycogen?), and full of a symbiotic bacterium. 
It inhabits the ooze of decomposing organic matter at the 
bottom of ponds and lakes. 

PELOPIDAS (d. 364 B.C.), Theban statesman and general. 
He was a member of a distinguished family, and possessed 
great wealth which he expended on his friends, while content 
to lead the life of an athlete. In 385 B.C. he served in a Theban 
contingent sent to the support of the Spartans at Mantineia, 
where he was saved, when dangerously wounded, by Epami- 
nondas (q.v.}. Upon the seizure of the Theban citadel by the 
Spartans (383 or 382) he fled to Athens, and took the lead in a 
conspiracy to liberate Thebes. In 379 his party surprised and 
killed their chief political opponents, and roused the people 
against the Spartan garrison, which surrendered to an army 
gathered by Pelopidas. In this and subsequent years he was 
elected boeotarch, and about 375 he routed a much larger Spartan 
force at Tegyra (near Orchomenus). This victory he owed 
mainly to the valour of the Sacred Band, a picked body of 300 
infantry. At the battle of Leuctra (371) he contributed greatly 
to the success of Epaminondas's new tactics by the rapidity 
with which he made the Sacred Band close with the Spartans. 
In 370 he accompanied his friend Epaminondas as boeotarch 
into Peloponnesus. On their return both generals were unsuc- 
cessfully accused of having retained their command beyond 
the legal term. In 369, in response to a petition of the Thessa- 
lians, Pelopidas was sent with an army against Alexander, 
tyrant of Pherae. After driving Alexander out, he passed into 
Macedonia and arbitrated between two claimants to the throne. 
In order to secure the influence of Thebes, he brought home 
hostages, including the king's brother, afterwards Philip II., 
the conqueror of Greece. Next year Pelopidas was again 
called upon to interfere in Macedonia, but, being deserted by 
his mercenaries, was compelled to make an agreement with 
Ptolemaeus of Alorus. On his return through Thessaly he was 
seized by Alexander of Pherae, and two expeditions from 
Thebes were needed to secure his release. In 367 Pelopidas 
went on an embassy to the Persian king and induced him to 
prescribe a settlement of Greece according to the wishes of the 
Thebans. In 364 he received another appeal from the Thessalian 
towns against Alexander of Pherae. Though an eclipse of the 
sun prevented his bringing with him more than a handful of 
troops, he overthrew the tyrant's far superior force on the ridge 
of Cynoscephalae; but wishing to slay Alexander with his own 
hand, he rushed forward too eagerly and was cut down by the 
tyrant's guards. 

Plutarch and Nepos, Pelopidas; Diodorus xv. 62-81; Xenophon, 
Hellenica, vii. I. See also THEBES. (M. O. B. C.) 

PELOPONNESIAN WAR, in Greek history, the name given 
specially to the struggle between Athens at the head of the 
Delian League and the confederacy of which Sparta was the 
leading power. 1 According to Thucydides the war, which was 

1 Some historians prefer to call it the Second Peloponnesian War, 
the first being that of 457, which ended with the Thirty Years' 


in his view the greatest that had ever occurred in Greece, lasted 
from 431 to the downfall of Athens in 404. The genius of 
Thucydides has given to the struggle the importance of an 
epoch in world history, but his view is open to two main criti- 
cisms (i) that the war was in its ultimate bearings little 
more than a local disturbance, viewed from the standpoint 
of universal history; (2) that it cannot be called a war in the 
strict sense. The former of these criticisms is justified in the 
article on GREECE: History (q.v.). Unless we are to believe 
that the Macedonian supremacy is directly traceable to the 
mutual weakening of the Greek cities in 431-403, it is difficult 
to see what lasting importance attaches to the war. As regards 
the second, a few chief difficulties may be indicated. The very 
narrative even of Thucydides himself shows that the " war " 
was not a connected whole. It may be divided into three main 
periods (i) from 431 to 421 (Lysias calls it the " Archidamian " 
War), when the Peace of Nicias, not merely formally, but actually 
produced a cessation of hostilities; (2) from 421 till the inter- 
vention of Sparta in the Sicilian War; during these years there 
was no " Peloponnesian War," and there were several years in 
which there was in reality no fighting at all: the Sicilian expedi- 
tion was in fact a side issue; (3) from 413 to 404, when fighting 
was carried on mainly in the Aegean Sea (Isocrates calls this 
the " Decelean " War). The disjointed character of the struggle 
is so obvious from Thucydides himself that historians have come 
to the conclusion that the idea of treating the whole struggle as 
a single unit was ex post facto (see GREECE: History, A, 
" Ancient " ad fin.). 

The book itself affords evidence which goes far to justify this 
view. A very important problem is presented by bk. v., which is 
obviously put in as a connecting link to prove a theory. Thucy- 
dides expressly warns us not to regard the period of this book 
as one of peace, and yet the very contents of the book refute 
his argument. In 419 and 417 there is practically no fighting: 
the Mantinean War of 418 is a disconnected episode which did 
not lead to a resumption of hostilities: in 420 there are only 
obscure battles in Thrace: in 416 there is only the expedition 
to Melos; and finally from 421 to 413 there is official peace. 
Other details may be cited in corroboration. Book v. (ch. 26) 
contains a second introduction to the subject; 65 6 ir6Xe/io$ in 
i. 23 and iv. 48 is the Archidamian or Ten Years' War; in v. 26 
we read of a irptoros iroXe/jos, a uorepos TroXe^os and an'h- 
Some critics think on these and other grounds that Thucydides 
wrote and published bks. i.-v. 25 by itself, then bks. vi. and 
vii. (Sicilian expedition), and finally revising his view joined 
them into one whole by the somewhat unsatisfactory bk. v. 26 
and following chapters, and began to round off the story with 
the incomplete bk. viii. (on this see GREECE: History, as above). 
It is perhaps most probable that he retained notes made con- 
temporarily and worked them up some time after 404, in a few 
passages failing to correct inconsistencies and dying before 
bk. viii. was completed. The general introduction in bk. i. 
was unquestionably written shortly after 404. 

The causes of the war thus understood are complex. The 
view taken by Thucydides that Sparta was the real foe of 
Athens has been much modified by modern writers. The key 
to the situation is in fact the commercial rivalry of the Corin- 
thians, whose trade (mainly in the West) had been seriously 
limited by the naval expansion of the Delian League. This 
rivalry was roused to fever heat by the Athenian intervention 
in 434-33 on behalf of Corcyra, Corinth's rebellious colony (see 
CORFU) and from that time the Corinthians felt that the Thirty 
Years' Truce was at an end. An opportunity soon offered for 
making a counter attack. Potidaea, a Dorian town on the 
western promontory of Chalcidice in Thrace, a tributary ally 
of Athens to which however Corinth as metropolis still sent 
annual magistrates was induced to revolt, 1 with the support 
of the Macedonian king Perdiccas, formerly an Athenian ally. 
The Athenian Phormio succeeded in blockading the city so that 

1 The importance of this revolt lay in the fact that it immediately 
involved danger to Athens throughout the Chalcidic promontories, 
and her north-east possessions generally. 

its capture was merely a question of time, and this provided the 
Corinthians with an urgent reason for declaring war. 

Prior to these episodes Athens had not been in hostile contact 
with any of the Peloponnesian confederate states for more than 
ten years, and Pericles had abandoned a great part of his imperial 
policy. He now laid an embargo upon Megara by which the 
Megarians were forbidden on pain of death to pursue trading 
operations with any part of the Athenian Empire. The circum- 
stances of this decree (or decrees) are not material to the present 
argument (see Grote, History of Greece, ed. 1907, p. 370 
note) except that it turned special attention to the commercial 
supremacy which Athens claimed to enjoy. In 432 a conference 
of Peloponnesian allies was summoned and the Corinthian envoys 
urged the Spartans to declare war on the ground that the power 
of Athens was becoming so great as to constitute a danger to the 
other states. This might have been urged with justice before 
the Thirty Years' Truce (447) ; but by that truce Athens gave 
up all her conquests in Greece proper except Naupactus and 
Plataea, while her solitary gains in Amphipolis and Thurii 
were compensated by other losses. The fact that the Corinthian 
argument failed to impress Sparta and many of the delegates 
is shown by the course of the debate. What finally impelled 
the Spartans to agree to the war was the veiled threat by the 
Corinthians that they would be driven into another alliance 
(i.e. Argos, i. 71). We can hardly regard Sparta as the deter- 
mined enemy of Athens at this time. Only twice since 461 had 
she been at war with Athens in 457 (Tanagra) and 447, when she 
deliberately abstained from pushing the advantage which the 
revolt in Euboea provided; she had refused to help the oli- 
garchs of Samos in 440. Corinth however had not only strong, 
but also immediate and urgent reasons (Potidaea and Corcyra) 
for desiring war. It has been argued that the war was ulti- 
mately a struggle between the principles of oligarchy and 
democracy. This view, however, cannot be taken of the early 
stages of the war when there was democracy and oligarchy on 
both sides (see ad fin.) ; it is only in the later stages that the 
political difference is prominent. 

The Opposing Forces. The permanent strength of the 
Peloponnesian confederacy lay in the Peloponnesian states, all 
of which except Argos and Achaea were united under Sparta's 
leadership. But it included also extra-Peloponnesian states 
viz. Megara, Phocis, Boeotia and Locris (which had formed 
part of the Athenian land empire), and the maritime colonies 
round the Ambracian Gulf. The organization was not elaborate. 
The federal assembly with few exceptions met only in time of 
war, and then only when Sparta agreed to summon it. It 
met in Sparta and the delegates, having stated their views 
before the Spartan Apella, withdrew till the Apella had come 
to a decision. The delegates were then invited to return and 
to confirm that decision. It is clear that the link was purely 
one of common interest, and that Sparta had little or no control 
over, e.g. so powerful a confederate as Corinth. Sparta was 
the chief member of the confederacy (hegemon), but the states 
were autonomous. In time of war each had to provide two-thirds 
of its forces, and that state in whose territory the war was to take 
place had to equip its whole force. 

The Athenian Empire is described elsewhere (DELIAN LEAGUE, 
ATHENS). Here it must suffice to point out that there was 
among the real and technical allies no true bond of interest, and 
that many of the states were in fact bound by close ties to 
members of the Peloponnesian confederacy (e.g. Potidaea to 
Corinth). Sparta could not only rely on voluntary co-operation 
but could undermine Athenian influence by posing as the 
champion of autonomy. Further, Thucydides is wrong on his 
own showing in saying that Sparta refused to tolerate democratic 
government in confederate cities: it was not till after 418 that 
this policy was adopted. Athens, on the other hand, had un- 
doubtedly interfered in the interest of democracy in various 
allied states (see DELIAN LEAGUE). 

No detailed examination of the comparative military and 
naval resources of the combatants can here be attempted. On 
land the Peloponnesians were superior: they had at least 30,000 



hoplites not including 10,000 from Central Greece and Boeotia: 
these soldiers were highly trained. The Athenian army was 
undoubtedly smaller. There has been considerable discussion 
as to the exact figures, the evidence in Thucydides being highly 
confusing, but it is most probable that the available fighting 
force was not more than half that of the Peloponnesian confed- 
eracy. Even of these we learn (Thuc. iii. 87) that 4400 died 
in the great plague. The only light-armed force was that of 
Boeotia at Delium (10,000 with 500 peltasts). Of cavalry Athens 
had looo, Boeotia a similar number. The only other cavalry 
force was that of Thessaly, which, had it been loyal to Athens, 
would have meant a distinct superiority. In naval power the 
Athenians undoubtedly had an overwhelming advantage at the 
beginning, both in numbers and in training. 

Financially Athens had an enormous apparent advantage. 
She began with a revenue of 1000 talents (including 600 from 
<rujti^axot) , and had also, in spite of the heavy expense which 
the building schemes of Pericles had involved, a reserve of 6000 
talents. The Peloponnesians had no reserve and no fixed 
revenue assessment. On the other hand the Peloponnesian 
armies were unpaid, while Athens had to spend considerable 
sums on the payment of crews and mercenaries. In the last 
stages of the war the issue was determined by the poverty of 
Athens and Persian gold. 

The events of the struggle from 43 1 to 404 may be summarized 
in the three periods distinguished above. 

i. The Ten Years' or Archidamian War. The Spartans sent 
to Athens no formal declaration of war but rather sought first 
to create some specious casus belli by sending requisitions to 
Athens. The first, intended to inflame the existing hostilities 
against Pericles (q.v.) in Athens, was that he should be expelled 
the city as being an Alcmaeonid (grand-nephew of Cleisthenes) 
and so implicated in the curse pronounced on the murderers 
of Cylon nearly 200 years before. This outrageous demand 
was followed by three others that the Athenians should (i) 
withdraw from Potidaea, (2) restore autonomy to Aegina, and 
(3) withdraw the embargo on Megarian commerce. Upon the 
refusal of all these demands Sparta finally made the maintenance 
of peace contingent upon the restoration by Athens of autonomy 
to all her allies. Under the guidance of Pericles Athens replied 
that she would do nothing on compulsion, but was prepared 
to submit difficulties to amicable arbitration on the basis of 
mutual concessions. Before anything could come of this 
proposal, matters were precipitated (end of March 431) by the 
attack of Thebes upon Plataea (q.v.), which immediately sought 
and obtained the aid of Athens. War was begun. The Spartan 
king Archidamus assembled his army, sent a herald to announce 
his approach, marched into Attica and besieged Oenoe. 

Meanwhile Pericles had decided to act on the defensive, i.e. 
to abandon Attica, collect all its residents in Athens and treat 
Athens as an island, retaining meanwhile command of the sea 
and making descents on Peloponnesian shores. The policy, 
which Thucydides and Grote commend, had grave defects 
though it is by no means easy to suggest a better; e.g. it meant 
the ruin of the landed class, it tended to spoil the moral of those 
who from the walls of Athens annually watched the wasting of 
their homesteads, and it involved the many perils of an over- 
crowded city a peril increased by, if not also the cause of, the 
plague. Moreover sea power was not everything, and delay 
exhausted the financial reserves of the state, while financial 
considerations, as we have seen, were comparatively unimportant 
to the Peloponnesians. The descents on the Peloponnese were 
futile in the extreme. 

Archidamus, having wasted much territory, including Achar- 
nae, retired at the end of July. The Athenians retaliated by 
attacking Methone (which was secured by Brasidas),by successes 
in the West, by expelling all Aeginetans from Aegina (which was 
made a cleruchy), and by wasting the Megarid. 

In 430 Archidamus again invaded Attica, systematically 
wasting the country. Shortly after he entered Attica plague 
broke out in Athens, borne thither by traders from Carthage 
or Egypt (Holm, Greek History, ii. 346 note). The effect upon 

the overcrowded population of the city was terrible. Of the 
1 200 cavalry (including mounted archers) 300 died, together with 
4400 hoplites: altogether the estimate of Diodorus (xii. 58) that 
more than 10,000 citizens and slaves succumbed is by no means 
excessive. None the less Pericles sailed with 100 triremes, and 
ravaged the territory near Epidaurus. Subsequently he re- 
turned and the expedition proceeded to Potidaea. But the plague 
went with them and no results were achieved. The enemies of 
Pericles, who even with the aid of Spartan intrigue had hitherto 
failed to harm his prestige, now succeeded in inducing the 
desperate citizens to fine him for alleged malversation. The 
verdict, however, shocked public feeling and Pericles was 
reinstated in popular favour as strategus (c. Aug. 430). About 
a year later he died. In the autumn of 430 a Spartan attack 
on Zacynthus failed and the Ambraciots were repulsed from 
Amphilochian Argos. In reply Athens sent Phormio to Nau- 
pactus to watch her interests in that quarter. In the winter 
Potidaea capitulated, receiving extremely favourable terms. 

In 429 the Peloponnesians were deterred by the plague from 
invading Attica and laid siege to Plataea in the interests of 
Thebes. The Athenians failed in an expedition to Chalcidice 
under Xenophon, while the Spartan Cnemus with Chaonian 
and Epirot allies was repulsed from Stratus, capital of Acarnania, 
and Phormio with only 20 ships defeated the Corinthian fleet 
of 47 sail in the Gulf of Corinth. Orders were at once sent from 
Sparta to repair this disaster and 77 ships were equipped. Help 
sent from Athens was diverted to Crete, and after much 
manoeuvring Phormio was compelled to fight off Naupactus. 
Nine of his ships were driven ashore, but with the other n he 
subsequently defeated the enemy and recovered the lost nine. 
With the reinforcement which arrived afterwards he established 
complete control of the western seas. A scheme for operating 
with Sitalces against the Chalcidians of Thrace fell through, 
and Sitalces joined Perdiccas. 

The year 428 was marked by a third invasion of Attica and 
by the revolt of Lesbos from Athens. After delay in fruitless 
negotiations the Athenian Cleippides, and afterwards Paches, 
besieged Mytilene, which appealed to Sparta. The Pelopon- 
nesian confederacy resolved to aid the rebels both directly and 
by a counter demonstration against Athens. The Athenians, 
though their reserve of 6000 talents was by now almost exhausted 
(except for 1000 talents in a special reserve), made a tremendous 
effort (raising 200 talents by a special property tax), and not 
only prevented an invasion by a demonstration of 100 triremes 
at the Isthmus, but sent Asopius, son of Phormio, to take his 
place in the western seas. In spring 427 the Spartans again 
invaded Attica without result. The winter of 428-427 was 
marked by the daring escape of half the Plataean garrison under 
cover of a stormy night, and by the capitulation of Mytilene, which 
was forced upon the oligarchic rulers by the democracy. The 
Spartan fleet arrived too late and departed without attempting 
to recover the town. Paches cleared the Asiatic seas of the 
enemy, reduced the other towns of Mytilene and returned to 
Athens with upwards of 1000 prisoners. An assembly was 
held and under the invective of Cleon (q.v.) it was decided to kill 
all male Mytileneans of military age and to sell the women an*} 
children as slaves. This decree, though in accordance with <.ie 
rigorous customs of ancient warfare as exemplified by the treat- 
ment which Sparta shortly afterwards meted out to the Plat ieans, 
shocked the feelings of Athens, and on the next day it was 
(illegally) rescinded just in time to prevent Paches carrying it 
out. The thousand 1 oligarchic prisoners were however executed, 
and Lesbos was made a cleruchy. 

Meanwhile there occurred civil war in Corcyra, in which 
ultimately, with the aid of the Athenian admiral Ev.rymedon, 
the democracy triumphed amid scenes of the wildest savagery. 
In the autumn of the year Nicias fortified Minoa at the mouth 
of the harbour of Megara. Shortly afterwards the Spartans 

1 So Thuc. iii. 50. It is suggested that this number is an error 
for 30 or 50 (i.e., A or N for A). It seems incredible that 1000 
could be described as " ringleaders " out of a population of perhaps 



planted an unsuccessful colony at Heraclea in the Trachinian 
territory north-west of Thermopylae. 

In the summer of 426 Nicias led a predatory expedition along 
the north-west coast without achieving any positive victory. 
More important, though equally ineffective, was the scheme of 
Demosthenes to march from Naupactus through Aetolia, sub- 
duing the wild hill tribes, to Cytinium in Doris (in the upper 
valleys of the Cephissus) and thence into Boeotia, which was 
to be attacked simultaneously from Attica. The scheme was 
crushed by the courage and skill of the Aetolians, who thereupon 
summoned Spartan and Corinthian aid for a counter attack on 
Naupactus. Demosthenes averted this, and immediately after- 
wards by superior tactics inflicted a complete defeat at Olpae 
in Acarnania on Eurylochus at the head of a Spartan and 
Ambracian force. An Ambracian reinforcement was annihilated 
at one of the peaks called Idomene, and a disgraceful truce was 
accepted by the surviving Spartan leader Menedaeus. This 
was not only the worst disaster which befell any powerful state 
up to the peace of Nicias (as Thucydides says), but was a serious 
blow to Corinth, whose trade on the West was, as we have seen, 
one of the chief causes of the war. 

The year 425 is remarkable for the Spartan disaster of Pylos 
(q.v.). The Athenians had despatched 40 triremes under 
Eurymedon and Procles to Sicily with orders to call first at 
Corcyra to prevent an expected Spartan attack. Meantime 
Demosthenes had formed the plan of planting the Messenians of 
Naupactus in Messenia now Spartan territory and obtained 
permission to accompany the expedition. The fleet was, as it 
chanced, delayed by a storm in the Bay of Navarino, and rough 
fortifications were put up by the sailors on the promontory of 
Pylos. Demosthenes was left behind in this fort, and the 
Spartans promptly withdrew from their annual raid upon 
Attica and their projected attack on Corcyra to dislodge him. 
After a naval engagement (see PYLOS) a body of Spartan hoplites 
were cut off on Sphacteria. So acutely did Sparta feel their 
. position that an offer of peace was made on condition that the 
hoplites should go free. The eloquence of Cleon frustrated the 
peace party's desire to accept these terms, and ultimately to the 
astonishment of the Greek world the Spartan hoplites to the 
number of 292 surrendered unconditionally (see CLEON). 

Thus in 424 the Athenians had seriously damaged the prestige 
of Sparta, and broken Corinthian supremacy in the north-west, 
and the Peloponnesians had no fleet. This was the zenith of 
their success, and it was unfortunate for them that they declined 
the various offers of peace which Sparta made. The next 
two years changed the whole position. The doubling of the 
tribute in 425 pressed hardly on the allies (see DELIAN LEAGUE): 
Nicias failed in a plot with the democratic party in Megara to 
seize that town; and the brilliant campaigns of Brasidas (q.v.) 
in the north-east, culminating in the capture of Amphipolis (422), 
finally destroyed the Athenian hopes of recovering their land 
empire, and entirely restored the balance of success and Spartan 
prestige. Moreover, the admirably conceived scheme for a 
simultaneous triple attack upon Boeotia at Chaeronea in the 
north, Delium in the south-east, and Siphae in the south-west 
had fallen through owing to the inefficiency of the generals. 
'1 l ->e scheme, which probably originated with the atticizing party 
in Yhebes, resulted in the severe defeat of Hippocrates at Delium 
by U e, Boeotians under Pagondas, and was a final blow to the 
policy of, an Athenian land empire. 

The. e disasters at Megara, Amphipolis and Delium left Athens 
withonJy one trump card the possession of the Spartan hoplites 
captured in Sphacteria. This solitary success had already in 
the spring of 423 induced Sparta in spite of the successes which 
Brasidas was achieving in Thrace to accept the " truce of 
Laches " which, however, was rendered abortive by the refusal 
of Brasidas to. surrender Scione. The final success of Brasidas 
at Amphipolis, where both he and Cleon were killed, paved 
the way for a more permanent agreement, the peace parties at 
Athens and Sparta being in the ascendant. 

2. From 421 to 41,3. Peace was signed in March 421 on the 
basis of each side's Surrendering what had been acquired by 

the war, not including those cities which had been acquired by 
capitulation. It was to last for fifty yeais. Its weak points, 
however, were numerous. Whereas Sparta had been least of 
all the allies interested in the war, and apart from the campaigns 
of Brasidas had on the whole taken little part in it, her allies 
benefited least by the terms of the Peace. Corinth did not 
regain Sollium and Anactorium, while Megara and Thebes 
respectively were indignant that Athens should retain Nisaea 
and receive Panactum. These and other reasons rapidly led 
to the isolation of Sparta, and there was a general refusal to 
carry out the terms of agreement. The history of the next 
three years is therefore one of complex inter-state intrigues 
combined with internal political convulsions. In 421 Sparta 
and Athens concluded a defensive alliance; the Sphacterian 
captives were released and Athens promised to abandon Pylos. 
Such a peace, giving Sparta everything and Athens nothing 
but Sparta's bare alliance, was due to the fact that Nicias and 
Alcibiades were both seeking Sparta's friendship. At this 
time the Fifty Years' Truce between Sparta and Argos was 
expiring. The Peloponnesian malcontents turned to Argos 
as a new leader, and an alliance was formed between Argos, 
Corinth, Elis, Mantinea and the Thraceward towns (420). 
This coalition between two different elements an anti-oligarchic 
party and a war party had no chance of permanent existence. 
The war party in Sparta regained its strength under new ephors 
and negotiations began for an alliance between Sparta, Argos 
and Boeotia. The details cannot here be discussed. The result 
was a re-shuffling of the cards. The democratic states of the 
Peloponnese were driven, partly by the intrigues of Alcibiades, 
now anti-Laconian, into alliance with Athens, with the object of 
establishing a democratic Peloponnese under the leadership of 
Argos. These unstable combinations were soon after upset 
by Alcibiades himself, who, having succeeded in displacing 
Nicias as strategus in 419, allowed Athenian troops to help in 
attacking Epidaurus. For a cause not easy to determine 
Alcibiades was defeated by Nicias in the election to the post of 
strategus in the next year, and the suspicions of the Pelopon- 
nesian coalition were roused by the inadequate assistance sent 
by Athens, which arrived too late to assist Argos when the 
Spartan king Agis marched against it. Ultimately the Spartans 
were successful over the coalition at Mantinea, and soon 
afterwards an oligarchic revolution at Argos led to an alliance 
between that city and Sparta (c. Feb. 417). This oligarchy 
was overthrown again in June, and the new democracy having 
vainly sought an agreement with Sparta rejoined Athens. 
It was thus left to Athens to expend men and money on 
protecting a democracy by the aid of which she had hoped 
practically to control the Peloponnesus. All this time, however, 
the alliance between her and Sparta was not officially broken. 

The unsatisfactory character of the Athenian Peloponnesian 
coalition was one of the negative causes which led up to the 
Sicilian Expedition of 415. Another negative cause may be 
found in the failure of an attempt or attempts to subdue the 
Thraceward towns. By combining the evidence of Plutarch (in 
his comparison of Nicias and Crassus), Thuc. v. 83, and the in- 
scription which gives the treasury payments for 418-415 (Hicks 
and Hill, Gr. Hist. Inscr. 70), we can scarcely doubt that there 
were expeditions in 4-18 (Euthydemus) and the summer of 417 
(Nicias), and that in the winter of 417 a blockading squadron 
under Chaeremon was despatched. This policy which was 
presumably that of Nicias in opposition to Alcibiades having 
failed, the way was cleared for a reassertion of that policy of 
western conquest which had always had advocates from 
Themistocles onward in Athens, 1 and was part of the 
democratic programme. 

The tragic fiasco of the Sicilian expedition, involving the death 

1 In 454 Athens made a treaty with Segesta (inscr. Hicks and 
Hill, Greek Hist. Inscr. 34) : in 433 with Rhegium and Leontini 
(Hicks and Hill, 51 and 52; cf. Thuc. iii. 86, ira\ai& avunaxia with 
Chalcidic towns in Sicily) : in 444 the colony of Thurii was founded: 
in 427 (see above) 60 ships were sent to Sicily; and if we may 
believe Aristophanes (Eq. 1302) Hyperbolus asked for too triremes 
for Carthage. 



of Nicias and the loss of thousands of men and hundreds of ships, 
was a blow from which Athens never recovered (see under 
SYRACUSE and SICILY). Even before the final catastrophe 
the Spartans had reopened hostilities. On the advice of 
Alcibiades (q.i>.), exiled from Athens in 415, they had fortified 
Decelea in Attica within fifteen miles of Athens. This place 
not only served as a permanent headquarters for predatory 
expeditions, but cut off the revenue from the Laurium mines, 
furnished a ready asylum for runaway slaves, and rendered the 
transference of supplies from Euboea considerably more difficult 
(i.e. by the sea round Cape Sunium). Athens thus entered 
upon the third stage of the conflict with exceedingly poor 

3. The Ionian or Dccelean War. From the Athenian stand- 
point this war may be broken up into three periods: (i) period of 
revolt of allies (413-411), (2) the rally (410-408), (3) the relapse 
(407-404). As contrasted with the Archidamian War, this 
war was fought almost exclusively in the Aegean Sea, the enemy 
was primarily Sparta, and the deciding factor was Persian gold. 
Furthermore, apart from the gradual disintegration of the 
empire, Athens was disturbed by political strife. 

In 412 many Ionian towns revolted, and appealed either to 
Agis at Decelea or to Sparta direct. Euboea, Lesbos, Chios, 
Erythrae led the way in negotiation and revolt, and simul- 
taneously the court of Susa instructed the satraps Pharnabazus 
and Tissaphernes to renew the collection of tribute from the 
Greek cities of Asia Minor. The satraps likewise made over- 
tures to Sparta. The revolt of the Ionian allies was due in part 
to Alcibiades also, whose prompt action in co-operation with his 
friend the ephor Endius finally confirmed the Chian oligarchs 
in their purpose. In 411 a treaty was signed by Sparta and 
Tissaphernes against Athens: the treaty formally surrendered 
to the Persian king all territory which he or his predecessors 
had held. It was subsequently renewed in a form somewhat 
less disgraceful to Greek patriotism by the Spartans Astyochus 
and Theramenes. On the other hand, a democratic rising in 
Samos prevented the rebellion of that island, which for the 
remainder of the war was invaluable to Athens as a stronghold 
lying between the two great centres of the struggle. 

After the news of the Sicilian disaster Athens was compelled 
at last to draw on the reserve of 1000 talents which had lain 
untouched in the treasury. 1 The revolt of the Ionian allies, 
and (in 411) the loss of the Hellespontine, Thracian and Island 
tributes (see DELIAN LEAGUE), very seriously crippled her 
finances. On the other hand, Tissaphernes undertook to pay 
the Peloponnesian sailors a daily wage of one Attic drachma 
(afterwards reduced to 2 drachma). In Attica itself Athens 
lost Oenoe and Oropus, and by the end of 411 only one quarter 
of the empire remained. In the meanwhile Tissaphernes began 
to play a double game with the object of wasting the strength 
of the combatants. Moreover Alcibiades lost the confidence 
of the Spartans and passed over to Tissaphernes, at whose 
disposal he placed his great powers of diplomacy, at the same 
time scheming for his restoration to Athens. He opened 
negotiations with the Athenian leaders in Samos and urged 
them to upset the democracy and establish a philo-Persian 
oligarchy. After elaborate intrigues, in the course of which 
Alcibiades played false to the conspirators by forcing them to 
abandon the idea of friendship with Tissaphernes owing to the 
exorbitant terms proposed, the new government by the Four 
Hundred was set up in Athens (see THERAMENES). This 
government (which received no support from the armament in 
Samos) had a brief life, and on the final revolt of Euboea was 
replaced by the old democratic system. Alcibiades (q.v.) was 
soon afterwards invited to return to Athens. 

The war, which, probably because of financial trouble, the 
Spartans had neglected to pursue when Athens was thus in the 
throes of political convulsion, was now resumed. After much 
manoeuvring and intrigues a naval battle was fought at Cynos- 

1 She had already abolished the system of tribute in favour of 
a 5% ad valorem tax on all imports and exports carried by sea 
between her ports and those of the allies. 

sema in the Hellespont in which victory on the whole rested 
with the Athenians (Aug. 411), though the net result was 
inconsiderable. About this time the duplicity of Tissaphernes 
who having again and again promised a Phoenician fleet and 
having actually brought it to the Aegean finally dismissed it 
on the excuse of trouble in the Levant and the vigorous honesty 
of Pharnabazus definitely transferred the Peloponnesian forces 
to the north-west coast of Asia Minor and the Hellespont. 
There they were regularly financed by Pharnabazus, while the 
Athenians were compelled to rely on forced levies. In spite of this 
handicap Alcibiades, who had been seized and imprisoned by 
Tissaphernes at Sardis but effected his escape, achieved a remark- 
able victory over the Spartan Mindarus at Cyzicus (about April 
410). So complete was the destruction of the Peloponnesian 
fleet that, according to Diodorus, peace was offered by Sparta 
(see ad fin.)a.nd would have been accepted but for the warlike 
speeches of the " demagogue " Cleophon representing the 
extreme democrats. 2 Another result was the return to allegiance 
(4og) of a number of the north-east cities of the empire. Great 
attempts were made by the Athenians to hold the Hellespont 
and then to protect the corn-supply from the Black Sea. In 
Greece these gains were compensated by the loss of Pylos and 

In 408 Alcibiades effectively invested Chalcedon, which 
surrendered by agreement with Pharnabazus, and subsequently 
Byzantium also fell into his hands with the aid of some of its 

Pharnabazus, weary of bearing the whole cost of the war for 
the Peloponnesians, agreed to a period of truce so that envoys 
might visit Susa, but at this stage the whole position was changed 
by the appointment of Cyrus the Younger as satrap of Lydia, 
Greater Phrygia and Cappadocia. His arrival coincided with 
the appointment of Lysander (c. Dec. 408) as Spartan admiral - 
the third of the three great commanders (Brasidas and Gylippus 
being the others) whom Sparta produced during the war. Cyrus 
promptly agreed on the special request of Lysander (q.v.) to pay 
slightly increased wages to the sailors, while Lysander established 
a system of anti-Athenian clubs and oligarchic governments 
in various cities. Meanwhile Alcibiades (May 407), having 
exacted levies in Caria, returned at length to Athens and was 
elected strategus with full powers (see STRATEGUS). He raised 
a large force of men and ships and endeavoured to draw Lysander 
(then at Ephesus) into an engagement. But Cyrus and Lysander 
were resolved not to fight till they had a clear advantage, and 
Alcibiades took a small squadron to Phocaea. In spite of his 
express orders his captain Antiochus in his absence provoked a 
battle and was defeated and killed at Notium. This failure and 
the refusal of Lysander to fight again destroyed the confidence 
which Alcibiades had so recently regained. Ten strategi were 
appointed to supersede him and he retired to fortified ports in 
the Chersonese which he had prepared for such an emergency 
(c. Jan. 406). At the same time Lysander's year of office expired 
and he was superseded by Callicratidas, to the disgust of all those 
whom he had so carefully organized in his service. Callicratidas, 
an honourable man of pan-Hellenic patriotism, was heavily 
handicapped in the fact that Cyrus declined to afford him the 
help which had made Lysander powerful, and had recourse to 
the Milesians and Chians, with whose aid he fitted out a fleet of 
140 triremes (only 10 Spartan). With these he pursued Conon 
(chief of the ten new Athenian strategi), captured 30 of his 70 
ships and besieged him in Mytilene. Faced with inevitable 
destruction, Conon succeeded in sending the news to Athens, 
where by extraordinary efforts a fleet of no ships was at once 
equipped. Callicratidas, hearing of this fleet's approach, with- 
drew from Mytilene, leaving Eteonicus in charge of the blockade. 
Forty more ships were collected by the Athenians, who met 
and defeated Callicratidas at Arginusae with a loss of more than 
half his fleet. The immediate result was that Eteonicus left 
Mytilene and Conon found himself free. Unfortunately the 
victorious generals at Arginusae, through negligence or owing 

- Xenophon, Hell, does not mention it : Thucydides's history 
had by this time come to an end. 

7 6 


to a storm, failed to recover the bodies of those of their crews 
who were drowned or killed in the action. They were therefore 
recalled, tried and condemned to death, except two who had 
disobeyed the order to return to Athens. 

At this point Lysander was again sent out, nominally as 
secretary to the official admiral Aracus. Cyrus, recalled to 
Susa by the illness of Darius, left him in entire control of his 
satrapy. Thus strengthened he sailed to Lampsacus on the 
Hellespont and laid siege to it. Conon, now in charge of the 
Athenian fleet, sailed against him, but the fleet was entirely 
destroyed while at anchor at Aegospotami (Sept. 405), Conon 
escaping with only 12 out of 180 sail to Cyprus. In April 404 
Lysander sailed into the Peiraeus, took possession of Athens, 
and destroyed the Long Walls and the fortifications of Peiraeus. 
An oligarchical government was set up (see CRITIAS), and 
Lysander having compelled the capitulation of Samos, the last 
Athenian stronghold, sailed in triumph to Sparta. 

Two questions of considerable importance for the full understand- 
ing of the Peloponnesian War may be selected for special notice: 
( I ) how far was it a war between two antagonistic theories of govern- 
ment, oligarchic and democratic ? and (2) how far was Athenian 
statesmanship at fault in declining the offers of peace which Sparta 

1. A common theory is that Sparta fought throughout the war 
as an advocate of oligarchy, while Athens did not seek to interfere 
with the constitutional preferences of her allies. The view is based 
partly on Thuc. i. 19, according to which the Spartans took care that 
their allies should adhere to a policy convenient to themselves. This 
idea is disproved by Thucydides" own narrative, which shows that 
down to 418 (the battle of Mantinea) Sparta tolerated democratic 
governments in Peloponnesus itself e.g. Elis, Mantinea, Sicyon, 
Achaea. It was only after that date that democracy was suppressed 
in the Peloponnesian League, and even then Mantinea remained 
democratic. In point of fact, it was only when Lysander became 
the representative of Spartan foreign policy i.e. in the last years 
of the war that Sparta was identified with the oligarchic policy. 

On the other hand, there is strong evidence that the Athenian 
Empire at a much earlier date was based upon a uniform democratic 
type of government (cf. Thuc. i. 19, viii. 64; Xen. Pol. i. 14, Hell. 
iii. 47; Arist. Pol. viii. 69). It is true that we find oligarchic govern- 
ment in Chios and Lesbos (up to 428) and in Samos (up to 440), 
but this is discounted by the fact that all three were " autonomous " 
allies. Moreover, in the case of Samos there was a democracy in 
439, though in 412 the government was again oligarchic. The 
case of Selymbria (see Hicks and Hill, op. cil. 77) is of little account, 
because at that time (409) the Empire was in extremis. In general 
we find that Athenian orators take special credit on the ground that 
the Athenian had given to her allies the constitutional advantages 
which they themselves enjoyed. 

2. In view of the disastrous issue of the war, it is important to 
notice that on three occasions (a) after Pylos, (6) after Cyzicus, 
(c) after Arginusae Athens refused formal peace proposals from 
Sparta, (a) Though Cleon was probably wise in opposing peace 
negotiations before the capture of the Spartans in Sphactena, it 
seems in the light of subsequent events that he was wrong to refuse 
the terms which were offered after the hoplites had been captured. 
No doubt, however, the temper in Athens was at that time pre- 
dominantly warlike, and the surrender of the hoplites was a unique 
triumph. Possibly, too, Cleon foresaw that peace would have 
meant a triumph for the philo-Laconian party. (6) The peace 
proposals of 410 are given by Diodorus, who says that the ephor 
Endius proposed that a peace should be made on the basis of uti 
possidetis, except that Athens should evacuate Pylos and Cythera, 
and Sparta, Decelea. Cleophon, however, perhaps doubting 
whether the offer was sincere (cf. Philochorus in Schol. ap. Eurip. 
Orest. 371; Fragm. ed. Didot, 117, 1 1 8), demanded the status quo 
ante (413 or 431). (c) The proposals of 406, mentioned by Ath. Pol. 
34, were on the same lines, except that Athens no longer had Pylos 
and Cythera, and had lost practically half her empire. At this time 
peace must therefore have been advantageous to Athens as showing 
the world that in spite of her losses she was still one of the great 
powers of Greece. Moreover, an alliance with Sparta would have 
meant a check to Persian interference. It is probable, again, that 
party interest was a leading motive in Cleophon's mind, since a 
peace would have meant the return of the oligarchic exiles and the 
establishment of a moderate oligarchy. 

AUTHORITIES.-^. Busolt, Griech. Gesch., Bd. iii., Teil ii. (1904), 
" Der Peloponnesische Krieg " is essential. All histories of Greece 
may be consulted (see GREECE: History, Ancient, section 
" Authorities "). (J. M. M.) 

PELOPONNESUS ("Island of Pelops "), the ancient and 
modern Greek official name for the part of Greece south of the 
Isthmus of Corinth. In medieval times it was called the Morea, 

from its resemblance to a mulberry-leaf in shape, and this name 
is still current in popular speech. 

PELOPS, in Greek legend, the grandson of Zeus, son of Tantalus 
and Dione, and brother of Niobe. His father's home was on 
Mt Sipylus in Asia Minor, whence Pelops is spoken of as a 
Lydian or a Phrygian. Tantalus one day served up to the 
gods his own son Pelops, boiled and cut in pieces. The gods 
detected the crime, and none of them would touch the food 
except Demeter (according to others, Thetis), who, distracted by 
the loss of her daughter Persephone, ate of the shoulder. The 
gods restored Pelops to life, and the shoulder consumed by 
Demeter was replaced by one of ivory. Wherefore the descen- 
dants of Pelops had a white mark on their shoulder ever after 
(Ovid, Metam. vi. 404; Virgil, Georgics, iii. 7). This tale is 
perhaps reminiscent of human sacrifice amongst the Greeks. 
Poseidon carried Pelops off to Olympus, where he dwelt with the 
gods, till, for his father's sins, he was cast out from heaven. 
Then, taking much wealth with him, he crossed over from Asia 
to Greece. He went to Pisa in Elis as suitor of Hippodameia, 
daughter of king Oenomaus, who had already vanquished in 
the chariot-race and slain many suitors for his daughter's hand. 
But by the help of Poseidon, who lent him winged steeds, or 
of Oenomaus's charioteer Myrtilus, whom he or Hippodameia 
bribed, Pelops was victorious in the race, wedded Hippodameia, 
and became king of Pisa (Hyginus, Fab. 84). The race of 
Pelops for his wife may be a reminiscence of the early practice of 
marriage by capture. When Myrtilus claimed his promised 
reward, Pelops flung him into the sea near Geraestus in Euboea, 
and from his dying curse sprang those crimes and sorrows of the 
house of Pelops which supplied the Greek tragedians with such 
fruitful themes (Sophocles, Electro., 505, with Jebb's note). 
Among the sons of Pelops by Hippodameia were Atreus, Thyestes 
and Chrysippus. From Pisa Pelops extended his sway over the 
neighbouring Olympia, where he celebrated the Olympian games 
with a splendour unknown before. His power and fame were so 
great that henceforward the whole peninsula was known to the 
ancients as Peloponnesus, " island of Pelops " (VTJO-OS, island). 
In after times Pelops was honoured at Olympia above all other 
heroes; a temple was built for him by Heracles, his descendant 
in the fourth generation, in which the annual magistrates sacri- 
ficed to him a black ram. 

From the reference to Asia in the tales of Tantalus, Niobe and 
Pelops it has been conjectured that Asia was the original seat of 
these legends, and that it was only after emigration to Greece that 
the people localized a part of the tale of Pelops in their new home. 
In the time of Pausanias the throne of Pelops was still shown on 
the top of Mt Sipylus. The story of Pelops is told in the first 
Olympian ode of Pindar and in prose by Nicolaus Damascenus. 

PELOTA (Sp. " little ball," from Lat. pila), a ball game which, 
originating centuries ago in the Basque provinces, has developed 
into several forms of the sport. Epigrams of Martial show that 
there were at least three kinds of pelota played in his time. 
Blaid, practically hand fives against the back wall of a court, is 
still played on both sides of the Pyrenees. It is so popular that 
the authorities had to forbid its being played against the walls 
of the cathedral at Barcelona. In uncovered courts of large size 
there are two varieties of pelota. One, the favourite pastime of 
the Basque, is played against a front wall (fronton), either bare- 
handed, with a leather or wooden long glove-like protector 
(cesla), or with a chistera strapped to the wrist, a sickle-shaped 
wicker-work implement three feet long, much like a hansom-wheel 
basket mud-guard, in the narrow groove of which the ball is 
caught and from which, thanks to the leverage afforded, it can 
be hurled with tremendous force. There are several players to a 
side, frequently an uneven number to allow a handicap. The 
score is announced by a cantara, whose melodious vocal efforts 
make him not the least appreciated participant in the game. In 
the other form of the game, played nearly exclusively by profes- 
sionals (pelotaris), there are usually three players on each side, 
two forwards and a back, distinguished by a coloured sash or cap. 
The server (bulteur) slips off his chistera to serve, bouncing the 
ball on the but, a kind of stool, about 30 ft. from the wall, and 



striking it low against the wall. The side that wins the toss has 
the first service. The ball must be replayed by the opposing 
side at the wall, which it must hit over a line 3 ft. from the 
base of the wall and under the net fixed at the top of the wall. 
The game is counted 15, 30, 40, game, reckoned by the number 
of faults made by the opposing side. A fault is scored (a) when 
after the service the ball is not caught on the volley or first 
bounce, (6) when it does not on the return strike the wall within 
the prescribed limits, (c) when it goes out of the prescribed limits 
of the court, (d) when it strikes the net fixed at the top of the 
court. The side making the fault loses the service. A game like 
this has been played in England by Spanish professionals on a 
court 250 ft. long, against a wall 30 ft. high and 55 ft. wide. The 
ball used, a trifle smaller than a base-ball, is hard rubber wound 
with yarn and leather-covered, weighing 5 ounces. The server 
bounces the ball on the concrete floor quite near the fronton, and 
hits it with his chislera against the wall with a force to make it 
rebound beyond a line 80 ft. back. It usually goes treble that 

PELOTAS, a city of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 
on the left bank of the Sao Goncalo river near its entrance into 
tne Lagda dos Patos, about 30 m. N.W. of the city of Rio 
Grande. Pop. (1900), city, about 24,000; municipio (commune, 
1037 sq. m.), 43,091. The Rio Grande-Bage railway communi- 
cates with the city of Rio Grande, and with the railways extend- 
ing to Bage, Cacequy, Santa Maria, Passo Fundo and Porto 
Alegre. The Sao Goncalo river is the outlet of Lag6a Mirim, 
and Pelotas is therefore connected with the inland water routes. 
The city is built on an open grassy plain (campo) little above the 
level of the lake (28 ft. above sea-level). The public buildings 
include the church of Sao Francisco, dating from the early part 
of the igth century, the municipal hall, a fine theatre, the 
Misericordia hospital, a public library containing about 25,000 
volumes and a great central market. Pelotas is the centre of the 
xarque or earns secca (jerked beef) industry of Rio Grande do Sul. 
In its outskirts and the surrounding country are an immense 
number of xarqueadas (slaughter-houses), with large open yards 
where the dressed beef, lightly salted, is exposed to the sun and 
air. There are many factories or packing nouses where the by- 
products are prepared for market. Pelotas was only a small 
settlement at the beginning of the igth century and had no 
parochial organization until 1812. It became a villa in 1830 and 
a city in 1835. 

PELOUZE, THEOPHILE JULES (1807-1867), French chemist, 
was born at Valognes, in Normandy, on the 26th (or I3th) of 
February 1807. His father, Edmond Pelouze (d. 1847), was an 
industrial chemist and the author of several technical handbooks. 
The son, after spending some time in a pharmacy at La Fere, 
acted as laboratory assistant to Gay-Lussac and J. L. Lassaigne 
(1800-1859) at Paris from 1827 to 1829. In 1830 he was ap- 
pointed associate professor of chemistry at Lille, but returning 
to Paris next year became repetiteur, and subsequently professor, 
at the Ecole Fob/technique. He also held the chair of chemistry 
at the College de France, and in 1833 became assayer to the mint 
and in 1848 president of the Commission des Monnaies. After 
the coup d'etat in 1851 he resigned his appointments, but con- 
tinued to conduct a laboratory-school he had started in 1846. 
He died in Paris on the ist of June 1867. Though Pelouze made 
no discovery of outstanding importance, he was a busy investi- 
gator, his work including researches on salicin, on beetroot sugar, 
on various organic acids gallic, malic, tartaric, butyric, lactic, 
&c. on oenanthic ether (with Liebig), on the nitrosulphates, on 
gun-cotton, and on the composition and manufacture of glass. 
He also carried out determinations of the atomic weights of 
several elements, and with E. Fremy, published Trait6 de chimie 
generde (1847-1850); Abrege de chimie (1848); and Notions 
generales de chimie (1853). 

physicist, was born at Ham (Somme) on the 22nd of February 
1785. He was originally a watchmaker, but retired from 
business about the age of thirty and devoted himself to experi- 
mental and observational science. His papers, which are 

numerous, are devoted in great part to atmospheric electricity, 
waterspouts, cyanometry and polarization of skylight, the 
temperature of water in the spheroidal state, and the boiling- 
point at great elevations. There are also a few devoted to curious 
points of natural history. But his name will always be associ- 
ated with the thermal effects at junctions in a voltaic circuit. 
His great experimental discovery, known as the " Peltier effect," 
was that if a current pass from an external source through a 
circuit of two metals it cools the junction through which it passes 
in the same direction as the thermo-electric current which would 
be caused by directly heating that junction, while it heats the 
other junction (see THERMO-ELECTRICITY). Peltier died in Paris 
on the 27th of October 1845. 

PELTUINUM [mod. Civita Ansidonia], a town of the Vestini, 
on the Via Claudia Nova, 12 m. E.S.E. of Aquila. It was 
apparently the chief town of that portion of the Vestini who 
dwelt west of the main Apennine chain. Remains of the town 
walls, of an amphitheatre, and of other buildings still exist. 

PELUSIUM, an ancient city and port of Egypt, now repre- 
sented by two large mounds close to the coast and the edge of 
the desert, 20 m. E. of Port Said. It lay in the marshes at the 
mouth of the most easterly (Pelusiac) branch of the Nile, which 
has long since been silted up, and was the key of the land towards 
Syria and a strong fortress, which, from the Persian invasion at 
least, played a great part in all wars between Egypt and the East. 
Its name has not been found on Egyptian monuments, but it may 
be the Sin of the Bible and of Assur-bani-pal's inscription. 
Pelusium (" the muddy ") is the Farama of the Arabs, Pere- 
moun in Coptic; the name Tina which clings to the locality seems 
etymologically connected with the Arabic word for clay or mud. 
The site, crowned with extensive ruins of burnt brick of the 
Byzantine or Arab period, has not yielded any important 
remains. (F. LL. G.) 

PELVIS (Lat. for " basin," cf. Gr. ir&Xw), in anatomy, the 
bony cavity at the lower part of the abdomen in which much of 
the genito-urinary apparatus and the lower part of the bowels are 
contained (see SKELETON, Appcndicidar). 

PEMBA, an island in the Indian Ocean off the east coast of 
Africa, forming part of the sultanate of Zanzibar. Pemba lies 
30 m. N.N.E. of Zanzibar island between 4 80' and 5 30' S., 
and 39 35' and 39 50' E. It is some 40 m. long and 10 across 
at its broadest part, and has an area of 380 sq. m. It is of coral- 
line formation. On the side facing the mainland the coast is 
much indented. From its luxuriant vegetation it gets its' Arabic 
name of Al-huthera " The Green." The interior is diversified 
by hills, some of which exceed 600 ft. The land is chiefly owned 
by great Arab proprietors, who work their plantations with 
Swahili labour, and with negroes from the mainland. Prior to 
1897 the labourers were all slaves. Their gradual manumission 
was accomplished without injury to the prosperity of the island. 
The population is estimated at between 50,000 and 60,000, of 
whom 2000 to 3000 are Arabs. Most of the inhabitants are of 
Bantu stock, and are known as Wapemba. In the ports there 
are many Hindu traders and a few Europeans. The plantations 
are nearly all devoted to cloves (the annual average output being 
10,000,000 Ib) and coco-nut palms (for the preparation of 
copra). The number of coco-nut plantations is very small 
compared with those devoted to cloves. Yet cloves need much 
care and attention and yield small profit, while the coco-nut 
palm yields a fairly uniform crop of nuts and will grow almost 
anywhere. The preponderance of clove plantations dates from 
a cyclone which in 1872 destroyed nearly all the clove-trees in 
the island of Zanzibar. Thereupon, to benefit from the great 
rise in the price of cloves, the Pemba planters cut down their 
palms and planted cloves. The value of the cloves exported in 
1907 was 339,000, or 92 % of the total exports. India, Germany 
and Great Britain are, in the order named, the chief purchasers. 
Other exports include fire-wood, skins and hides, mother-of-pearl, 
wax and small quantities of rubber, cowries, tortoiseshell and 
so-called tortoise-nail. The " tortoise-nail " is the valve with 
which a shell-fish closes its shell. The Llandolphia rubber-vine 
is indigenous, and since 1906 Ceara rubber-trees have beea 


extensively planted. Rice, the chief of Pemba's imports, could 
easily be grown on the island. Cotton cloths (Kangas) form the 
next most considerable item in the imports. 

Pemba has three ports, all on the west side of the island. 
Shaki-Shaki, the capital and the centre of trade, is centrally 
situated at the head of a shallow tidal creek partly blocked by 
dense growths of mangroves. Mkoani is on the south-west 
coast, Kishi-Kashi on the north-west coast; at the last-named 
port there is a deep and well-sheltered harbour, approached 
however by a narrow and dangerous channel. 

Pemba is administered as an integral part of the Zanzibar 
dominions, and yields a considerable surplus to the exchequer, 
mainly from a 25% duty imposed on cloves exported. There is 
a weekly steamship service to Zanzibar, and in 1907 the two 
islands were connected by wireless telegraphy (see ZANZIBAR). 

PEMBROKE, EARLS OF. The title of earl of Pembroke 
has been held successively by several English families, the 
jurisdiction and dignity of a palatine earldom being originally 
attached to it. The first creation dates from 1138, when the 
earldom of Pembroke was conferred by King Stephen on Gilbert 
de Clare (d. 1148), son of Gilbert Fitz-Richard, who possessed 
the lordship of Strigul (Estrighoiel, in Domesday Book), the 
modern Chepstow. After the battle of Lincoln (1141), in which 
he took part, the earl joined the party of the empress Matilda, 
and he married Henry I.'s mistress, Isabel, daughter of Robert 
de Beaumont, earl of Leicester. 

RICHARD DE CLARE, 2nd earl of Pembroke (d. 1176), commonly 
known as " Strongbow," son of the first earl, succeeded to his 
father's estates in 1148, but had forfeited or lost them by 1168. 
In that year Dermot, king of Leinster, driven out of his kingdom 
by Roderick, king of Connaught, came to solicit help from 
Henry II. He secured the services of Earl Richard, promising 
him the hand of his daughter Eva and the succession to Leinster. 
The earl crossed over in person (1170), took both Waterford and 
Dublin, and was married to Eva. But Henry II., jealous of 
this success, ordered all the troops to return by Easter 1171. 
In May Dermot died; this was the signal of a general rising, and 
Richard barely managed to keep Roderick of Connaught out of 
Dublin. Immediately afterwards he hurried to England to 
solicit help from Henry II., and surrendered to him all his lands 
and castles. Henry crossed over in October 1172; he stayed in 
Ireland six months, and put his own men into nearly all the 
important places, Richard keeping only Kildare. In 1173 he 
went in person to France to help Henry II., and was present at 
Verneuil, being reinstated in Leinster as a reward. In 1174 he 
advanced into Connaught and was severely defeated, but for- 
tunately Raymond le Gros re-established his supremacy in 
Leinster. Early in 1176 Richard died, just as Raymond had 
taken Limerick for him. Strongbow was the statesman, as the 
Fitzgeralds were the soldiers, of the conquest. He is vividly 
described by Giraldus Cambrensis as a tall and fair man, of 
pleasing appearance, modest in his bearing, delicate in features, 
of a low voice, but sage in council and the idol of his soldiers. 
He was buried in the cathedral church of Dublin, where his 
effigy and that of his wife are still preserved. 

See Giraldus Cambrensis, Expugnatio hibernica; and the Song of 
Dermot, edited by G. H. Orpen (1892). 

Strongbow having died without male issue, his daughter 
ISABEL became countess of Pembroke in her own right, and the 
title was borne by her husband, SIR WILLIAM MARSHAL, or 
Le Marechal, second son of John le Marechal, by Sibylle, the 
sister of Patrick, earl of Salisbury. John le Marechal was a 
partisan of the empress Matilda, and died about 1164. 

The date of Sir William Marshal's birth is uncertain, but his 
parents were married not earlier than 1141, and he was a mere 
child in 1152, when he attracted the notice of King Stephen. 
In 1170 he was selected for a position in the household of Prince 
Henry, the heir-apparent, and remained there until the death 
of his young patron (1183). He undertook a pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land, where he served as a crusader with distinction for 
two years. Although he had abetted the prince in rebellion he 
was pardoned by Henry II. and admitted to the royal service 

about 1188. In 1189 he covered the flight of Henry II. from 
Le Mans to Chinon, and, in a skirmish, unhorsed the undutiful 
Richard Cceur de Lion. None the less Richard, on his accession, 
promoted Marshal and confirmed the old king's 'licence for his 
marriage with the heiress of Strigul and Pembroke. This match 
gave Marshal the rank of an earl, with great estates in Wales 
and Ireland, and he was included in the council of regency which 
the king appointed on his departure for the third crusade (1190). 
He took the side of Prince John when the latter expelled the 
justiciar, William Longchamp, from the kingdom, but he soon 
discovered that the interests of John were different from those 
of Richard. Hence in 1193 he joined with the loyalists in 
making war upon the prince. Richard forgave Marshal his first 
error of judgment, allowed him to succeed his brother, John 
Marshal, in the hereditary marshalship, and on his death-bed 
designated him as custodian of Rouen and of the royal treasure 
during the interregnum. Though he quarrelled more than once 
with John, Marshal was one of the few English laymen who clung 
to the royal side through the Barons' War. He was one of John's 
executors, and was subsequently elected regent of the king and 
kingdom by the royalist barons in 1 2 1 6. In spite of his advanced 
age he prosecuted the war against Prince Louis and the rebels 
with remarkable energy. In the battle of Lincoln (May 1217) 
he charged and fought at the head of the young king's army, and 
he was preparing to besiege Louis in London when the war was 
terminated by the naval victory of Hubert de Burgh in the 
straits of Dover. He was criticized for the generosity of the 
terms he accorded to Louis and the rebels (September 1217); 
but his desire for an expeditious settlement was dictated by 
sound statesmanship. Self-restraint and compromise were the 
key-notes of Marshal's policy. Both before and after the peace 
of 1217 he reissued Magna Carta. He fell ill early in the year 
1219, and died on the I4th of May at his manor of Caversham 
near Reading. He was succeeded in the regency by Hubert de 
Burgh, in his earldom by his five sons in succession. 

See the metrical French life, Histoire de GuiUaume le Marechal 
(ed. P. Meyer, 3 vols., Paris, 1891-1901) ; the Minority of Henry III., 
by G. J. Turner (Trans. Royal Hist. Soc., new series, vol. xviii. 
pp. 245-295); and W. Stubbs, Constitutional History, chs. xii. and 
xiv. (Oxford, 1896-1897). 

Marshal's eldest son, WILLIAM MARSHAL (d. 1231), 2nd earl of 
Pembroke of this line, passed some years in warfare in Wales and 
in Ireland, where he was justiciar from 1224 to 1226; he also 
served Henry III. in France. His second wife was the king's 
sister, Eleanor, afterwards the wife of Simon de Montfort, but 
he left no children. His brother RICHARD MARSHAL (d. 1234), 
3rd earl, came to the front as the leader of the baronial party, 
and the chief antagonist of the foreign friends of Henry III. 
Fearing treachery he refused to visit the king at Gloucester in 
August 1233, and Henry declared him a traitor. He crossed to 
Ireland, where Peter des Roches had instigated his enemies to 
attack him, and in April 1234 he was overpowered and wounded, 
and died a prisoner. His brother GILBERT (d. 1241), who 
became the 4th earl, was a friend and ally of Richard, earl of 
Cornwall. When another brother, Anselm, the 6th earl, died 
in December 1245, the male descendants of the great earl marshal 
became extinct. The extensive family possessions were now 
divided among Anselm's five sisters and their descendants, the 
earldom of Pembroke reverting to the Crown. 

The next holder of the lands of the earldom of Pembroke was 
William de Valence (d. 1296), a younger son of Hugh de Lusignan, 
count of La Marche, by his marriage with Isabella of Angouleme 
(d. 1246), widow of the English king John, and was born at 
Valence, near Lusignan. In 1247 William and his brothers, 
Guy and Aymer, crossed over to England at the invitation of their 
half-brother, Henry III. In 1250 Aymer (d. 1260) was elected 
bishop of Winchester, and in 1247 Henry arranged a marriage 
between William and Joan de Munchensi (d. 1307) a grand- 
daughter of William Marshal, ist earl of Pembroke. The 
custody of Joan's property, which included the castle and lordship 
of Pembroke, was entrusted to her husband, who in 1295 was 
summoned to parliament as earl of Pembroke. In South Wales 



Valence tried to regain the palatine rights which had been 
attached to the earldom of Pembroke. But his energies were 
not confined to South Wales. Henry III. heaped lands and 
honours upon him, and he was soon thoroughly hated as one of 
the most prominent of the rapacious foreigners. Moreover, some 
trouble in Wales led to a quarrel between him and Simon de 
Montfort, and this soon grew more violent. He would not 
comply with the provisions of Oxford, and took refuge in Wolvesey 
Castle at Winchester, where he was besieged and compelled to 
surrender and leave the country. In 1259 he and Earl Simon 
were formally reconciled in Paris, and in 1261 he was again in 
England and once more enjoying the royal favour. He fought 
for Henry at the battle of Lewes, and then, after a stay in France, 
he landed in Pembrokeshire, and took part in 1265 in the siege 
of Gloucester and the battle of Evesham. After the royalist 
victory he was restored to his estates and accompanied Prince 
Edward, afterwards Edward I., to Palestine. He went several 
times to France on public business; he assisted in the conquest of 
North Wales; and he was one of Edward's representatives in 
the famous suit over the succession to the crown of Scotland in 
1291 and 1292. He died at Bayonne on the I3th of June 1296, 
his body being buried in Westminster Abbey. His eldest 
surviving son, AYMER (c. 1265-1324), succeeded to his father's 
estates, but was not formally recognized as earl of Pembroke 
until after the death of his mother Joan about 1307. He was 
appointed guardian of Scotland in 1306, but with the accession 
of Edward II. to the throne and the consequent rise of Piers 
Gaveston to power, his influence sensibly declined; he became 
prominent among the discontented nobles and was one of those 
who were appointed to select the lord ordainers in 1311. In 
1312 he captured Gaveston at Scarborough, giving the favourite 
a promise that his life should be spared. Ignoring this under- 
taking, however, Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, put Gaveston 
to death, and consequently Pembroke left the allied lords and 
attached himself to Edward II. Valence was present at Bannock- 
burn; in 1317, when returning to England from Rome, he was 
taken prisoner and was kept in Germany until a large ransom was 
paid. In 1318 he again took a conspicuous part in making peace 
between Edward and his nobles, and in 1322 assisted at the 
formal condemnation of Earl Thomas of Lancaster, and received 
some of his lands. His wife, Mary de Chatillon, a descendant 
of King Henry III., was the founder of Pembroke College, 

In 1339 LAURENCE, LORD HASTINGS (d. 1348), a great-grand- 
son of William de Valence, having inherited through the female 
line a portion of the estates of the Valence earls of Pembroke 
was created, or recognized as, earl of Pembroke. His son John 
(d. 1376) married Margaret Plantagenet, daughter of King 
Edward III., and on the death without issue of his grandson 
in 1389 the earldom of Pembroke reverted again to the Crown, 
while the barony of Hastings became dormant and so remained 
till 1840. 

In 1414 Humphrey Plantagenet, fourth son of King Henry 
IV., was created duke of Gloucester and earl of Pembroke for 
life, these titles being subsequently made hereditary, with a 
reversion as regards the earldom of Pembroke, in default of 
heirs to Humphrey, to William de la Pole, earl of Suffolk. 
Accordingly, on the death of Humphrey, without issue, in 1447 
this nobleman became earl of Pembroke. He was beheaded in 
1450 and his titles were forfeited. In 1453 the title was given to 
Sir Jasper Tudor, half-brother of King Henry VI. Sir Jasper 
being a Lancastrian, his title was forfeited during the pre- 
dominance of the house of York, but was restored on the 
accession of Henry VII. On his death without heirs in 1495, 
his title became extinct. 

During his attainder Sir Jasper was taken prisoner by SIR 
WILLIAM HERBERT (d. 1469), a zealous Yorkist, who had been 
raised to the peerage as Baron Herbert by Edward IV., and for 
this service Lord Herbert was created earl of Pembroke in 1468. 
His son William (d. 1491) received the earldom of Huntingdon 
in lieu of that of Pembroke, which he surrendered to Edward IV., 
who thereupon conferred it (1479) on his son Edward, prince 

of Wales; and when this prince succeeded to the throne as 
Edward V., the earldom of Pembroke merged in the crown. 
ANNE BOLEYN, a few months previous to her marriage with 
Henry VIII., was created marchioness of Pembroke in 1532. 
It is doubted by authorities on peerage law whether the title 
merged in the royal dignity on the marriage of the marchioness 
to the king, or became extinct on her death in 1536. 

The title of earl of Pembroke was ne'xt revived in favour of 
SIR WILLIAM HERBERT (c. 1501-1570), whose father, Richard, 
was an illegitimate son of the ist earl of Pembroke of the house 
of Herbert. He had married Anne Parr, sister of Henry VIII. 's 
sixth wife, and was created earl in 1551. The title has since been 
held by his descendants. 

An executor of Henry VIII. 's will and the recipient of valuable 
grants of land, Herbert was a prominent and powerful personage 
during the reign of Edward VI., both the protector Somerset and 
his rival, John Dudley, afterwards duke of Northumberland, 
angling for his support. He threw in his lot with Dudley, and 
after Somerset's fall obtained some of his lands in Wiltshire and 
a peerage. It has been asserted that he devised the scheme for 
settling the English crown on Lady Jane Grey; at all events he 
was one of her advisers during her short reign, but he declared for 
Mary when he saw that Lady Jane's cause was lost. By Mary 
and her friends Pembroke's loyalty was at times suspected, but 
he was employed as governor of Calais, as president of Wales 
and in other ways. He was also to some extent in the confidence 
of Philip II. of Spain. The earl retained his place at court under 
Elizabeth until 1569, when he was suspected of favouring the 
projected marriage between Mary, queen of Scots, and the duke 
of Norfolk. Among the monastic lands granted to Herbert was 
the estate of Wilton, near Salisbury, still the residence of the 
earls of Pembroke. 

His elder son Henry (c. 1534-1601), who succeeded as 2nd earl, 
was president of Wales from 1586 until his death. He married 
in 1577 Mary Sidney, the famous countess of Pembroke (c. 1561- 
1621), third daughter of Sir Henry Sidney and his wife Mary 
Dudley. Sir Philip Sidney to whom she was deeply attached 
through life, was her eldest brother. Sir Philip Sidney spent the 
summer of 1580 with her at Wilton, or at Ivychurch, a favourite 
retreat of hers in the neighbourhood. Here at her request he 
began the Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, which was intended 
for her pleasure alone, not for publication. The two also worked 
at a metrical edition of the Psalms. When the great sorrow of 
her brother's death came upon her she made herself his literary 
executor, correcting the unauthorized editions of the Arcadia 
and of his poems, which appeared in 1590 and 1591. She also 
took under her patronage the poets who had looked to her brother 
for protection. Spenser dedicated his Ruines of Time to her, 
and refers to her as Urania in Colin Clout's come home againe; in 
Spenser's Astrophel she is " Clorinda." In 1599 Queen Elizabeth 
was her guest at Wilton, and the countess composed for the 
occasion a pastoral dialogue in praise of Astraea. After her 
husband's death she lived chiefly in London at Crosby Hall, 
where she died. 

The Countess's other works include: A Discourse of Life and 
Death, translated from the French of Plessis du Mornay (1593), and 
Antoine (1592), a version of a tragedy of Robert Gamier. 

WILLIAM HERBERT, 3rd earl of Pembroke (1580-1630), son of 
the 2nd earl and his famous countess, was a conspicuous figure 
in the society of his time and at the court of James I. Several 
times he found himself opposed to the schemes of the duke of 
Buckingham, and he was keenly interested in the colonization 
of America. He was lord chamberlain of the royal household 
from 1615 to 1625 and lord steward from 1626 to 1630. He was 
chancellor of the university of Oxford in 1624 when Thomas 
Tesdale and Richard Wightwick refounded Broadgates Hall and 
named it Pembroke College in his honour. By some Shake- 
spearian commentators Pembroke has been identified with the 
" Mr W. H. " referred to as " the onlie begetter "of Shakespeare's 
sonnets in the dedication by Thomas Thorpe, the owner of the 
published manuscript, while his mistress, Mary Fitton (q.v.), has 
been identified with the " dark lady " of the sonnets. In both 



cases the identification rests on very questionable evidence (see 
SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM). He and his brother Philip are the 
" incomparable pair of brethren " to whom the first folio of 
Shakespeare is inscribed. The earl left no sons when he died in 
London on the loth of April 1630. Clarendon gives a very 
eulogistic account of Pembroke, who appears, however, to have 
been a man of weak character and dissolute hie. Gardiner 
describes him as the Hamlet of the English court. He had 
literary tastes and wrote poems; one of his closest friends 
was the poet Donne, and he was generous to Ben Jonson, 
Massinger and others. 

His brother, PHILIP HERBERT, the 4th earl (1584-1650), was 
for some years the chief favourite of James I., owing this position 
to his comely person and his passion for hunting and for field 
sports generally. In 1605 the king created him earl of Montgomery 
and Baron Herbert of Shurland, and since 1630, when he succeeded 
to the earldom of Pembroke, the head of the Herbert family has 
carried the double title of earl of Pembroke and Montgomery. 
Although Philip's quarrelsome disposition often led him into 
trouble he did not forfeit the esteem of James I., who heaped 
lands and offices upon him, and he was also trusted by Charles I., 
who made him lord chamberlain in 1626 and frequently visited 
him at Wilton. He worked to bring about peace between the 
king and the Scots in 1639 and 1640, but when in the latter year 
the quarrel between Charles and the English parliament was 
renewed, he deserted the king who soon deprived him of his office 
of chamberlain. Trusted by the popular party, Pembroke was 
made governor of the Isle of Wight, and he was one of the repre- 
sentatives of the parliament on several occasions, notably during 
the negotiations at Uxbridge in 1645 an d at Newport in 1648, and 
when the Scots surrendered Charles in 1647. From 1641 to 1643, 
and again from 1647 to 1650, he was chancellor of the university 
of Oxford; in 1648 he removed some of the heads of houses from 
their positions because they would not take the solemn league 
and covenant, and his foul language led to the remark that he was 
more fitted " by his eloquence in swearing to preside over Bedlam 
than a learned academy." In 1649, although a peer, he was 
elected and took his seat in the House of Commons as member for 
Berkshire, this " ascent downwards " calling forth many satirical 
writings from the royalist wits. The earl was a great collector 
of pictures and had some taste for architecture. His eldest 
surviving son, Philip (1621-1669), became sth earl of Pembroke, 
and 2nd earl of Montgomery; he was twice married, and was 
succeeded in turn by three of his sons, of whom Thomas, the Sth 
earl (c. 1656-1733), was a person of note during the reigns of 
William III. and Anne. From 1690 to 1692 he was first lord 
of the admiralty; then he served as lord privy seal until 1699, 
being in 1697 the first plenipotentiary of Great Britain at the 
congress of Ryswick. On two occasions he was lord high admiral 
for a short period; he was also lord president of the council and 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland, while he acted as one of the lords 
justices seven times; and he was president of the Royal Society 
in 1689-1690. His son Henry, the gth earl (c. 1689-1750), was a 
soldier, but was better known as the " architect earl." He was 
largely responsible for the erection of Westminster Bridge. The 
title descended directly to Henry,ioth earl (1734-1794), a soldier, 
who wrote the Method of Breaking Horses (1762); George 
Augustus, nth earl (1759-1827), an ambassador extraordinary to 
Vienna in 1807; and Robert Henry, i2th earl (1791-1862), who 
died without issue. George Robert Charles, the I3th earl 
(1850-1895), was a grandson of the nth earl and a son of Baron 
Herbert of Lea (q.v.), whose second son Sidney (b. 1853) inherited 
all the family titles at his brother's death. 

See G. T. Clark, The Earls, Earldom and Castle of Pembroke (Tenby, 
1880); J. R. Planch6, "The Earls of Strigul '" in vol. x. of the 
Proceedings of the British Archaeological Association (1855); and 
G. E. C(okayne), Complete Peerage, vol. vi. (London, 1895). 

PEMBROKE, a town of Ontario, Canada, capital of Renfrew 
county, 74 m. W.N.W., of Ottawa by rail on the south shore of 
Allumette Lake, an expansion of the Ottawa river, and on the 
Canadian Pacific and Canada Atlantic railways. Pop. (1901), 
5156. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric, an 

important centre in the lumber trade, and contains saw, grist 
and woollen mills, axe factory, &c. The Muskrat river affords 
excellent water-power. 

PEMBROKE (Penfro), an ancient municipal borough, a 
contributory parliamentary borough and county-town of Pem- 
brokeshire, Wales, situated on a narrow peninsula at the head of 
the Pennar tidal inlet or " pill " of Milford Haven. Pop. (1901), 
4487; together with Pembroke Dock 15,853. Pembroke is a 
station on the South Wales system of the Great Western railway. 
The old-fashioned town, consisting chiefly of one long broad 
street, retains portions of its ancient walls. A large mill-dam is 
a conspicuous feature on the north of the town. St Mary's 
church in the centre of the town possesses a massive tower of the 
1 2th century. Near the ruined West Gate is the entrance to 
Pembroke Castle, a splendid specimen of medieval fortified 
architecture. The circular vaulted keep erected by Earl William 
Marshal (c. 1200), remains almost intact. Close to the keep 
stands the ruined chamber wherein, according to local tradition, 
Henry VII. was born in 1457. Beneath the fine banqueting hall, 
a flight of steps descends into " the Wogan," a vast subterranean 
chamber giving access to the harbour. Facing the castle, on the 
western side of the pill, stand the considerable remains of 
Monkton Priory, a Benediction house founded by Earl William 
Marshal as a cell to the abbey of Seez or Sayes in Normandy, 
but under Henry VI. transferred to the abbey of St Albans. 
The priory church, now the parish church of the suburb of 
Monkton, contains monuments of the families of Meyrick of 
Bush and Owen of Orielton. St Daniel's chapel forms a 
prominent landmark on the ridge south of the town. 

PEMBROKE DOCK (formerly known as Pater, or Paterchurch), a 
naval dockyard and garrison town, is situated close to Hobb's 
Point, at the eastern extremity of Milford Haven. It forms the 
Pater Ward of Pembroke, from which it is distant 2 m. to the 
north-west. The place owes its origin to the decision of the 
government in 1814 to form a naval dep6t on Milford Haven. 
The dockyard, enclosed by high walls and covering 80 acres, is 
protected by a powerful fort the construction and repairing of 
ironclads are extensively carried on here. There is a submarine 
depot at Pennar Gut, and also accommodation for artillery and 
infantry. Ferry boats ply frequently between Pembroke Dock 
and Neyland on the opposite shore of the Haven. 

Pembroke is probably an Anglo-Norman form of the Cymric 
Penfro, the territory lying between Milford Haven and the 
Bristol Channel, now known as the Hundred of Castlemartin. 
During the invasion of South Wales under William Rufus, 
Arnulf de Montgomeri, fifth son of Roger earl of Shrewsbury, 
seems to have erected a fortress of stone (c. 1090) on the site of 
the castle. The first castellan of this new stronghold was 
Giraldus de Windsor, husband of the Princess Nest of South 
Wales and grandfather of Giraldus Cambrensis. Throughout 
the 1 2th and i3th centuries the castle was strengthened and 
enlarged under successive earls palatine of Pembroke, who made 
this fortress their chief seat. As the capital of the palatinate 
and as the nearest port for Ireland, Pembroke was in Plantagenet 
times one of the most important fortified cities in the kingdom. 
The town, which had grown up under the shadow of the almost 
impregnable castle, was first incorporated by Henry I. in 1109 
and again by Earl Richard de Clare in 1 1 54 (who also encircled 
the town with walls), and these privileges were confirmed and 
extended under succeeding earls palatine and kings of England. 
In 1835 the corporation was remodelled under the Municipal 
Corporations Act. Henry II. occasionally visited Pembroke, 
notably in 1172, and until the close of the Wars of the Roses, 
both town and castle played a prominent part in the history of 
Britain. With the passing of the Act of Union of Wales and 
England in 1536 however, the jura regalia of the county palatine 
of Pembroke were abolished, and the prosperity of the town 
began to decline. Although acknowledged as the county town 
of Pembrokeshire, Pembroke was superseded by Haverfordwest 
as the judicial and administrative centre of the shire on account 
of the more convenient position of the latter place. By the act 
of 1536 Pembroke was declared the leading borough in the 



Pembroke parliamentary district, yet the town continued to 
dwindle until the settlement of the government dockyard and 
works on Milford Haven. At the outbreak of the Civil Wars the 
town and castle were garrisoned for parliament by the mayor, 
John Poyer, a leading Presbyterian, who was later appointed 
governor, with Rowland Laugharne of St Brides for his lieu- 
tenant. But at the time of the Presbyterian defection in 1647, 
Poyer and his lieutenant-governors, Laugharne and Powell, 
declared for Charles and held the castle in the king's name. In 
June 1648 Cromwell himself proceeded to invest Pembroke 
Castle, which resisted with great obstinacy. But after the 
water-supply of the garrison had been cut off, the besieged were 
forced to capitulate, on the nth of July 1648, on the condition of 
surrendering up the three chief defenders of the castle. Poyer, 
Laugharne and Powell were accordingly brought to London, 
but finally only Poyer was executed. The magnificent ruin of 
Pembroke Castle is the nominal property of the Crown, but has 
been held on lease since the reign of James II. by the family of 
Pryse of Gogerddan in Cardiganshire. 

PEMBROKESHIRE (Sir Benfro, Dyfed), the most westerly 
county of South Wales, bounded N.E. by Cardigan, Carmar- 
then, S. by the Bristol Channel and W. and N.W. by St Bride's 
Bay and Cardigan Bay of St George's Channel. Area 613 sq. m. 
The whole coast is extremely indented, extending over 140 m. in 
length. The principal inlets are Milford Haven, St Bride's Bay, 
Freshwater Bay, Fishguard Bay and Newport Bay. The chief 
promontories are Cemmaes, Dinas, Strumble, St David's, St 
Ann's and St Gowan's Heads. Five islands of moderate size lie 
off the coast, viz. Ramsey, Grassholm, Skomer and Skokholm 
in St Bride's Bay, and Caldy Island (Ynys Pyr) opposite Tenby; 
the last named having a population of about 70 persons. Rare 
birds, such as peregrine falcons, ravens and choughs are not 
uncommon, while guillemots, puffins and other sea-fowl breed in 
immense numbers on the Stack Rocks, on Ramsey Island and at 
various points of the coast. Seals are plentiful in the caves of 
St Bride's Bay and Cardigan Bay. The county is undulating, 
and large tracts are bare, but the valleys of the Cleddau, the 
Nevern, the Teifi and the Gwaun are well-wooded. The 
Preselley Mountains stretch from Fishguard to the border of 
Carmarthen, the principal heights being Preselley Top (1760 ft.) 
and Cam Englyn (1022 ft.). Treffgarn Rock in the Plumstone 
Mountains is popularly supposed to mark the northern limit of 
the ancient settlement of the Flemings. The principal rivers are 
the Teifi, forming the northern boundary of the county from 
Abercych to Cardigan Bay; the Nevern and the Gwaun, both 
falling into Cardigan Bay; and the Eastern and Western Cleddau, 
forming the Daugleddau after their junction below Haverford- 
west. All these streams contain trout and salmon. There are 
no lakes, but the broad tidal estuaries of the Daugleddau and 
other rivers, which fall into Milford Haven and are locally called 
" pills," constitute a peculiar feature of south Pembrokeshire 


Geology. Pembrokeshire is divisible into a northern portion 
occupied mainly by Ordovician and Silurian strata, which have been 
subjected to pressures from the north, the strike of the beds being 
south-west-north-east ; and a southern portion, the westerly con- 
tinuation of the South Wales coalfield, with associated Lower 
Carboniferous, Old Red Sandstone and narrow belts of Silurian 
rocks, the whole having been considerably folded and faulted by 
pressure from the south, which has produced a general north- west- 
south-east strike. In the neighbourhood of St Davids are the Pre- 
Cambrian granitic rocks (Dimetian) and volcanic rocks (Pebedian). 
These are surrounded by belts of unconformable Cambrian strata 
(Lingula Flags, Tremadoc beds), followed by Ordovician (Arenig, 
Llandeilo and Bala beds) with associated igneous rocks. These 
comprise gabbros and diabases of Strumble Head, Fishguard, 
Llanwnda, Prescelly; diorites north-west of St Davids, bostonites 
and porphyrites about Abercastle and the basaltic laccolite of Pen 
Caer, besides various contemporaneous acid lavas and tuffs. The 
Ordovician and Silurian rocks extend southward to the neighbour- 
hood of Narberth and Haverfordwest, where Arenig, Llandeilo and 
Bala beds (Slade and Red Hill beds; Sholeshook and Robeston 
Walthen Limestone) and Llandovery beds are recorded. The Coal 
Measures, highly inclined and anthracitic, stretch across from 
Carmarthen Bay to the shore of St Bride's Bay ; they are bordered 
on the north and south-east by the Millstone Grits, Carboniferous 
Limestone series and Old Red Sandstone. On account of the folding 

the limestone appears again farther south at Pembroke, Caldy 
Island and St Gowan's Head; most of the remaining ground about 
Milford Haven being occupied by Old Red Sandstone with infolded 
strips of Silurian. A fairly large tract of blown-sand occurs in 
Freshwater Bay south of Milford Haven. Silver-bearing lead has 
been mined at Llanfyrnach. 

Climate and Industries. The climate is everywhere mild, and 
in the sheltered valleys near the coast sub-tropical vegetation 
flourishes in the open air. In the south the rainfall is small, and 
the districts round Pembroke suffer from occasional droughts. 
The chief industry is agriculture, wherein stock-raising is 
preferred to the growing of cereals. Of cattle the long-horned, 
jet-black Castlemartin breed is everywhere conspicuous. South 
Pembroke has long been celebrated for its horses, which are bred 
in great numbers by the farmers. The deep-sea fisheries of 
Tenby and Milford are valuable; and fresh fish of good quality 
is exported by rail to the large towns. Oysters are found at 
Langwm and near Tenby; lobsters and crabs abound on the 
western coast. The South Wales coalfield extends into south 
Pembroke, and coal is worked at Saundersfoot, Begelly, Temple- 
ton, Kilgetty and other places. There are slate quarries at 
Glogue, Cilgerran and elsewhere; copper has been worked near St 
Davids, and lead at Llanfyrnach. 

Communications. The South Wales branch of the Great 
Western railway enters Pembrokeshire from the east near 
Clynderwen Junction, whence the main line leads to Fishguard 
Harbour with its important Irish traffic. Other lines proceed 
to Neyland and Milford Haven by way of Haverfordwest, and 
a branch line from Clynderwen to Goodwick joins the main line 
at Letterston. The Whitland- Cardigan branch traverses the 
north-east by way of Crymmych and Cilgerran. Another line 
running south-west from Whitland proceeds by way of Narberth 
and Tenby to Pembroke Dock. 

Population and Administration. The area of Pembrokeshire 
is 395,151 acres with a population in 1891 of 89,138 and 1901 
of 88,732, showing a slight decrease. The municipal boroughs 
are Pembroke (pop. 15,853); Haverfordwest (6007); and 
Tenby (4400). The hamlet of Bridgend and a part of St 
Dogmell's parish are included within the municipal limits of 
Cardigan. Newport (Trefdraeth) (1222), the chief town of 
the barony of Kernes, or Cemmaes, still possesses a mayor and 
corporation under a charter granted in 1215 by Sir Nicholas 
Marteine, lord of Kernes, whose hereditary representative 
still nominates the mayor and aldermen, but its surviving 
municipal privileges are practically honorary. Milford Haven 
(5102), Narberth (1070) and Fishguard (2002) are urban districts. 
Other towns are St Davids (1710), St Dogmells (Llandudoch) 
(1286); and Cilgerran (1038). Pembrokeshire lies in the South 
Wales circuit, and assizes are held at Haverfordwest. Two 
members are returned to parliament; one for the county, and 
one for the united boroughs of Pembroke, Haverfordwest, 
Tenby, Fishguard, Narberth, Neyland, Milford and Wiston 
(Castell Gwys). Ecclesiastically, the county contains 153 
parishes and lies wholly in the diocese of St Davids. 

History. Pembrokeshire, anciently known to the Welsh 
as Dyfed, was originally comprised in the territory of the 
Dimetae, conquered by the Romans. During the 6th century 
St David, or Dewi Sant, moved the chief seat of South Welsh 
monastic and ecclesiastical life from Caerleon-on-Usk to his 
native place Menevia, which, known in consequence as Tyddewi, 
or St Davids, continued a centre of religious and educational 
activity until the Reformation, a period of 1000 years. On 
the death of Rhodri Mawr in 877, Dyfed fell nominally under the 
sway of the princes of Deheubarth, or South Wales; but their 
hold was never very secure, nor were they able to protect the 
coast towns from the Scandinavian pirates. In 1081 William 
the Conqueror penetrated west as far as St Davids, where he is 
said to have visited St David's shrine as a devout pilgrim. 
In 1092 Arnulf de Montgomeri, son of Roger, earl of Shrewsbury, 
did homage to the king for the Welsh lands of Dyfed. With 
the building of Pembroke Castle, of which Gerald de Windsor 
was appointed castellan, the Normans began to spread over 
southern Dyfed; whilst Martin de Tours, landing in Fishguard 


Bay and building the castle of Newport at Trefdraeth, won for 
himself the extensive lordship of Kemes (Cemmaes) between 
the river Teifi and the Preselley Mountains. The systematic 
planting of Flemish settlers in the hundred of Rhos, or Roose, 
in or about the years 1106, 1108 and mi with the approval 
of Henry I., and again in 1156 under Henry II., marks an 
all-important episode in the history of Pembrokeshire. The 
castles of Haverfordwest and Tenby were now erected to protect 
these aliens, and despite the fierce attacks of the Welsh princes 
their domain grew to be known as " Little England beyond 
Wales," a district whereof the language, customs and people 
still remain characteristic. In 1138 Gilbert de Clare, having 
previously obtained Henry I.'s permission to enjoy all lands 
he might win for himself in Wales, was created earl of Pembroke 
in Stephen's reign with the full powers of an earl palatine in 
Dyfed. The devolution of this earldom is dealt with in a 
separate article. 

In 1536, by the Act of Union (27 Henry VIII.), the king 
abolished all special jurisdiction in Pembrokeshire, which he 
placed on an equal footing with the remaining shires of Wales, 
while its borders were enlarged by the addition of Kemes, 
Dewisland and other outlying lordships. By the act of 1536 
the county returned to parliament one knight for the shire 
and two burgesses; one for the Pembroke boroughs and one 
for the town and county of Haverfordwest, both of which since 
1885 have been merged in the] Pembroke-and-Haverfordwest 
parliamentary division. The Reformation deprived the county 
of the presence of the bishops of St Davids, who on the partial 
dismantling of the old episcopal palace at St Davids removed 
their chief seat of residence to Abergwiliy, near Carmarthen. 
Meanwhile the manor of Lamphey was granted to the family 
of Devereux, earls of Essex, and other episcopal estates were 
alienated to court favourites, notably to Sir John Perrot of 
Haroldstone (1517-1592), afterwards lord-deputy of Ireland. 
During the Civil Wars the forces of the parliament, commanded 
by Colonel Laugharne and Captain Swanley, reduced the royal 
forts at Tenby, Milford and Haverfordwest. In February 
1797 some French frigates appeared off Fishguard Bay and 
landed about 1400 Frenchmen at Llanwnda. The invaders 
soon capitulated to the local militia, practically without striking 
a blow. The ipth century saw the establishment of the naval 
dockyard at Paterchurch and the building of docks and quays 
at Neyland and Milford. In 1906 extensive works for cross- 
traffic with Ireland were opened at Fishguard Harbour. 

Many of the old Pembrokeshire families, whose names appear 
prominent in the county annals, are extinct in the county itself. 
Amongst these may be mentioned Perrot of Haroldstone, 
Devereux of Lamphey, Barlow of Slebech, Barrett of Gilliswick, 
Wogan of Wiston, Elliot of Amroth and Owen of Henllys. 
Amongst ancient families still existing are Philipps of Lydstep 
and Amroth (descendants of the old Welsh lords of Cilsant); 
Philipps of Picton Castle (a branch of the same house in the 
female line); Lort of Stackpole Court, now represented by Earl 
Cawdor; Scourfield of Moate; Bowen of Llwyngwair; Edwardes, 
Lords Kensington, of St Brides; Meyrickof Bush; Lort-Philipps 
of Lawrenny; Colby of Ffynone; Stokes of Cuffern; Lloyd of 
Newport Castle (in which family is vested the hereditary lord- 
ship of the barony of Kemes); Saunders-Davies of Pentre; and 
Gower of Castle Malgwyn. 

Antiquities. There are few remaining traces in the county 
of the Roman occupation of Dimetia, but in British encamp- 
ments, tumuli, cromlechs and monumental stones Pembrokeshire 
is singularly rich. Of the cromlechs the best preserved are those 
at Longhouse, near Mathry; at Pentre Evan in the Nevern 
Valley; and at Llech-y-dribedd, near Moylgrove; whilst of the 
many stone circles and alignments, that known as Pare-y-Marw, 
or " The Field of the Dead," near Fishguard, is the least injured. 
Stones inscribed in Ogam characters are not uncommon, and 
good examples exist at Caldy Island, Bridell, St Dogmells 
and Cilgerran. There are good specimens of Celtic floriated 
churchyard crosses at Carew, Penally and Nevern. Interesting 
examples of medieval domestic architecture are the ruins 

of the former episcopal mansions at Llawhaden, St Davids 
and Lamphey, the two latter of which were erected by Bishop 
Gower between the years 1328-1347. With the exception of 
the cathedral at St Davids and the principal churches of Haver- 
fordwest and Tenby, the parish churches of Pembrokeshire 
are for the most part small, but many are ancient and possess 
fine monuments or other objects of interest, especially in 
" Little England beyond Wales." Amongst the more note- 
worthy are the churches at Stackpole Elidur, Carew, Burton, 
Gumfreston, Nevern, St Petrox and Rudbaxton, the last-named 
containing a fine Jacobean monument of the Hayward family. 
Pembrokeshire has long been famous for its castles, of which the 
finest examples are to be observed at Pembroke; Manorbier, 
built in the izth century and interesting as the birthplace and 
home of Giraldus Cambrensis; Carew, exhibiting many interest- 
ing features both of Norman and Tudor architecture; and 
Picton, owned and inhabited by a branch of the Philipps family. 
Other castles are the keep of Haverfordwest and the ruined for- 
tresses at Narberth, Tenby, Newport, Wiston, Benton, Upton and 
Cilgerran. There are some remains of monastic houses at Tenby 
and Pembroke, but the most important religious communities 
were the priory of the Augustinian friars at Haverfordwest 
and the abbey of the Benedictines at St Dogmells. Of this 
latter house, which was founded by Martin de Tours, first lord 
of Kemes, at the close of the nth century, and who owned the 
priories of Pill and Caldy, considerable ruins exist near the left 
bank of the Teifi about i m. below Cardigan. Of the ancient 
preceptory of the Knights of St John at Slebech scarcely a trace 
remains, but of the college of St Mary at St Davids founded by 
Bishop Houghton in 1377, the shell of the chapel survives in 
fair preservation. Pembrokeshire contains an unusually large 
number of county seats, particularly in the south, which includes 
Stackpole Court, the residence of Earl Cawdor, a fine mansion 
erected in the i8th century; Picton Castle; Slebech, once the 
seat of the Barlows; Orielton, formerly belonging to the Owens; 
and Ffynone, the residence of the Colby family. 

Customs, 6"c. The division of Pembrokeshire ever since the 
1 2th century into well-defined Englishry and Welshry has 
produced two distinct sets of languages and customs within the 
county. Roughly speaking, the English division, the Anglia 
Transwalliana of Camden, occupies the south-eastern half and 
comprises the hundreds of Roose, Castlemartin, Narberth and 
Dungleddy. In the Welshry, which includes the hundreds of 
Dewisland and Cilgerran together with the old barony of Kemes, 
the language, customs, manners and folk-lore of the inhabitants 
are almost identical with those of Cardigan and Carmarthen. 
The old Celtic game of Knappan, a pastime partaking of the 
nature both of football and hockey, in which whole parishes 
and even hundreds were wont to take an active part, was pre- 
valent in the barony of Kemes so late as the i6th century, 
as George Owen of Henllys, the historian and antiquary, records; 
and the playing of knappan lingered on after Owen's day. 
Amongst the settlers of the Englishry, who are of mingled Anglo- 
Saxon, Flemish, Welsh and perhaps Scandinavian descent, 
many interesting superstitions and customs survive. The 
English spoken by these dwellers in " Little England beyond 
Wales " contains many curious idioms and words and the pronun- 
ciation of some of the vowels is peculiar. Certain picturesque 
customs, many of them dating from pre-Reformation times, 
are still observed, notably in the neighbourhood of Tenby. 
Such are the sprinkling of persons with dewy evergreens on 
New Year's morning; the procession of the Cutty Wren on St 
Stephen's day, and the constructing of little huts at Lammastide 
by the farm boys and girls. As early as the opening years of 
the I9th century, cripples and ophthalmic patients were in the 
habit of visiting the ancient hermitage at St Gowan's Head to 
bathe in its sacred well; and Richard Fenton, the county historian 
alludes (c. 1808) to the many crutches left at St Gowan's chapel 
by grateful devotees. Belief in ghosts, fairies, witches, &c., 
is still prevalent in the more remote places, and the dress of 
the fishwives of Langwm near Haverfordwest is highly picturesque 
with its short skirt, scarlet shawl and buckled shoes. 


AUTHORITIES. -Richard Fenton, A Historical Tour throng 
Pembrokeshire (London, 1810); Edward Laws, History of Little Eng 
land beyond Wales (London, 1888) ; Basil Jones and E. A. Freeman 
History and Antiquities of St David's (London, 1856), &c. 

PEMMICAN, a North American Indian (Cree) word for a 
meat prepared in such a way as to contain the greatest amoun 
of nourishment in the most compact form. As made by th< 
Indians it was composed of the lean parts of the meat, dried in 
the sun, and pounded or shredded and mixed into a paste with 
melted fat. It is flavoured with acid berries. If kept dry it 
will keep for an indefinite time, and is thus particularly service 
able in arctic or other explorations. 

PEMPHIGUS (Gr. miJ.<t>i, a bubble), a skin disease, in which 
large blebs appear, on a red base, containing a clear or yellowish 
fluid; the blebs occasion much irritation, and when they burst 
leave raw ulcerated surfaces. The disease is principally known 
in unhealthy or neglected children. A variety of the malady 
pemphigus foliaceous, affects the whole body, and gradually 
proves fatal. Pemphigus of an acute septicaemic type occurs 
in butchers or those who handle hides, and a diplococcus has 
been isolated by William Bullock. The treatment is mainly 
constitutional, by means of good nourishment, warm baths, 
local sedatives and tonics. In chronic pemphigus, streptococci 
have been found in the blebs, and the opsonic index was low 
to streptococci. Improvement has been known to take place 
on the injection of a vaccine of streptococci. 

PEN (Lat. penna, a feather, pen), an instrument for writing 
or for forming lines with an ink or other coloured fluid. The 
English word, as well as its equivalents in French (plume) and in 
German (Feder), originally means a wing-feather, but in ancient 
times the implements used for producing written characters 
were not quills. The earliest writing implement was probably 
the stilus (Gr. -ypa^ij), a pointed bodkin of metal, bone or ivory, 
used for producing incised or engraved letters on boxwood 
tablets covered with wax. The calamus (Gr. KaXa/xos) or arundo, 
the hollow tubular stalk of grasses growing in marshy lands, 
was the true ancient representative of the modern pen; hollow 
joints of bamboo were similarly employed. 

An early specific allusion to the quill pen occurs in the writings 
of St Isidore of Seville (early part of the 7th century), 1 but there 
is no reason to assume that it was not in use at a still more 
remote date. The quills still largely employed among Western 
communities as writing instruments are obtained principally 
from the wings of the goose (see FEATHER). In 1809 Joseph 
Bramah devised and patented a machine for cutting up the 
quill into separate nibs by dividing the barrel into three or even 
four parts, and cutting these transversely into " two, three, 
four and some into five lengths." Bramah's invention first 
familiarized the public with the appearance and use of the nib 
slipped into a holder. In 1818 Charles Watt obtained a patent 
for gilding and preparing quills and pens, which may be regarded 
as the precursor of the gold pen. But a more distinct advance 
was effected in 1822, when J. I. Hawkins and S. Mordan patented 
the application of horn and tortoise-shell to the formation of 
pen-nibs, the points of which were rendered durable by small 
pieces of diamond, ruby or other very hard substance, or by 
lapping a small piece of thin sheet gold over the end of the 

Metallic pens, though not unknown in classical times a 
bronze pen found at Pompeii is in the Naples Museum were 
SteeiPeas '' tt ^ e use( ^ until the igth century and did not 
become common till near the middle of that cen- 
tury. It is recorded that a Birmingham split-ring manufacturer, 
Samuel Harrison, made a steel pen for Dr Joseph Priestley 
in 1780. Steel pens made and sold in London by a certain 
Wise in 1803 were in the form of a tube or barrel, the edges of 
which met to form the slit, while the sides were cut away as in 
the case of an ordinary quill. Their price was about five shillings 
each, and as they were hard, stiff and unsatisfactory instruments 
they were not in great demand. A metallic pen patented by 
" Instrumenta scribae calamus et penna; ex his enim verba 
paginis mfiguntur ; sed calamus arboris est, penna avis, cujus acumen 
dividitur in duo." 

Bryan Donkin in 1808 was made of two separate parts, flat or 
nearly so, with the flat sides placed opposite each other to form 
the slit, or alternatively of one piece, flat and not cylindrical as in 
the usual form, bent to the proper angle for insertion in the 
tube which constituted the holder. To John Mitchell prob- 
ably belongs the credit of introducing machine-made pens, 
about 1822, and James Perry is believed to have been the first 
maker of steel slip pens. In 1828 Josiah Mason, who had been 
associated with Samuel Harrison, in the manufacture of split 
rings, saw Perry's pens on sale in Birmingham, and after examin- 
ing them saw his way both to improve and to cheapen the process 
of making them. He therefore put himself in communication 
with Perry, and the result was that he began to make barrel 
pens for him in 1828 and slip pens in 1829. Perry, who did much 
to popularize the steel pen and bring it into general use, in his 
patent of 1830 sought to obtain greater flexibility by forming 
a central hole between the points and the shoulders and by 
cutting one or more lateral slits on each side of the central 
slit; and Joseph Gillot, in 1831 described an improvement 
which consisted in forming elongated points on the nibs of 
the pens. 

The metal used consists of rolled sheets of cast steel of the 
finest quality made from Swedish charcoal iron. These sheets, 
after being cut into strips of suitable width, annealed in a muffle- 
furnace and pickled in a bath of dilute sulphuric acid to free 
the surface from oxidized scale, are rolled between steel rollers till 
they are reduced to ribbons of an even thickness, about ifa in. 
From these ribbons the pen blanks are next punched out, and 
then, after being embossed with the name of the maker or other 
marks, are pierced with the central perforation and the side or 
shoulder slits by which flexibility is obtained. After another 
annealing, the blanks, which up to this point are flat, are 
" raised " or rounded between dies into the familiar semi- 
cylindrical shape. The next process is to harden and temper 
them by heating them in iron boxes in a muffle-furnace, plunging 
them in oil, and then heating them over a fire in a rotating 
cylindrical vessel till their surfaces attain the dull blue tint 
characteristic of spring-steel elasticity. Subsequently they 
are " scoured " in a bath of dilute acid, and polished in a 
revolving cylinder. The grinding of the points with emery 
follows, and then the central slit is cut by the aid of two 
very fine-edged cutters. Finally the pens are again polished, 
are coloured by being heated over a fire in a revolving 
cylinder, and in some cases are coated with a varnish of shellac 
dissolved in alcohol. Birmingham was the first home of the 
steel-pen industry, and continues its principal centre. The 
manufacture on a large scale was begun in the United States 
about 1860 at Camden, N.J., where the Esterbrook Steel Pen 
Manufacturing Company was incorporated in 1866. 

Metals other than steel have frequently been suggested by 
nventors, those most commonly proposed being gold, silver, 
zinc, German silver, aluminium and aluminium 
bronze. Dr W. H. Wollaston, it is recorded, had a ' dpeas - 
a gold pen composed of two thin strips of gold tipped 
with rhodium, apparently made on the principle patented by 
Donkin in 1808, and Lord Byron used one in 1810. Gold 
being extremely resistant to corrosion, pens made of it are very 
durable, but the metal is too soft for the points, which wear 
quickly unless protected by some harder material. For this 
>urpose iridium is widely employed, by fusing the gold round 
t with a blowpipe. 

Various devices have been adopted in order to increase the 

ime for which a pen can be used without a fresh supply of ink. 

These fall into" two main classes. In one, the form 

of the nib itself is modified, or some attachment %,"' r 

s added, to enlarge the ink capacity; in the other, 

which is by far the more important, the holder of the pen is 

utilized as a cistern or reservoir from which ink is supplied 

o the nib. Pens of the second class, which have the further 

advantage of being portable, are heard of under the name of 

' fountain inkhorns " or " fountain pens " so far back as the 

jeginning of the i8th century, but it was not till a hundred 


years later that inventors applied themselves seriously to their 
construction. Joseph Bramah patented several plans; one was 
to employ a tube of silver or other metal so thin that it could 
be readily squeezed out of shape, the ink within it being thus 
forced out to the nib, and another was to fit the tube with a 
piston that could slide down the interior and thus eject ink. 
In modern fountain pens a feed bar conveys, by capillary action, 
a fresh supply of ink to replace that which has been left on the 
paper in the act of writing, means being also provided by which 
air can pass into the reservoir and fill the space left empty by 
the outflowing ink. In another form of reservoir pen, which 
is usually distinguished by the name stylograph, there is no 
nib, but the ink flows out through a minute hole at the end 
of the holder, which terminates in a conical point. An iridium 
needle, held in place by a fine spring, projects slightly through 
the hole and normally keeps the aperture closed; but when 
the pen is pressed on the paper, the needle is pushed back and 
allows a thin stream of ink to flow out. 

See J. P. Maginnis, " Reservoir, Stylographic and Fountain 
Pens," Cantor Lectures, Society of Arts (1905). 

PENALTY (Lat. poena, punishment), in its original meaning, 
a punishment inflicted for some violation of the law or rule 
of conduct. Although still freely used in its original sense in 
such phrases, for example, as " the death penalty," " the penalty 
of rashness," &c., the more usual meaning attached to the word 
is that of a pecuniary mulct. Penalty is used specifically for 
a sum of money recovered by virtue of a penal statute, or re- 
coverable in a court of summary jurisdiction for infringement 
of a statute. A sum of money agreed upon to be paid in case 
of non-performance of a condition in a bond or in breach of a 
contract or any stipulation of it is also termed a penalty (see 

PENANCE (Old Fr. penance, fr. Lat. poenitentia, penitence), 
strictly, repentance of sins. Thus in the Douai version of the 
New Testament the Greek word jueravoia is rendered " penance," 
where the Authorized Version has " repentance." The two 
words, similar in their derivation and original sense, have 
however come to be symbolical of conflicting views of the essence 
of repentance, arising out of the controversy as to the respective 
merits of " faith " and " good works." The Reformers, uphold- 
ing the doctrine of justification by faith, held that repentance 
consisted in a change of the whole moral attitude of the mind 
and soul (eiriGTptfcadai, Matt. xiii. 15; Luke xxii. 32), and that 
the Divine forgiveness followed true repentance and confession 
to God without any reparation of " works." This is the view 
generally held by Protestants. In the Roman Catholic Church 
the sacrament of penance consists of three parts: contritio, 
confessio, satisfactio. Contrilio is in fact repentance as Protestant 
theologians understand it, i.e. sorrow for sin arising from love 
of God, and long before the Reformation the schoolmen debated 
the question whether complete "contrition" was or was not 
in itself sufficient to obtain the Divine pardon. The Council 
of Trent, however, decided that " reconciliation " could not 
follow such contrition without the other parts of the sacrament, 
which form part of it (sine sacramenti voto, quod in ilia includatur). 
Contrition is also distinguished from " attrition " (attritio), i.e. 
repentance due to fear of punishment. It was questioned 
whether a state of mind thus produced would suffice for obtaining 
the benefits of the sacrament; this point was also set at rest by 
the Council of Trent, which decided that attrition, though not 
in itself capable of obtaining the justification of the sinner, is 
also inspired by God and thus disposes the soul to benefit by 
the grace of the sacrament. 

The word " penance," applied to the whole sacrament, is 
also used of the works of satisfaction imposed by the priest on 
the penitent, i.e. the temporal punishment (poena). This 
varies with the character and heinousness of the offences com- 
mitted. In the middle ages " doing penance " was often a 
process as terrible and humiliating to the penitent as it was 
possibly edifying to the Church. Public penances have, how- 
ever, long been abolished in all branches of the Christian 
Church. (See CONFESSION.) 

PENANG (Pulau Pinang, i.e. Areca-nut Island), the town 
and island which, after Singapore, form the most important 
portion of the crown colony of the Straits Settlements. The 
island is situated in 5 24' N. and 100 21' E., and distantabout 
2^ m. from the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. The island is 
about 15^ m. long by loj m. wide at its broadest point. Its area 
is something over 107 sq. m. The town, which is built on a pro- 
montory at a point nearest to the mainland, is largely occupied by 
Chinese and Tamils, though the Malays are also well represented. 
Behind the town, Penang Hill rises to a height of some 2700 ft., 
and upon it are built several government and private bungalows. 
The town possesses a fine European club, a racecourse, and good 
golf links. Coco-nuts are grown in considerable quantities 
along the seashore, and rice is cultivated at Balek Pulau and in 
the interior, but the jungle still spreads over wide areas. Penang 
has an excellent harbour, but has suffered from its proximity 
to Singapore. There are a Church of England and a Roman 
Catholic church in the town, and a training college under the 
Roman Catholic missionaries of the Societe des Missions 
Etrangeres at Pulau Tikus, a few miles outside the town. 

Administration. Since 1867 Penang has been under the 
administrative control of a resident councillor who is responsible 
to the governor of the Straits. He is aided in his duties by 
officers of the Straits Civil Service. Two unofficial members 
of the legislative council of the colony, which holds its sittings 
in Singapore, are nominated by the governor, with the sanction 
of the secretary of state for the colonies, to represent Penang. 
Their term of office is for five years. The official name of the 
island is Prince of Wales Island and that of the town is George- 
town; neither of these names, however, is in general use. Among 
the Malays Penang is usually spoken of as Tanjong or " The 
Cape," on account of the promontory upon which the town is 
situated. The town is administered by a municipal council 
composed of ex officio, nominated, and elected members. 

Population. The population of Penang at the time of the 
census of 1901 was 128,830, of whom 85,070 were males (69,210 
over and 15,860 under 15 years of age), and 43,760 were females 
(28,725 over and 15,035 under 15 years of age). The population 
was composed of 71,462 Chinese, 34,286 Malays, 18,740 Tamils 
and other natives of India, 1649 Eurasians, 993 Europeans and 
Americans, and 1699 persons of other nationalities. As in other 
parts of the Straits Settlements the men are far more numerous 
than the women. The total population of the settlement of 
Penang, which includes not only the island but Province 
Wellesley and the Dindings, was 248,207 in 1901. 

Shipping. The number of ships which entered and left the port 
of Penang during 1906 was 2324 with an aggregate tonnage of 
2,868,459. Of these 1802 were British with an aggregate tonnage of 
1 ,966,286. These figures reveal a considerable falling-off during the 
past decade, the number of vessels entering and leaving the port 
in 1898 being 5114 with an aggregate tonnage of 3,761,094. This 
is mainly due to the construction of the railway which runs from a 
point on the mainland opposite to Penang, through the Federated 
Malay States of Perak, Selangor and the Negri Sembilan to Malacca, 
and has diverted to other ports and eventually to Singapore much 
of the coastal traffic which formerly visited Penang. 

Finance and Trade. The revenue of Penang, that is to say, not 
only of the island but of the entire settlement, amounted in 1906 
to $6,031,917, of which $2,014,033 was derived from the revenue 
farms for the collection of import duties on opium, wine and spirits; 
$160,047 from postal revenue; $119,585 from land revenue; $129,151 
from stamps. The expenditure for 1906 amounted to $5,072,406, 
of which $836,097 was spent on administrative establishments, 
$301,252 on the upkeep of existing public works; $415,175 on the 
construction of works and buildings, and of new roads, streets, 
bridges, &c. The imports in 1906 were valued at $94,546,112; 
the exports at $90,709,225. Of the imports $57,880,889 worth 
came from the United Kingdom or from British possessions or 
protectorates; $23,937,737 worth came from foreign countries; 
and $3,906,241 from the Dindings, Malacca and Singapore. Of the 
exports, $23,122,947 went to the United Kingdom, or to British 
possessions or protectorates; $37,671,033 went to foreign countries; 
and $2,754,238 went to the Dindings, Malacca or Singapore. 

History Penang was founded on the i7th of July 1786, 
having been ceded to the East India Company by the Sultan 
of Kedah in 1785 by an agreement with Captain Light, for an 
annuity of $10,000 for eight years. In 1791 the subsidy was 


changed to $6ooc, in perpetuity; for some years later this was 
raised to $10,000, and is still annually paid. This final addition 
was made when Province Wellesley was purchased by the East 
India Company for $2000 in 1798. At the time of the cession 
Penang was almost uninhabited. In 1796 it was made a penal 
settlement, and 700 convicts were transferred thither from the 
Andaman Islands. In 1805 Penang was made a separate 
presidency, ranking with Bombay and Madras; and when in 
1826 Singapore and Malacca were incorporated with it, Penang 
continued to be the seat of government. In 1829 Penang was 
reduced from the rank of a presidency, and eight years later 
the town of Singapore was made the capital of the Settlements. 
In 1867 the Straits Settlements were created a Crown colony, 
in which Penang was included. 

See Straits Settlements Blue Book 1906 (Singapore, 1907); The 
Straits Directory (Singapore, 1907) ; Sir Frank Swettenham, British 
Malaya (London, 1906). (H. CL.) 

PENARTH, an urban district and seaport in the southern 
parliamentary division of Glamorganshire, Wales, 166 m. by rail 
from London, picturesquely situated on rising ground on the 
south side of the mouth of the Ely opposite Cardiff, from which 
it is 4 m. distant by rail and 2 m. by steamer. Pop. (1901), 14,228. 
The place derives its name from two Welsh words, " pen," a head, 
and " garth," an enclosure. Penarth was a small and unimpor- 
tant village until a tidal harbour at the mouth of the Ely was 
opened in 1859, and a railway, 6 m. long, was made about the 
same time, connecting the harbour with the Taff Vale railway 
at Radyr. A dock, authorized in 1857, was opened in 1865, 
when all three undertakings, which had cost 775,000, were 
leased in perpetuity to the Taff Vale Railway Company. The 
monopoly which the Bute Docks at Cardiff had previously 
enjoyed in shipping coal from the valleys of the Taff and Rhondda 
was thus terminated. The town is frequented in summer as a 
bathing-place, and the Rhaetic beds at the head are of special 
interest to geologists. On this head there stood an old church, 
probably Norman, which served as a landmark for sailors. 
The remains of an old chantry have been converted into a barn. 
Besides two Established and one Roman Catholic church, the 
principal buildings of Penarth are its various Nonconformist 
chapels, intermediate and technical school (1894), custom house, 
dock offices, and Turner House with a private art gallery which 
is thrown open on certain days to the public. Three miles to 
the west is Dinas Powis Castle. In 1880-1883 gardens were 
laid out along the cliff, in 1894 a promenade and landing-pier 
with a length of 630 ft. were constructed, and in 1900 a marine 
subway open at all times for foot passengers was made under 
the river Ely. The dock, as first constructed, comprised 17! 
acres, was extended in 1884 at a cost of 250,000, and now 
covers 23 acres with a basin of 3 acres. It is 2900 ft. in length, 
has a minimum depth of 26 ft., and is furnished with every 
modern appliance for the export of coal, of which from 20,000 
to 30,000 tons can be stored in the sidings near by. The 
Penarth-Ely tidal harbour has a water area of 55 acres with 
a minimum depth of 20 ft., and a considerable import trade is 
carried on here mainly by coasting vessels; but as only one of 
its sides has wharves (about 3000 ft. along) scarcely more than 5 % 
of the total shipping of the port is done here. It has commo- 
dious warehouses, also tanks to hold about 6000 tons of oil. 

PENATES (from Lat. penus, eatables, food), Roman gods of the 
store-room and kitchen. The store-room over which they 
presided was, in old times, beside the atrium, the room which 
served as kitchen, parlour, and bedroom in one; but in later 
times the store-room, was in the back part of the house. It was 
sanctified by the presence of the Penates, and none but pure 
and chaste persons might enter it, just as with the Hindus 
the kitchen is sacred and inviolable. They had no individual 
names, but were always known under the general designation, 
Penates. Closely associated with the Penates were the Lares 
(g.v.) another species of domestic deity, who seem to have 
been the deified spirits of deceased ancestors. But while each 
family had two Penates it had but one Lar. In the household 
shrine the image of the Lar (dressed in a toga) was placed 

between the two images of the Penates, which were represented 
as dancing and elevating a drinking-horn in token of joy and 
plenty. The three images together were sometimes called 
Penates, sometimes Lares, and either name was used metaphori- 
cally for "home." The shrine stood originally in the atrium, 
but when the hearth and the kitchen were separated from the 
atrium and removed to the back of the house, and meals were 
taken in an upper storey, the position of the shrine was also 
shifted. In the houses at Pompeii it is sometimes in the kitchen, 
sometimes in the rooms. In the later empire it was placed 
behind the house-door, and a taper or lamp was kept burning 
before it. But the worship in the interior of the house was also 
kept up even into Christian times; it was forbidden by an 
ordinance of Theodosius (A.D. 392). The old Roman used, in 
company with his children and slaves, to offer a morning sacrifice 
and prayer to his household gods. Before meals the blessing 
of the gods was asked, and after the meal, but before dessert, 
there was a short silence, and a portion of food was placed on 
the hearth and burned. If the hearth and the images were not 
in the eating-room, either the images were brought and put 
on the table, or before the shrine was placed a table on which 
were set a salt-cellar, food and a burning lamp. Three days 
in the month, viz. the Calends, Nones and Ides (i.e. the first, 
the fifth or seventh, and the thirteenth or fifteenth), were set 
apart for special family worship, as were also the Caristia 
(Feb. 22) and the Saturnalia in December. On these days as 
well as on such occasions as birthdays, marriages, and safe 
returns from journeys, the images were crowned and offerings 
made to them of cakes, honey, wine, incense, and sometimes a 
pig. As each family had its own Penates, so the state, as a 
collection of families, had its public Penates. Intermediate 
between the worship of the public and private Penates were 
probably the rites (sacra) observed by each clan (gens) or collec- 
tion of families supposed to be descended from a common 
ancestor. The other towns of Latium had their public Penates as 
well as Rome. The sanctuary of the whole Latin league was at 
Lavinium. To these Penates at Lavinium the Roman priests 
brought yearly offerings, and the Roman consuls, praetors 
and dictators sacrificed both when they entered on and when 
they laid down their office. To them, too, the generals sacrificed 
before departing for their province. Alba Longa, the real 
mother-city of Latium, had also its ancient Penates, and the 
Romans maintained the worship on the Alban mount long after 
the destruction of Alba Longa. The Penates had a temple of 
their own at Rome. It was on the Velia near the Forum, and 
has by some been identified with the round vestibule of the 
church of SS. Cosma e Damiano. In this and many other temples 
the Penates were represented by two images of youths seated 
holding spears. The Penates were also worshipped in the neigh- 
bouring temple at Vesta. To distinguish the two worships 
it has been supposed that the Penates in the former temple 
were those of Latium, while those in the temple of Vesta were 
the Penates proper of Rome. Certainly the worship of the 
Penates, whose altar was the hearth and to whom the kitchen 
was sacred, was closely connected with that of Vesta, goddess 
of the domestic hearth. 

The origin and nature of the Penates was a subject of much 
discussion to the Romans themselves. They were traced to the 
mysterious worship of Samothrace; Dardanus, it was said, took 
the Penates from Samothrace to Troy, and after the destruction 
of Troy, Aeneas brought them to Italy and established them at 
Lavinium. From Lavinium Ascanius carried the worship to 
Alba Longa, and from Alba Longa it was brought to Rome. 
Equally unsatisfactory with this attempt to connect Roman 
religion with Greek legend are the vague and mystic speculations 
in which the later Romans indulged respecting the nature of 
the Penates. Some said they were the great gods to whom we 
owe breath, body and reason, viz. Jupiter representing the 
middle ether, Juno the lowest air and the earth, and Minerva 
the highest ether, to whom some added Mercury as the god 
of speech (Servius, on Aen. ii. 296; Macrobius, Sat. iii. 4, 8; 
Arnobius, Adv. Nat. iii. 40). Others identified them with Apollo 



and Neptune (Macrob. iii. 4, 6; Arnob. loc. cit.; Servius, on 
Aen. iii. 1 19). The Etruscans held the Penates to be Ceres, Pales 
and Fortuna, to whom others added Genius Jovialis (Servius on 
Aen. ii. 325; Arnob. loc. cit.). The late writer Martianus Capella 
records the view that heaven was divided into sixteen regions, in 
the first of which were placed the Penates, along with Jupiter, 
the Lares, &c. More fruitful than these misty speculations is 
the suggestion, made by the ancients themselves, that the 
worship of these family gods sprang from the ancient Roman 
custom (common to many savage tribes) of burying the dead 
in the house. But this would account for the worship of the 
Lares rather than of the Penates. A comparison with other 
primitive religious beliefs suggests the conjecture that the 
Penates may be a remnant of fetishism or animism. The Roman 
genii seem certainly to have been fetishes and the Penates were 
perhaps originally a species of genii. Thus the Penates, as 
simple gods of food, are probably much more ancient than 
deities like Jupiter, Neptune, Apollo and Minerva. 

With the Penates we may compare the kindly household gods 
of old Germany; they too had their home on the kitchen hearth- 
and received offerings of food and clothing. In the castle of 
Hudemiihlen (Hanover) there was a kobold for whom a cover 
was always set on the table. In Lapland each house had one 
or more spirits. The souls of the dead are regarded as house- 
spirits by the Russians; they are represented as dwarfs, and are 
served with food and drink. Each house in Servia has its 
patron-saint. In the mountains of Mysore every house has its 
bhuta or guardian deity, to whom prayer and sacrifices are 
offered. The Chinese god of the kitchen presents some curious 
analogies to the Penates: incense and candles are burnt before 
him on the first and fifteenth of the month; some families burn 
incense and candles before him daily; and on great festivals, 
one of which is at the winter solstice (nearly corresponding to 
the Saturnalia), he is served with cakes, pork, wine, incense, 
&c., which are placed on a table before him. 

See ROMAN RELIGION. Q. G. Fs. ; X.) 

PENCIL (Lat. penkillus, brush, literally little tail), a name 
originally applied to a small fine-pointed brush used in painting, 
and still employed to denote the finer camel's-hair and sable 
brushes used by artists, but now commonly signifying solid 
cones or rods of various materials used for writing and drawing. 
It has been asserted that a manuscript of Theophilus, attributed 
to the 13th century, shows signs of having been ruled with a 
black-lead pencil; but the first distinct allusion occurs in the 
treatise on fossils by Conrad Gesner of Zurich (1565), who 
describes an article for writing formed of wood and a piece of 
lead, or, as he believed, an artificial composition called by some 
stimmi anglicanum (English antimony). The famous Borrowdale 
mine in Cumberland having been discovered about that time, 
it is probable that we have here the first allusion to that great 
find of graphite. While the supply of the Cumberland mine 
lasted, the material for English pencils consisted simply of the 
native graphite as taken from the mine. The pieces were 
sawn into thin sheets, which again were cut into the slender 
square rods forming the " lead " of the pencil. 

Strenuous efforts were made on the continent of Europe and 
in England to enable manufacturers to become independent 
of the product of the Cumberland mine. In Nuremberg, where 
the great pencil factory of the Faber family (q.v.) was established 
in 1760, pencils were made from pulverized graphite cemented 
into solid blocks by means of gums, resins, glue, sulphur and 
other such substances, but none of these preparations yielded 
useful pencils. In the year 1795 N. J. Cont6 (q.v.), of Paris, 
devised the process by which now all black-lead pencils, and 
indeed pencils of all sorts, are manufactured. In 1843 William 
Brockedon patented a process for compressing pure black-lead 
powder into solid compact blocks by which he was enabled to 
use the dust, fragments, and cuttings of fine Cumberland lead. 
Brockedon's process would have proved successful but the 
exhaustion of the Borrowdale supplies and the excellence of 
Conte's process rendered it more of scientific interest than of 
commercial value. 

The pencil leads prepared by the Conte process consist of a 
mixture of graphite and clay. The graphite, having been pulver- 
ized and subjected to any necessary purifying processes, is 
" floated " through a series of settling tanks, in each of which 
the comparatively heavy particles sink, and only the still finer 
particles are carried over. That which sinks in the last of the 
series is in a condition of extremely fine division, and is used 
for pencils of the highest quality. The clay, which must be free 
from sand and iron, is treated in the same manner. Clay and 
graphite so prepared are mixed together in varying propor- 
tions with water to a paste, passed repeatedly through a 
grinding mill, then placed in bags and squeezed in a 
hydraulic press till they have the consistency of stiff dough, 
in which condition they are ready for forming pencil rods. For 
this purpose the plastic mass is placed in a strong upright 
cylinder, from which a plunger or piston, moved by a screw, 
forces it out through a perforated base-plate in a continuous ' 
thread. This thread is finally divided into suitable lengths, 
which are heated in a closed crucible for some hours. The two 
factors which determine the comparative hardness and blackness 
of pencils are the proportions of graphite and clay in the leads 
and the heat to which they are raised in the crucible. According 
as the proportion of graphite is greater and the heat lower the 
pencil is softer and of deeper black streak. 

The wood in which the leads are cased is pencil cedar from 
Juniperus virginiana for the best qualities, and pine for the 
cheaper ones. A board of the selected wood, having a thickness 
about equal to half the diameter of the finished pencil and as 
wide as four or six pencils, is passed through a machine which 
smooths the surface and cuts round or square grooves to receive 
the leads. The leads being placed in the grooves the board is 
covered with another similarly grooved board, and the two 
are fastened together with glue. When dry they are taken 
to rapidly revolving cutters which remove the wood between 
the leads. The individual pencils thus formed only need to 
be finished by being dyed and varnished and stamped with 
name, grade, &c. Instead of wood, paper has been tried for 
the casings, rolled on in narrow strips which are torn off to 
expose fresh lead as the point becomes worn down by use. 

Black pencils of an inferior quality are made from the dust of 
graphite melted up with sulphur and run into moulds. Such, with 
a little tallow added to give them softness, are the pencils commonly 
used by carpenters. Coloured pencils consist of a mixture of clay, 
with appropriate mineral colouring matter, wax, and tallow, treated 
by the Conte method, as in making lead pencils. In indelible and 
copying pencils the colouring matter is an aniline preparation mixed 
with clay and gum. The mixture not only makes a streak which 
adheres to the paper, but, when the writing is moistened with water, 
it dissolves and assumes the appearance and properties of an ink. 

PENDA, king of Mercia (d. 654 or 655), son of Pybba, probably 
came to the throne in 626, but it is doubtful whether he actually 
became king of Mercia until 633, the year of the defeat and death 
of Edwin of Northumbria. According to the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle he was eighty years old at his death, but the energy 
of his administration and the evidence with regard to the ages 
of his children and relatives render it almost impossible. In 
628 the Chronicle records a battle between him and the West 
Saxons at Cirencester in that year. In 633 Penda and Ceadwalla 
ovei threw Edwin at Hatfield Chase; but after the defeat of 
the Welsh king at Oswald at " Hefenfelth " in 634, Mercia 
seems to have been for a time subject to Northumbria. In . 
642 Penda slew Oswald at a place called Maerfeld. He was 
continually raiding Northumbria and once almost succeeded 
in reducing Bamborough. He drove Cenwalh of Wessex, who 
had divorced his sister, from his throne. In 654 he attacked the 
East Angles, and slew their king Anna (see EAST ANGLIA). 
In 654 or 655 he invaded Northumbria in spite of the attempts 
of Oswio to buy him off, and was defeated and slain on the 
banks of the " Winwaed." In the reign of Penda the districts 
corresponding to Cheshire, Shropshire and Herefordshire were 
probably acquired, and he established his son Peada as a 
dependent prince in Middle Anglia. Although a pagan, he 
allowed his daughter Cyneburg to marry Alchfrith, the son of 



Oswio, and it was in his reign that Christianity was introduced 
into Middle Anglia by his son Peada. 

See Bede, Hist. Eccl. (ed. C. Plummer, Oxford, 1896) ; Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle (ed. Earle and Plummer, Oxford, 1899). 

PENDANT (through Fr. from Lat. pendere, to hang), any hang- 
ing object, such as a jewel or other ornament hanging from 
a brooch, bracelet, &c., or the loose end of a knight's belt left 
hanging after passing through the buckle, and terminating in 
an ornamental end. In architecture the word is applied to an 
elongated boss, either moulded or foliated, such as hangs down 
from the intersection of ribs, especially in fan tracery, or at the 
end of hammer beams. Sometimes long corbels, under the wall 
pieces, have been so called. The name has also been given to 
the large masses depending from enriched ceilings, in the later 
works of the Pointed style. " Pendants " or " Pendent posts " 
are those timbers which are carried down the side of the wall 
from the plate, and receive the hammer braces. 

PENDENTIVE, the term given in architecture to the bridging 
across the angles of a square hall, so as to obtain a circular base 
for a dome or drain. This may be done by corbelling out in 
the angles, in which case the pendentive may be a portion of a 
hemisphere of which the half diagonal of the square hall is the 
radius; or by throwing a series of arches across the angle, each 
ring as it rises advancing in front of the one below and being 
carried by it during its construction; in this case the base 
obtained is octagonal, so that corbels or small pendentives 
are required for each angle of the octagon, unless as in the church 
of SS. Sergius and Bacchus at Constantinople a portion of the 
dome is set back; or again, by a third method, by sinking a 
semicircular niche in the angle. The first system was that 
employed in St Sophia at Constantinople, and in Byzantine 
churches generally, also in the domed churches of Perigord and 
Aquitaine. The second is found in the Sassanian palaces of 
Serbistan and Firuzabad, and in medieval architecture in 
England, France and Germany, where the arches are termed 
" squinches." The third system is found in the mosque at 
Damascus, and was often adopted in the churches in Asia 
Minor. There is still another method in which the pendentive 
and cupola are part of the same hemispherical dome, and in 
this case the ring courses lie in vertical instead of horizontal 
planes, examples of which may be found in the vault of Magnesia 
on Maeander in Asia Minor, and in the tomb at Valence known 
as le pendentif de Valence. The problem is one which has taxed 
the ingenuity of many builders in ancient times; the bas-reliefs 
found at Nimrud show that in the pth century B.C. domes were 
evidently built over square halls, and must have been carried 
on pendentives of some kind. 

FENDER, SIR JOHN (1816-1896), British cable pioneer, was 
born in the Vale of Leven, Scotland, on the loth of September 
1816, and after attending school in Glasgow became a successful 
merchant in textile fabrics in that city and in Manchester. 
His name is chiefly known in connexion with submarine cables, 
of which on the commercial side he was an important promoter. 
He was one of the 345 contributors who each risked a thousand 
pounds in the Transatlantic Cable in 1857, and when the Atlantic 
Telegraph Company was ruined by the loss of the 1865 cable he 
formed the Anglo-American Telegraph Company to continue 
the work, but it was not till he had given his personal guarantee 
for a quarter of a million pounds that the makers would under- 
take the manufacture of a new cable. But in the end he was 
justified, and telegraphic communication with America became 
a commercial success. Subsequently he fostered cable enter- 
prise in all parts of the world, and at the time of his death, 
which occurred at Footscray Place, Kent, on the yth of July 
1896, he controlled companies having a capital of 15 millions 
sterling and owning 73,640 nautical miles of cables. He repre- 
sented Wick Burghs in parliament from 1872 to 1885 and from 
1892 to 1896. He was made a K.C.M.G. in 1888 and was pro- 
moted in 1892 to be G.C.M.G. His eldest son James (b. 1841), 
who was M.P. for Mid Northamptonshire in 1895-1900, was 
created a baronet in 1897; and his third son, John Denison 
(b. 1855), was created a K.C.M.G. in 1901. 

PENDLESIDE SERIES, in geology, a series of shales between 
the upper division of the Carboniferous Limestone and the 
Millstone Grits occurring in the Midlands between Stoke-on- 
Trent and Settle. It consists of black limestones at the base, 
followed by black shales with calcareous nodules, which pass 
into sandy shales with ganister-like sandstones. In places 
the series attains a thickness of 1500-1000 ft., and where it is 
thickest the Millstone Grits also attain their maximum thickness. 
The peculiarities of the series, which is characterized by a rich 
fauna with Productus giganteus, P. slriatus, Dibunophyllum, 
Cyalhaxonia cornu and Lonsdaleia floriformis, can be best 
studied on the western slope of Pendle Hill, Lancashire, in the 
valley of the Hodder, dividing the counties of Lancashire and 
Yorkshire, at Mam Tor and the Edale valley in Derbyshire, and 
Morredge, the Dane valley in north Staffordshire, Bagillt and 
Teilia in North Wales, and Scarlett and Poolvash, Isle of Man. 
The limestones at the base are hard, compact and fissile, often 
cherty, and vary much in the amount of calcium carbonate which 
they contain, at times passing into calcareous shales. 

These limestones and shales contain a distinct fauna which 
appears for the first time in the Midlands, characterized by 
Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posidoniella laevis, Posidonomya 
Becheri, Posidonomya membranacea, Nomismoceras rotiforme 
and Glyphioceras slriatus. Immediately below beds with this 
fauna are thin limestones with Prolecaniles compressus, Slrobo- 
ceras bisidcatus, many trilobites, and corals referable to the 
genera Cyathaxonia, Zaphrentis and Amplexizaphrentis. The 
fauna characteristic of the Carboniferous Limestone becomes 
largely extinct and is replaced by a shale fauna, but the 
oncoming of the age of Goniatites is shown by the presence 
in the upper part of the Carboniferous Limestone of numerous 
species and genera of this group, Glyphioceras creneslria being 
the most common and having the wider horizontal range. 
The whole Pendleside series can be divided into zones by the 
different species of Goniatites. At the base Prolecanites com- 
pressus characterizes the passage beds between the Carboniferous 
Limestone and the Pendlesides; Nomismoceras rotiforme and 
Glyphioceras slrialus are found in a narrow zone immediately 
above. Then Glyphioceras reticulatum appears and reaches 
its maximum, and is succeeded by Glyphioceras diadema 
and Glyphioceras spirals, while immediately below the 
Millstone Grits Glyphioceras bilingue appears and passes up in 
that series. The Millstone Grits are characterized by the 
presence of Gaslrioceras Lisleri. The Pendleside series is 
therefore characterized by an Upper Carboniferous fauna, 
Pterinopecten papyraceus, Posidoniella laevis and some other 
species which pass up right through the Coal Measures appearing 
for the first time, and the base of the series marks the division 
between Upper and Lower Carboniferous times. 

The series passes eastward into Belgium and thence into 
Germany, when the same fossil zones are found in the basin of 
Namur and the valley of the Dill. Traced westward the series is 
well developed in Co. Dublin and on the west coast of Cos. Clare 
and Limerick. There can be no doubt that the Pendleside series 
of the Midlands represents the Lower Culm of Codden Hill, 
north Devon, and the Lower Culm of the continent of Europe. 
The faunas in these localities have the same biological succession 
as in the midlands. 

See Wheelton Hind and J. Allen Howe, Quart. Journ. Geog. 
Soc. vol. Ivii. (1901), and numerous other papers by the first-named 
author. (W. Hi.) 

PENDLETON, EDMUND (1721-1803), American lawyer and 
statesman, was born, of English Royalist descent, in Caroline 
county, Virginia, on the 9th of September 1721. He was 
self-educated, but after reading law and being admitted to the 
bar (1744) his success was immediate. He served in the 
Virginia House of Burgesses from 1752 until the organization 
of the state government in 1776, was the recognized leader of 
the conservative Whigs, and took a leading part in opposing 
the British government. He was a member of the Virginia 
committee of correspondence in 1773, in 1774 was president 
of the Virginia provincial convention, and a member of the first 



Continental Congress. In 1776, as president of the provincial 
convention, which adopted a state constitution for Virginia, 
he drew up the instructions to the Virginia members of Congress 
directing them to advocate the independence of the American 
colonies. In the same year he became president of the Virginia 
committee of safety, and in October was chosen the first 
speaker of the House of Delegates. With Jefferson and Chan- 
cellor George Wythe he drew up a new law code for Virginia. 
He was president of the court of chancery in 1777-1788, and 
from 1779 until his death was president of the Virginia court of 
appeals. He was an enthusiastic advocate of the Federal consti- 
tution, and in 1 788 exerted strong influence to secure its ratifi- 
cation by his native state. He was a leader of the Federalist 
party in Virginia until his death at Richmond, Va., on the 
23rd of October 1803. 

PENDLETON, GEORGE HUNT (1825-1889), American lawyer 
and legislator, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, on the 25th of 
July 1825. He was educated at the university of Heidelberg, 
studied law, was admitted to the bar, and began to practise 
at Cincinnati. He was a member of the Ohio Senate in 1854 
and 1855, and from 1857 to 1865 was a Democratic member of 
the national House of Representatives, in which he opposed 
the war policy of Lincoln. In 1864 he was the Democratic 
candidate for vice-president. After leaving Congress he became 
one of the earliest champions of the " Ohio idea " (which 
he is said to have originated), demanding that the government 
should pay the principal of its s~2o-year 6% bonds in the 
" greenback " currency instead of in coin. The agricultural 
classes of the West regarded this as a means of relief, and 
Pendleton became their recognized leader and a candidate for the 
Democratic nomination to the presidency in 1868, but he failed 
to receive the requisite two-thirds majority. In 1869 he was the 
Democratic candidate for governor of Ohio, but was defeated 
by Rutherford B. Hayes. For the next ten years he devoted 
himself to the practice of law and to the supervision of the 
Kentucky Railroad Company, of which he had become president 
in 1869. From 1879 to 1885 he was a Democratic member of 
the United States Senate, and introduced the so-called Pendleton 
Act of 1883 for reforming the civil service, hostility to which 
lost him his seat in 1885. He was minister to Germany from 
1885 to the summer of 1889, and died at Brussels on the 24th 
of November 1889. 

PENELOPE, in Greek legend, wife of Odysseus, daughter of 
Icarius and the nymph Periboea. During the long absence 
of her husband after the fall of Troy many chieftains of Ithaca 
and the islands round about became her suitors; and, to rid 
herself of the importunities of the wooers, she bade them wait 
till she had woven a winding-sheet for old Laertes, the father 
of Odysseus. But every night she undid the piece which she 
had woven by day. This she did for three years, till her maids 
revealed the secret. She was relieved by the arrival of Odysseus, 
who returned after an absence of twenty years, and slew the 
wooers. The character of Penelope is less favourable in late 
writers than in the Homeric story. During her husband's absence 
she is said to have become the mother of Pan by Hermes, and 
Odysseus, on his return, repudiated her as unfaithful (Herodotus 
ii. 145 and schol.). She thereupon withdrew to Sparta and 
thence to Mantineia, where she died and where her tomb was 
shown. According to another account she married Telegonus 
the son of Odysseus and Circe, after he had killed his father, 
and dwelt with him in the island of Aeala or in the Islands of 
the Blest (Hyginus, Feb. 127). 

PENGELLY, WILLIAM (1812-1894), English geologist and 
anthropologist, was born at East Looe in Cornwall on the I2th 
of January 1812, the son of the captain of a small coasting vessel. 
He began life as a sailor, after an elementary education in 
his native village, but in 1828 he abandoned a seafaring life. 
He had developed a passion for learning, and about 1836 he 
removed to Torquay and started a school; in 1846 he became 
a private tutor in mathematics and natural science. Geology 
had in early years attracted his attention, but it was not until 
he was about 30 years of age that he began seriously to cultivate 

the study. In 1837 he was instrumental in the reorganization 
of the Torquay Mechanics' Institute, in 1844 mainly owing to 
his energy the Torquay Natural History Society was founded, 
and in 1862 he assisted in founding the Devonshire Association 
for the Advancement of Literature, Science and Art. Meanwhile 
he had been occupied in collecting fossils from many parts 
of Devon and Cornwall, and in 1860 the Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts acquired and presented them to the Oxford Museum, 
where they form "The Pengelly Collection." Through the 
generosity of the same lady he was called upon to examine 
the lignites and clays of Bovey Tracey, in conjunction with 
Dr Oswald Heer, who undertook the determination of the 
plant-remains. Their report was published by the Royal 
Society (1862), and Pengelly was elected F.R.S. in 1863. He 
aided in the investigations of the Brixham bone-cavern from 
the date of its discovery in 1858, the full report being issued 
in 1873; and he was the main explorer of Kent's Hole, Torquay, 
and from 1864 for more than fifteen years he laboured with 
unflagging energy in examining and recording the exact position 
of the numerous organic remains that were disinterred during 
a systematic investigation of this cave, carried on with the aid 
of grants from the British Association. He first attended the 
British Association at the Cheltenham meeting in 1856, and was 
present at subsequent meetings (except that at Montreal in 
1884) until 1889. His observations assisted in establishing 
the important fact of the contemporaneity of Palaeolithic man 
with various Pleistocene mammalia, such as the mammoth, 
cave-bear, cave-lion, &c. He was awarded the Lyell medal 
by the Geological Society of London in 1886. He died at 
Torquay on the i6th of March 1894. 

See Memoir of William Pengelly, edited by his daughter Hester 
Pengelly, with a summary of his scientific work by the Rev. Pro- 
fessor T. G. Bonney (1897). 

PENGUIN, the name of a flightless sea-bird, 1 but, so far as 
is known, first given to one inhabiting the seas of Newfound- 
land as in Hore's " Voyage to Cape Breton," 1536 (Hakluyt, 
Researches, iii. 168-170), which subsequently became known 
as the great auk or garefowl (q.v.) ; though the French equiva- 
lent Pingouin* preserves its old application, the word penguin 
is by English ornithologists always used for certain birds 
inhabiting the Southern Ocean, called by the French Manckots, 
the Sphenistidae of ornithologists. For a long while their 
position was very much misunderstood, some systematists 
having placed them with the Alcidae or Auks, to which they 
bear only a relationship of analogy, as indeed had been perceived 
by a few ornithologists, who recognized in the penguins a very 
distinct order, Impennes. L. Stejneger (Standard Nat. Hist. 
vol. iv., Boston, 1885) gave the Impennes independent rank 
equivalent to the rest of Carinate birds; M. A. Menzbier 
(Vergl. Osteal, d. Penguine, Moscow, 1887) took a similar 
view; M. Furbringer was first to show their relation to 
Procellariformes, and this view is now generally accepted. 

1 Of the three derivations assigned to this name, the first is by 
Drayton in 1613 (Polyolbion, Song 9), where it is said to be the Welsh 
pen gwyn, or 'white head"; the second, which seems to meet 
with Littr6's approval, deduces it from the Latin pinguis (fat), 
which idea has given origin to the German name, Fettganse, for these 
birds; the third supposes it to be a corruption of " pin-wing " (Ann. 
Nat. History, 4th series, vol. iv. p. 133), meaning a bird that has under- 
gone the operation of pinioning or, as in one part at least of England 
it is commonly called, " pin-winging." The first hypothesis has 
been supported on the ground that Breton sailors speaking a language 
closely allied to Welsh were acquainted with the great auk, and 
that the conspicuous white patches on the head of that bird 
justified the name " white head." To the second hypothesis Skeat 
(Dictionary, p. 433) objects that it " will not account for the suffix -in, 
and is therefore wrong; besides which the ' Dutchmen ' [who were 
asserted to be the authors of the name] turn out to be Sir Francis 
Drake " and his men. In support of the third hypothesis Mr Reeks 
wrote (Zoologist, 2nd series, p. 1854) that the people in Newfoundland 
who used to meet with this bird always pronounced its name 
"pin wing." Skeat's inquiry (loc. fit.), whether the name may not 
after all be South American, is to be answered in the negative, since, 
so far as evidence goes, it was given to the North- American bird 
before the South-American was known in Europe. 

2 Gorfou has also been used by some French writers, being a 
corruption of Geirfugl or Garefowl. 



There is a total want of quills in their wings, which are incapable 
of flexure, though they move freely at the shoulder-joint, and 
some at least of the species occasionally make use of them for 
progressing on land. In the water they are most efficient 
paddles. The plumage, which clothes the whole body, generally 
consists of small scale-like feathers, many of them consisting 
only of a simple shaft without the development of barbs; but 
several of the species have the head decorated with long cirrhous 
tufts, and in some the tail-quills, which are very numerous, 
are also long. 1 In standing these birds preserve an upright 
position, sometimes resting on the " tarsus " 2 alone, but in 
walking or running this is kept neaihr vertical, and their weight 
is supported by the toes alone. .-r 

The most northerly limit of the penguins' range in the 
Atlantic is Tristan d'Acunha, and in the Indian Ocean Amsterdam 
Island, but they also occur off the Cape of Good Hope and along 
the coast of Australia, as well as on the south and east of New 
Zealand, while in the Pacific one species at least extends 
along the west coast of South America and to the Galapagos; 
but north of the equator none are found. In the breeding 
season they resort to the most desolate lands in higher southern 
latitudes, and indeed have been met with as far to the south- 
ward as navigators have penetrated. Possibly the Falkland 
Islands are richest in species, though, as individuals, they 

King- Penguin (Aptenodytes pennanti). 

are not nearly so numerous there as in many other places. The 
food of penguins consists of crustaceans, cephalopods and other 
molluscs, varied by fish and vegetable matter. The birds 
form immense breeding colonies, known as " rookeries." The 
nest of grass, leaves, or where vegetation is scanty of stones 
or rubbish, is placed on the ground or in holes. Two chalky 
white or greenish eggs are laid. The young penguins, clad 
in thick down, are born blind and are fed by the parents for 
an unusually long time before taking to the water. Penguins 
bite savagely when molested, but are easily trained and 
display considerable intelligence. 

The Spheniscidae have been divided into at least eight genera, 
but three, or at most four, seem to be all that are needed, and 

1 The pterylographical characters of the penguins are well 
described by A. Hyatt (Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. History, 1871). A. D. 
Bartlett has observed (Proc. Zool. Soc., 1879, pp. 6-9) that, 
instead of moulting in the way that birds ordinarily do, penguins, 
at least in passing from the immature to the adult dress, cast off 
the short scale-like feathers from their wings in a manner that he 
compares to " the shedding of the skin in a serpent." 

2 The three metatarsals in the penguins are not, as in other birds, 
united for the whole of their length, but only at'the extremities, thus 
preserving a portion of their originally distinct existence, a fact 
probably attributable to arrest of development, since the researches 
of C. Gegenbaur show that the embryos of all birds, so far as is known, 
possess these bones in an independent condition. 

three can be well distinguished, as pointed out by E. Coues in 
Proc. Acad. of Nat. Sci. of Philadelphia, 1872 (pp. 170-212), 
by anatomical as well as by external characters. They are: (i) 
Aptenodytes, easily recognized by its long and thin bill, slightly 
decurved, from which Pygoscelis, as M. Watson has shown, 
is hardly distinguishable; (2) Eudyptes, in which the bill is 
much shorter and rather broad; and (3) Spheniscus, in which 
the shortish bill is compressed and the maxilla ends in a conspi- 
cuous hook. Aptenodytes contains the largest species, among 
them those known as the " Emperor " and " King " penguins 
A. patagonica and A. longirostris. Three others belong also 
to this genus, if Pygoscelis be not recognized, but they seem 
not to require any particular remark. Eudyptes, containing 
the crested penguins, known to sailors as " Rock-hoppers " 
or" Macaronis," would appear to have five species, and Sphenis- 
cus four, among which S. mendiculus, which occurs in the 
Galapagos, and therefore has the most northerly range of the 
whole group, alone needs notice here. (A. N.) 

The generic and specific distribution of the penguins is the subject 
of an excellent essay by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in the Annales 
des sciences naturelles for 1880 (vol. ix. art. 9, pp. 23-81); see also 
the Records of the Antarctic Expedition, 19011904. 

PENHALLOW, SAMUEL (1665-1726), American colonist 
and historian, was born at St Mabon, Cornwall, England, 
on the 2nd of July 1665. From 1683 to 1686 he attended a 
school at Newington Green (near London) conducted by the 
Rev. Charles Morton (1627-1698), a dissenting clergyman, 
with whom he emigrated to Massachusetts in 1686. He was 
commissioned by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in New England to study the Indian languages and to preach 
to the Indians; but he was soon diverted from this work. 
Removing to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, he there married a 
daughter of John Cutt (1625-1681), president of the province 
of New Hampshire in 1679-1680, a successful merchant and 
mill-owner, and thus came into possession of considerable 
property (including much of the present site of Portsmouth). 
In 1700 he was speaker of the Assembly and in 1702 became a 
member of the Provincial Council, but was suspended by 
Lieut. -Governor George Vaughan (1676-1724). Penhallow, 
however, was sustained by Governor Samuel Shute (1662-1742), 
and Vaughan was removed from office in 1716. In 1714 
Penhallow was appointed a justice of the superior court of 
judicature, and from 1717 until his death was chief justice of that 
court; and he also served as treasurer of the province in 1699- 
1726, and as secretary of the province in 1714-1726. He died at 
Portsmouth on the 2nd of December 1726. He wrote a valuable 
History of the War of New England with the Eastern Indians, 
or a Narrative of their Continued Perfidy and Cruelty (1726; 
reprinted in the Collections of the New Hampshire Historical 
Society, vol. i., 1824, and again at Cincinnati in 1859), which 
covers the period from 1703 to 1726, and is a standard contem- 
porary authority. 

PENINGTON, SIR ISAAC (c. 1587-1661), lord mayor of London, 
eldest son of Robert Penington, a London fishmonger, was born 
probably in 1587. His father besides his London business had 
landed estates in Norfolk and Suffolk, which Isaac inherited 
in addition to a property in Buckinghamshire which he himself 
purchased. In 1638 Isaac became an alderman and high 
sheriff of London. In 1640 he was elected to the House of 
Commons as member for the city of London, and immediately 
took a prominent place among the Puritan party. In 1642 
he was elected lord mayor of London, but retained his seat in 
parliament by special leave of the Commons; and he was 
elected lord mayor for a second term in the following year, 
continuing while in office to raise large sums of money for the 
opposition to the Court party. From 1642 to 1645 he was 
lieutenant of the Tower, in which capacity he was present at 
the execution of Laud; but, though one of the commissioners 
for the trial of Charles I., he did not sign the death warrant. 
After the king's death Penington served on Cromwell's council 
of state, and on several committees of government. His 
services were rewarded by considerable grants of land, and a 

9 o 


knighthood conferred in 1649. He was tried and convicted 
of treason at the Restoration, and died while a prisoner in the 
Tower on the iyth of December 1661. He was twice married, 
and had six children by his first wife, several of whom became 

ISAAC PENINGTON (1616-1679), Sir Isaac's eldest son, was 
one of the most notable of the 17th-century Quakers. He 
was early troubled by religious perplexities, which found expres- 
sion in many voluminous writings. No less than eleven religious 
works, besides a political treatise in defence of democratic 
principles, were published by him in eight years. He belonged 
for a time to the sect of the Independents; but about 1657, 
influenced probably by the preaching of George Fox, whom he 
heard in Bedfordshire, Penington and his wife joined the Society 
of Friends. His wife was daughter and heiress of Sir John 
Proude, and widow of Sir William Springett, so that the worldly 
position of the couple made them a valuable acquisition to the 
Quakers. Isaac Penington was himself a man of very consider- 
able gifts and sweetness of character. In 1661 he was imprisoned 
for refusing to take the oath of allegiance, and on several subse- 
quent occasions he passed long periods in Reading and Aylesbury 
gaols. He died on the 8th of October 1679; his wife, who wrote 
an account of his imprisonments, survived till 1682. In 1681 
Penington's writings were published in a collected edition, 
and several later editions were issued before the end of the i8th 
century. His son John Penington (1655-1710) defended his 
father's memory against attack, and published some con- 
troversial tracts against George Keith. Edward Penington 
(1667-1711), another of Isaac Penington's sons, emigrated to 
Pennsylvania, where ha founded a family. Isaac Penington's 
stepdaughter, Gulielma Springett, married William Penn. 

See Maria Webb, The Penns and Peningtons of the l?th Century 
(London, 1867); Lord Clarendon, History of the Rebellion and Civil 
Wars in England (7 vols., Oxford, 1839); Bulstrode Whitelocke, 
Memorials of English Affairs: Charles I. to the Restoration (London, 
I73 2 ); J- Gurney Beyan, Life of Isaac Penington (London, 1784); 
Thomas Ellwood, History of the Life of Ellwood by his own hand 
(London, 1765); Willem Sewel, History of the Quakers (6th ed., 2 
vols., London, 1834). 

PENINSULA (Lat. paeninsida, from paene, almost, and insula, 
an island), in physical geography, a piece of land nearly sur- 
rounded by water. In its original sense it connotes attachment 
to a larger land-mass by a neck of land (isthmus) narrower than 
the peninsula itself, but it is often extended to apply to any 
long promontory, the coast-line of which is markedly longer than 
the landward boundary. 

PENINSULAR WAR (1808-14). This important war, the 
conduct and result of which greatly enhanced the prestige of 
British arms, had for its main object the freedom of the Peninsula 
of Spain and Portugal from the domination of Napoleon; and 
hence it derives its name, though it terminated upon the soil 
of France. 

Nelson having destroyed the French fleet at Trafalgar, 
Napoleon feared the possibility of a British army being landed 
on the Peninsular coasts, whence in conjunction with Portuguese 
and Spanish forces it might attack France from the south. He 
therefore called upon Portugal, in August 1807, to comply with 
his Berlin decree of the 2ist of November 1806, under which 
continental nations were to close their ports to British subjects, 
and have no communication with Great Britain. At the same 
time he persuaded the weak king of Spain (Charles IV.) and 
his corrupt minister Godoy to permit a French army to pass 
through Spain towards Portugal; while under a secret treaty 
signed at Fontainebleau on the 2 7th of October 1807 Spanish 
troops were to support the French. Portugal was to be sub- 
sequently divided between Spain and France, and a new princi- 
pality of the Algarve was to be carved out for Godoy. Portugal 
remonstrated against Napoleon's demands, and a French corps 
(30,000) under General Junot was instantly despatched to 
Lisbon. Upon its approach the prince regent fled, and the 
country was occupied by Junot, most of the Portuguese troops 
being disbanded or sent abroad. Napoleon induced the king 
of Spain to allow French troops to occupy the country and to 

send the flower of the Spanish forces (15,000) under the marquis 
of Romana 1 to assist the French on the Baltic. Then Dupont 
de 1'Etang (25,000) was ordered to cross the Bidassoa on the 
22nd of November 1807; and by the 8th of January 1808 he had 
reached Burgos and Valladolid. Marshal Moncey with a corps 
occupied Biscay and Navarre; Duhesme with a division entered 
Catalonia; and a little later Bessieres with another corps had 
been brought up. There were now about 100,000 French 
soldiers in Spain, and Murat, grand duke of Berg, as " lieutenant 
for the emperor," entered Madrid. During February and 
March 1808 the frontier fortresses of Pampeluna, St Sebastian, 
Barcelona and Figueras were treacherously occupied and Spain 
lay at the feet of Napoleon. The Spanish people, in an outburst 
of fury against the king and Godoy, forced the former to abdicate 
in favour of his son Ferdinand; but the inhabitants of Madrid 
having (May 2, 1808) risen against the French, Napoleon refused 
to recognize Ferdinand; both he and the king were compelled 
to renounce their rights to the throne, and a mercenary council 
of regency having been induced to desire the French emperor to 
make his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, king, he acceded to their 
request. 2 

The mask was now completely thrown off, and Spain and 
Portugal rose against the French. Provincial " juntas " (com- 
mittees of government) were organized; appeals for assistance 
made to the British government, which granted arms, money 
and supplies, and it was resolved to despatch a British force 
to the Peninsula. Before it landed, the French under Dupont, 
Moncey and Marshal Bessieres (75,000) had occupied parts 
of Biscay, Navarre, Aragon and the Castiles, holding Madrid 
and Toledo, while General Duhesme (14,000) was in Catalonia. 
Moncey (7000) had marched towards the city of Valencia, but 
been repulsed in attempting to storm it (June 28); Bessieres 
had defeated the Spanish general Joachim Blake at Medina 
de Rio Seco (June 14, 1808) and Dupont (13,000) had been 
detached (May 24) from Madrid to reduce Seville and Cadiz in 
Andalusia. Spanish levies, numbering nearly 100,000 regulars 
and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, 
sufficient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected 
together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Gab'cia, 
and others in Valencia and Estremadura, but few in the central 
portion of Spain. 

At this juncture Dupont, moving upon Cadiz, met with areverse 
which greatly influenced the course of the Peninsular War. On 
the 7th of June 1808 he had sacked Cordova; but while he was 
laden with its spoils the Spanish general Castanos with the army 
of Andalusia (30,000), and also a large body of armed peasantry, 
approached. Falling back to Andujar, where he was reinforced 
to 22,000 strong, Dupont detached a force to hold the mountain 
passes in his rear, whereupon the Spaniards interposed between 
the detachment and the main body and seized Baylen. Failing 
to dislodge them, and surrounded by hostile troops and an 
infuriated peasantry, Dupont capitulated with over Battle of 
20,000 men. This victory, together with the in- Bayieo, July 
trepid defence of Saragossa by the Spanish general ' ' ' ' 
Jose Palafox (June 15 to August 13, 1808) temporarily 
paralysed the French and created unbounded enthusiasm in 
Spain. Duhesme, having failed to take Gerona, was blockaded 
in Barcelona, Joseph fled from Madrid (Aug. i, 1808), and the 
French forces closed to their rear to defend their communications 
with France. The British troops were directed towards Lisbon 
and Cadiz, in order to secure these harbours, to prevent the 
subjugation of Andalusia, and to operate up the basins of the 
Guadiana, Tagus and Douro into Spain. The British force 
consisted of 9000 men from Cork, under Sir Arthur Wellesley 
at first in chief command; 5000 from Gibraltar, under General 
(Sir Brent) Spencer; and 10,000 under Sir John Moore coming 
from Sweden; Wellesley and Moore being directed towards 
Portugal, and Spencer to Cadiz. On the ist of August 1808 

1 They subsequently escaped from Jutland, on British vessels, 
and reached Santander in October 1808. 

2 The king, the queen and Godoy were eventually removed to 
Rome, and Ferdinand to Valencay in France. 


9 1 

Wellesley began to land his troops, unopposed, near Figueira da 
Foz at the mouth of the Mondego; and the Spanish victory of 
Baylen having relieved Cadiz from danger, Spencer now joined 
him, and, without waiting for Moore the army, under 15,000 in 
all (which included some Portuguese) 1 with 18 guns, advanced 
towards Lisbon. 

Campaign in Portugal, 1808. The first skirmish took place 
at Obidos on the isth of August 1808, against Delaborde's 
division (5000 men with 5 guns), which fell back to Roleia 
(Rorifa or Rolica). A battle took place here (Aug. 17) in which 
Sir Arthur Wellesley attacked and drove him from two successive 
positions. The allied loss was about 500: the French 600 and 
three guns. 1 On the 2Oth of August the Allies, strengthened 
by the arrival of two more brigades (4000 men), occupied some 
heights north of Vimiera (Vimeira or Vimeiro) where the roads 
branch off to Torres Vedras and Mafra. Wellesley meant to 
turn the defile of Torres Vedras by Mafra at once if possible; 
but on this night Sir Harry Burrard, his senior, arrived off 
Vimiera, and though he did not land, gave instructions to wait 
for Sir John Moore. On the 2ist of August the Allies were 
attacked by Junot at Vimiera, who, leaving a force at Lisbon, 
had come up to reinforce Delaborde. In this battle the Allies 
Battle of numbered about 18,000 with 18 guns, French nearly 
Vimiera, 14,000, with 20 guns. Junot, believing the allied 
August 21, i e ft to be weakly held, attacked it without recon- 
t808 ' noitring, but Wellesley's regiments, marched thither 

behind the heights, sprang up in line; and under their volleys 
and bayonet charge, supported by artillery fire, Junot's deep 
columns were driven off the direct road to Lisbon. The losses 
were: Allies about 800, French 2000 and 13 guns. It was now 
again Wellesley's wish to advance and seize Torres Vedras; but 
Sir Hew Dalrymple, having at this moment assumed command, 
decided otherwise. On the 2nd of August Junot, knowing 
of the approach of Moore with reinforcements, and afraid of 
a revolt in Lisbon, opened negotiations, which resulted in the 
Convention of Cintra 2 (Aug. 30, 1808), under which the French 
evacuated Portugal, on condition that they were sent with 
their artillery and arms to France. Thus this campaign had been 
rapidly brought to a satisfactory conclusion; and Sir Arthur 
Wellesley had already given proof of his exceptional gifts as 
a leader. In England however a cry was raised that Junot 
should have been forced to an absolutely unconditional surrender; 
and Sir Arthur Wellesley, Sir Hew Dalrymple and Sir Harry 
Burrard 3 were brought before a court of inquiry in London. 
This acquitted them of blame, and Sir John Moore in the mean- 
time after the departure of Dalrymple (Oct. 6, 1808) had assumed 
command of the allied army in Portugal, now about 32,000 

Moore's Campaign in Spain, 1808-9. The British govern- 
ment notified to Sir John Moore that some 10,000 men were 
to be sent to Corunna under Sir David Baird; that he, with 
20,000, was to join him, and then both act in concert with the 
Spanish armies. As the conduct of this campaign was largely 
influenced by the operations of the Spanish forces, it is necessary 
to mention their positions, and also the fact that greater reliance 
had been placed, both in England and Spain, upon them than 
future events justified. On the 26th of October 1808, when 
Moore's troops had left Lisbon to join Baird, the French still 
held a defensive position behind the Ebro; Bessieres being in the 
basin of Vitoria, Marshal Key north-west of Logrono, and Moncey 
covering Pampeluna, and near Sanguessa. With the garrisons 
of Biscay, Navarre, and a reserve at Bayonne, their strength 
was about 75,000 men. Palafox (20,000) was near Saragossa and 
observing Sanguessa; Castanos with the victors of Baylen 

1 In this account of the war the losses and numbers' engaged in 
different battles are given approximately only; and the former 
include killed, wounded and missing. Historians differ much on 
these matters. 

1 It was not, however, signed at Cintra, but at Lisbon, and was 
mainly negotiated near Torres Vedras. 

8 The two latter were recalled from the Peninsula ; Sir Arthur 
Wellesley had proceeded to London upon leave, and had only signed 
the armistice with Junot, not the convention itself. 

(34,000) west and south of Tudela and near Logrono; Blake 
(32,000) east of Reynosa, having captured Bilbao; Count de 
Belvedere (11,000) near Burgos; reserves (57,000) were assem- 
bling about Segovia, Talavera and Cordova; Catalonia was held 
by 23,000, and Madrid had been reoccupied. 

Moore had to decide whether to join Baird by sea or land. 
To do so by sea at this season was to risk delay, while in moving 
by land he would have the Spanish armies between him and the 
French. For these reasons he marched by land; and as the 
roads north of the Tagus were deemed impassable for guns, while 
transport and supplies for a large force were also difficult to 
procure, he sent Sir John Hope, with the artillery, cavalry and 
reserve ammunition column, south of the river, through Badajoz 
to Almaraz, to move thence through Talavera, Madrid and the 
Escurial Pass, involving a considerable d6tour; while he himself 
with the infantry, marching by successive divisions, took the 
shorter roads north of the Tagus through Coimbra and Almeida, 
and also by Alcantara and Coria to Ciudad Rodrigo and Sala- 
manca. Baird was to move south through Galicia to meet him, 
and the army was to concentrate at Valladolid, Burgos, or 
whatever point might seem later on to be best. But as Moore 
was moving forward, the whole situation in Spain changed. 
Napoleon's forces, now increased to some 200,000 men present 
and more following, were assuming the offensive, and he himself 
on the 30th of October had left Paris to place himself at 
their head. Before them the Spaniards were routed in every 
direction: Castanos was defeated near Logrono (Oct. 27); 
Castanos and Palafox at Tudela (Nov. 23); Blake at Zornoza 
(Oct. 29), Espinosa (Nov. n) and Reynosa (Nov. 13); and 
Belvedere at Gamonal, near Burgos (Nov. 10). Thus when 
Moore reached Salamanca (Nov. 28) Baird was at Astorga; 
Hope at the Escurial Pass; Napoleon himself at Aranda; and 
French troops at Valladolid, Arevalo and Segovia; so that the 
French were nearer than either Baird or Hope to Moore at 
Salamanca. Moore was ignorant of their exact position and 
strength, but he knew that Valladolid had been occupied, and 
so his first orders were that Baird should fall back to Galicia 
and Hope to Portugal. But these were soon changed, and he 
now took the important resolution of striking a blow for Spain, 
and for the defenders of Madrid, by attacking Napoleon's 
communications with France. Hope having joined him through 
Avila, and magazines having been formed at Benavente, Astorga 
and Lugo, in case of retreat in that direction, he moved 
forward, and on the I3th of December approached the Douro, 
at and near Rueda east of Toro. Here he learnt that Madrid 
had fallen to Napoleon (Dec. 3) after he had by a brilliant 
charge of the Polish lancers and chasseurs of the Guard forced 
the Somosierra Pass (Nov. 30) and in another action stormed 
the Retire commanding Madrid itself (Dec. 3) ; that the French 
were pressing on towards Lisbon and Andalusia; that Napoleon 
was unaware of his vicinity, and that Soult's corps, isolated on 
the Carrion River, had been ordered towards Benavente. He 
then finally decided to attack Soult (intending subsequently to 
fall back through Galicia) and ordered up transports from 
Lisbon to Corunna and Vigo; thus changing his base from 
Portugal to the north-west of Spain; Blake's Spanish army, 
now rallying under the marquis de la Romafia near Leon, was 
to co-operate, but was able to give little effective aid. 

On the 2oth of December Baird joined Moore near Mayorga, 
and a brilliant cavalry combat now took place at Sahagun, in 
which the British hussar brigade distinguished itself. But on 
the 23rd of December, when Moore was at Sahagun and about 
to attack Soult, he learnt that overwhelming French forces 
were hastening towards him, so withdrew across the Esla, near 
Benevente (Dec. 28), destroying the bridge there. Napoleon, 
directly he realized Moore's proximity, had ordered Soult to 
Astorga to cut him off from Galicia; recalled his other troops 
from their march towards Lisbon and Andalusia, and, with 
50,000 men and 150 guns, had left Madrid himself (Dec. 22). He 
traversed over 100 m. in less than five days across the snow- 
covered Escurial Pass, reaching Tordesillas on the Douro on the 
26th of December. Hence he wrote to Soult, " If the English 


pass to-day in their position (which he believed to be Sahagun) 
they are lost." But Moore had passed Astorga by the 3ist of 
December, where Napoleon arrived on the ist of January 1809. 
Thence he turned back, with a large portion of his army towards 
France, leaving Soult with over 40,000 men to follow Moore. 

On the " Retreat to Corunna " fatigue, wet and bitter cold, 
combined with the sense of an enforced retreat, shook the 
discipline of Moore's army; but he reached Corunna on the nth 
of January 1809, where he took up a position across the road 
from Lugo, with his left on the river Mero. On the I4th of 
January the transports arrived; and on the i6th Soult attacked. 
Battle of In this battle the French numbered about 20,000 with 
Corunna, 40 guns; the British 15,000 with 9 very light guns. 
January 16, goult failed to dislodge the British, and Moore was 
1809 ' about to deliver a counter-attack when he himself 

fell mortally wounded. Baird was also wounded, and as night 
was approaching, Hope suspended the advance, and subse- 
quently embarked the army, with scarcely any further loss. The 
British casualties were about 1000, the French 2000. When the 
troops landed in England, half clothed and half shod, their 
leader's conduct of the campaign was at first blamed, but his 
reputation as a general rests solidly upon these facts, that 
when Napoleon in person, having nearly 300,000 men in Spain, 
had stretched forth his hand to seize Portugal and Andalusia, 
Moore with 30,000, forced him to withdraw it, and follow him to 
Corunna, escaping at the same time from his grasp. Certainly a 
notable achievement. 

Campaign in Portugal and Spain, I Sop. On the 2 2nd of April 
1809 Sir Arthur Wellesley reached Lisbon. By this time, 
French armies, to a great extent controlled by Napoleon from a 
distance, had advanced Soult from Galicia to capture Oporto 
and Lisbon (with General Lapisse from Salamanca moving on 
his left towards Abrantes) and Marshal Victor, still farther 
to the left, with a siege train to take Badajoz, Merida and subse- 
quently Cadiz. Soult (over 20,000), leaving Ney in Galicia, had 
taken and sacked Oporto (March 29, 1809); but the Portuguese 
having closed upon his rear and occupied Vigo, he halted, 
detaching a force to Amarante to keep open the road to Braganza 
and asked for reinforcements. Victor had crossed the Tagus, and 
defeated Cuesta at Medellin (March 28, 1809); but, surrounded 
by insurgents, he also had halted; Lapisse had joined him, and 
together they were near Merida, 30,000 strong. On the allied 
side the British (25,000), including some German auxiliaries, 
were about Leiria: the Portuguese regular troops (16,000) near 
Thomar; and some thousands of Portuguese militia were observ- 
ing Soult in the north of Portugal, a body under Silveira being 
at Amarante, which Soult was now approaching. Much progress 
had been made in the organization and training of the Portuguese 
levies; Major-General William Carr Beresford, with the rank of 
marshal, was placed at their head. Of the Spaniards, Palafox, 
after his defeat at Tudela had most gallantly defended Saragossa 
a second time (Dec. 20, i8o8-Feb. 20, 1809); the Catalonians, 
after reverses at Molins de Rey (Dec. 21, 1808) and at Vails 
(Feb. 25, 1809) had taken refuge in Tarragona; and Rosas had 
fallen (Dec. 5, 1808) to the French general Gouvion St Cyr who, 
having relieved Barcelona, was besieging Gerona. Romana's 
force was now near Orense in Galicia. A supreme junta had been 
formed which could nominally assemble about 100,000 men, 
but jealousy among its members was rife, and they still declined 
to appoint any commander-in-chief. 

On the sth of May 1809, Wellesley moved towards the 
river Douro, having detached Beresford to seize Amarante, 
from which the French had now driven Silveira. Soult 
Passage of expected the passage of the Douro to be attempted 
the Douro, near its mouth, with fishing craft; but Wellesley, by 
May 12,1809. a Baring surprise, crossed (May 12) close above 
Oporto, and also by a ford higher up. After some fighting 
Oporto was taken, and Soult driven back. The Portuguese 
being in his rear, and Wellesley closing with him, the only good 
road of retreat available lay through Amarante, but he now 
learned that Beresford had taken this important point from 
Silveira; so he was then compelled, abandoning his guns and 

much baggage, to escape, with a loss of some 5000 men, over the 
mountains of the Sierra Catalina to Salamonde, and thence to 

During the above operations, Victor, with Lapisse, had forced 
the passage of the Tagus at Alcantara but, on Wellesley return- 
ing to Abrantes, he retired. News having been received that 
Napoleon had suffered a serious check at the battle of Aspern, 
near Vienna (May 22, 1809), Wellesley next determined leaving 
Beresford (20,000) near Ciudad Rodrigo to move with 22,000 
men, in conjunction with Cuesta's Spanish army (40,000) 
towards Madrid against Victor, who, with 25,000 supported 
by King Joseph (50,000) covering the capital, was near Talavera. 
Sir Robert Wilson with 4000 Portuguese from Salamanca, and 
a Spanish force under Venegas (25,000) from Carolina, were to 
co-operate and occupy Joseph, by closing upon Madrid. Cuesta, 
during the advance up the valley of the Tagus, was to occupy 
the pass of Banos on the left flank; the Spanish authorities were 
to supply provisions, and Venegas was to be at Arganda, near 
Madrid, by the 22nd or 23rd of July; but none of these arrange- 
ments were duly carried out, and it was on this that the remain- 
der of the campaign turned. Writing to Soult from Austria, 
Napoleon had placed the corps of Ney and Mortier under his 
orders, and said: " Wellesley will most likely advance by the 
Tagus against Madrid; in that case, pass the mountains, fall on 
his flank and rear, and crush him." 

By the 2oth of July Cuesta had joined Wellesley at Oropesa; 
and both then moved forward to Talavera, Victor falling back 
before them: but Cuesta, irritable and jealous, 
would not work cordially with Welksley; Venegas Talavera, 
counter-ordered it is said by the Spanish junta did July 27, 28, 
not go to Arganda, and Wilson, though he advanced l809 ' 
close to Madrid, was forced to retire, so that Joseph joined 
Victor, and the united force attacked the Allies at Talavera 
de la Reina on the Tagus. The battle lasted for two days, 
and ended in the defeat of the French, who fell back towards 
Madrid. 1 Owing to want of supplies, the British had fought 
in a half -starved condition; and Wellesley now learnt to his sur- 
prise that Soult had passed the mountains and was in his rear. 
Having turned about, he was on the march to attack him, when 
he heard (Aug. 23) that not Soult's corps alone, but three French 
corps, had come through the pass of Banos without opposition; 
that Soult himself was at Naval Moral, between him and the 
bridge of Almaraz on the Tagus, and that Cuesta was retreating 
from Talavera. Wellesley's force was now in a dangerous 
position: but by withdrawing at once across the Tagus at 
Arzobispo, he reached Jaraicejo and Almaraz (by the south 
bank) blowing up the bridge at Almaraz, and thence moved, 
through Merida, northwards to the banks of the Agueda, 
commencing to fortify the country around Lisbon. 

Elsewhere in the Peninsula during this year, Blake, now 
in Catalonia, after routing Suchet at Alcaniz (May 23, 1809), 
was defeated by him at Maria (June 15) and at Belchite (June 
18); Venegas, by King Joseph and Sebastiani, at Almonacid 
on the nth of August; Del Parque (20,000), after a previous 
victory near Salamanca (Oct. 18), was overthrown at Alba de 
Tormes by General Marchand (Nov. 28) ; the old forces of Venegas 
and Cuesta (50,000), now united under Areizaga, were decisively 
routed by King Joseph at Ocafia (Nov. 19); and Gerona after 
a gallant defence, had surrendered to Augereau (Dec. 10). 

Sir Arthur Wellesley was for this campaign created Baron 
Douro and Viscount Wellington. He was made captain-general 
by Spain, and marshal-general by Portugal. But his experience 
after Talavera had been akin to that of Moore; his expectations 
from the Spaniards had not been realized; he had been almost 
intercepted by the French, and he had narrowly escaped from a 
critical position. Henceforth he resisted all proposals for joint 
operations, on any large scale, with Spanish armies not under 
his own direct command. 

1 After the battle the Light Division, under Robert Craufurd, 
joined Wellesley. In the endeavour to reach the field in time it 
had covered, in heavy marching order, over 50 m. in 25 hours, in 
hot July weather. 



Campaign in Portugal, 1810. Napoleon, having avenged 
Aspern by the victory of Wagram (July 6, 1809), despatched to 
Spain large reinforcements destined to increase his army there 
to about 370,000 men. Marshal Massena with 120,000, including 
the corps of Ney, Junot, Reynier and some of the Imperial 
Guard, was to operate from Salamanca against Portugal; but 
first Soult, appointed major-general of the army in Spain 
(equivalent to chief of the staff), was, with the corps of Victor, 
Mortier and Sebastiani (70,000), to reduce Andalusia. Soult 
(Jan. 31, 1810) occupied Seville and escaping thence to Cadiz, 
the Supreme Junta resigned its powers to a regency of five 
members (Feb. 2, 1810). Cadiz was invested by Victor's corps 
(Feb. 4) , and then Soult halted, waiting for Massena, who arrived 
at Valladolid on the isth of May. 

In England a party in parliament were urging the withdrawal 
of the British troops, and any reverse to the allied arms would 
have strengthened its hands. Wellington's policy was thus 
cautious and defensive, and he had already commenced the since 
famous lines of Torres Vedras round Lisbon. In June 1810 his 
headquarters were at Celorico. With about 35,000 British, 
30,000 Portuguese regular troops and 30,000 Portuguese militia, 
he watched the roads leading into Portugal past Ciudad Rodrigo 
to the north, and Badajoz to the south of the Tagus, as also the line 
of the Douro and the country between the Elga and the Ponsul. 

Soult having been instructed to co-operate by taking Badajoz 
and Elvas, Massena, early in June 1810, moved forward, and 
Ciudad Rodrigo surrendered to him (June 10). Next pushing 
back a British force under Craufurd, he invested Almeida, 
taking it on the 27th of August. Then calling up Reynier, 
who during this had moved on his left towards Alcantara, 
he marched down the right bank of the Mondego, and 
entered Viseu (Sept. 21). Wellington fell back before him 
down the left bank, ordering up Rowland Hill's force from 
the Badajoz road, the peasantry having been previously 
called upon to destroy their crops and retire within the lines of 
Torres Vedras. A little north of Coimbra, the -road which 
Massena followed crossed the Sierra de Bussaco (Busaco), a very 
strong position where Wellington resolved to offer him battle. 
Massena, superior in numbers and over-confident, made a direct 
attack upon the heights on the 27th of September 1810: his 
Battle of strength being about 60,000, while that of the Allies 
Busaco. was about 50,000, of whom nearly half were Portu- 


27, 1810. 

g ues e. 

After a stern conflict the French were 
the loss being five generals and nearly 5000 
men, while the Allies lost about 1300. The next day Massena 
turned the Sierra by the Boyalva Pass and Sardao, which latter 
place, owing to an error, had not been occupied by the Portu- 
guese, and Wellington then retreated by Coimbra and Leiria 
to the lines, which he entered on the nth of October, having 
within them fully 100,000 able-bodied men. 

The celebrated " Lines of Torres Vedras " were defensive 
works designed to resist any army which Napoleon could send 
Lines of a g ainst them. They consisted of three great lines, 
Torres strengthened by about 150 redoubts, and earthworks 
Vedras, of various descriptions, mounting some 600 cannon; 
1810-n. tne outer ii nCi nearly 30 m. long, stretching over 
heights north of Lisbon, from the Tagus to the sea. As Massena 
advanced, the Portuguese closing upon his rear retook Coimbra 
(Oct. 7), and when he neared the lines, astounded at their strength, 
he sent General Foy to the emperor to ask for reinforcements. 
After an effort, defeated by Hill, to cross the Tagus, he withdrew 
(Nov. 15) to Santarem. This practically closed Wellington's 
operations for the year 1810, his policy now being not to lose 
men in battle, but to reduce Massena by hunger and distress. 

In other parts of Spain, Augereau had taken Hostalrich (May 
10); captured Lerida (May 14); Mequinenza (June 8); and 
invested Tortosa (Dec. 15). The Spanish levies had been unable 
to contribute much aid to the Allies; the French having subdued 
almost all Spain, and being now in possession of Ciudad Rodrigo 
and Almeida. On the other hand Wellington still held Lisbon 
with parts of Portugal, Elvas and Badajoz, for Soult had not 
felt disposed to attempt the capture of the last two fortresses. 

Campaign of 1811. Napoleon, whose attention was now 
directed towards Russia, refused to reinforce Massena, but 
enjoined Soult to aid him by moving against Badajoz. Soult, 
therefore, leaving Victor before Cadiz, invested Badajoz (Jan. 
26, 1811) and took it from the Spaniards (March 10). With the 
hope of raising the blockade of Cadiz, a force under Sir Thomas 
Graham (afterwards Lord Lynedoch [q.v.]) left that harbour by 
sea, and joining with Spanish troops near Tarifa, advanced by 
land against Victor's blockading force, a Spanish general, La 
Pena, being in chief command. As they neared Barrosa, Victor 
attacked them, the Allies numbering in the battle about 13,000 
with 24 guns, 4000 being British; the French 9000, actually 
engaged, with 14 guns; but with 5000 more a few miles off and 
others in the French lines. Hard fighting, chiefly Battle of 
between the French and British, now ensued, and Barrosa, 
at one time the Barrosa ridge, the key of the position Marcbs, 
left by La Pena's orders, practically undefended, I8tl ' 
fell into the French hands: but Graham by a resolute 
counter-attack regained it, and Victor was in the end driven 
back. La Pena, who had in the battle itself failed to give 
proper support to Graham, would not pursue, and Graham 
declining to carry on further operations with him, re-entered 
Cadiz. The French afterwards resumed the blockade, so that 
although Barrosa was an allied victory, its object was not 
attained. The British loss was about 1200; the French 2000, 
6 guns and an eagle. 

On the day of the above battle Massena, having destroyed 
what guns he could not horse, and skilfully gained time by a 

feint against Abrantes, began his retreat from before . 

A . i T^ i i TT- Masseaa's 

the lines, through Coimbra and Espmhal. His g etrea t. 

army was in serious distress; he was in want of food 
and supplies; most of his horses were dead, and his men were 
deserting. Wellington followed, directing the Portuguese to 
remove all boats from the Mondego and Douro, and to break 
up roads north of the former river. Beresford was detached 
to succour Badajoz, but was soon recalled, as it had fallen to 
Soult. Ney, commanding Massena's rearguard, conducted 
the retreat with great ability. In the pursuit, Wellington 
adhered to his policy of husbanding his troops for future offensive 
operations, and let sickness and hunger do the work of the sword. 
This they effectually did. Nothing could well exceed the horrors 
of Massena's retreat. Rearguard actions were fought at Pombal 
(March 10) , Redinha (March 1 2) and Condeixa (March 13) . Here 
Ney was directed to make a firm stand; but, ascertaining that the 
Portuguese were at Coimbra and the bridge there broken, and 
fearing to be cut off also from Murcella, he burnt Condeixa, 
and marched to Cazal Nova. An action took place here (March 
14) and at Foz d'Arouce (March 15). Wellington now sent off 
Beresford with a force to retake Badajoz; and Massena, sacri- 
ficing much of his baggage and ammunition, reached Celorico 
and Guarda (March 21). Here he was attacked by Wellington 
(March 29) and, after a further engagement at Sabugal (April 3, 
1811), he fell back through Ciudad to Salamanca, having lost 
in Portugal nearly 30,000 men, chiefly from want and disease, 
and 6000 in the retreat alone. 

The key to the remaining operations of i8n lies in the impor- 
tance attached by both Allies and French to the possession of 
the fortresses which guarded the two great roads from Portugal 
into Spain Almeida and Ciudad Rodrigo on the northern, and 
Badajoz and Elvas on the southern road; all these except Elvas 
were in French hands. Wellington, on the gth of April 1811, 
directed General Spencer to invest Almeida; he then set off 
himself to join Beresford before Badajoz, but after reconnoitring 
the fortress with his lieutenant he had at once to return north 
on the news that Massena was moving to relieve Almeida. On 
the 3rd of May Loison attacked him at Fuentes d'Onor near 
Almeida, and Massena coming up himself made a more serious 
attack on the sth of May. The- Allies numbered Battle of 
about 33,000, with 42 guns; the French 45,000 with Fueates 
30 guns. The battle is chiefly notable for the steadi- fOaor, 
ness with which the allied right, covered by the Light "** ia 
Division in squares, changed position in presence of the French 



cavalry; and for the extraordinary feat of arms of Captain 
Norman Ramsay, R.H.A., in charging through the French cavalry 
with his guns. Massena failed to dislodge the Allies, and on 
the 8th of May withdrew to Salamanca, Almeida falling to 
Wellington on the nth of May 1811. The allied loss in the 
fighting on both days at Fuentes d'Onor was about 1500: the 
French 3000. 

In the meantime Soult (with 23,000 men and 50 guns), ad- 
vancing to relieve Badajoz, compelled Beresford to suspend 

Battle of tne S ' e 6 e > anc * to ta ^ e U P a Posit* 011 w ith aDout 30,000 

Aibuera, men (of whom 7000 were British) and 38 guns 
May 16, behind the river Albuhera (or Aibuera). Here 
K "' Soult attacked him on the i6th of May. An unusu- 

ally bloody battle ensued, in which the French efforts were 
chiefly directed against the allied right, held by the Spaniards. 
At one time the right appeared to be broken, and 6 guns were 
lost, when a gallant advance of Sir Lowry Cole's division 
restored the day, Soult then falling back towards Seville. The 
allied loss was about 7000 (including about half the British 
force) ; the French about 8000. 

After this Wellington from Almeida rejoined Beresford and 
the siege of Badajoz was continued: but now Marshal Marmont, 
having succeeded Massena, was marching southwards to join 
Soult, and, two allied assaults of Badajoz having failed, Welling- 
ton withdrew. Subsequently, leaving Hill in the Alemtejo, he 
returned towards Almeida, and with 40,000 men commenced 
a blockade of Ciudad Rodrigo, his headquarters being at Fuente 
Guinaldo. Soult and Marmont now fell back, the former to 
Seville, the latter to the valley of the Tagus, south of the pass of 

In September, Marmont joined with the army of the north 
under General Dorsenne, coming from Salamanca their total 
force being 60,000, with 100 guns and succeeded (Sept. 25) in 
introducing a convoy of provisions into Ciudad Rodrigo. Before 
so superior a force, Wellington had not attempted to maintain 
the blockade; but on Marmont afterwards advancing towards 
him, he fought a rearguard action with him at El Bodon (Sept. 
25), notable, as was Fuentes d'Onor, for the coolness with which 
the allied squares retired amidst the enemy's horsemen; and 
again at Fuente Guinaldo (Sept. 25 and 26) he maintained for 
30 hours, with 15,000 men, a bold front against Marmont's 
army of 60,000, in order to save the Light Division from being 
cut off. At Aldea de Ponte there was a further sharp engage- 
ment (Sept. 27), but Wellington taking up a strong position near 
Sabugal, Marmont and Dorsenne withdrew once more to the 
valley of the Tagus and Salamanca respectively, and Wellington 
again blockaded Ciudad Rodrigo. 

Thus terminated the main operations of this year. On the 
28th of October 1811, Hill, by a very skilful surprise, captured 
Arroyo de los Molinos (between Badajoz and Trujillo), almost 
annihilating a French corps under Gerard; and in December 1811 
the French were repulsed in their efforts to capture Tarifa near 
Cadiz. In the east of Spain Suchet took Tortosa (Jan. i, 1811); 
Tarragona (June 28); and Murviedro (Oct. 26), defeating Blake's 
relieving force, which then took refuge in Valencia. Macdonald 
also retook Figueras which the Spaniards had taken on the 9th 
of April 1811 (Aug. 19). Portugal had now been freed from the 
French, but they still held Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, the 
two main gates into Spain. 

Campaign in Spain, 1812, The campaign of 1812 marks an 
important stage in the war. Napoleon, with the Russian War in 
prospect, had early in the year withdrawn 30,000 men from 
Spain; and Wellington had begun to carry on what he termed a 
war of " magazines." Based on rivers (the navigation of which 
greatly improved) and the sea, he formed dep6ts or magazines 
of provisions at many points, which enabled him always to take 
and keep the field. The French, on the other hand, had great 
difficulty in establishing any such reserves of food, owing to 
their practice of depending for sustenance entirely upon the 
country in which they were quartered. Wellington assumed 
the offensive, and by various movements and feints, aided the 
guerrilla bands by forcing the French corps to assemble in their 

districts, which not only greatly harassed them but also materi- 
ally hindered the combination of their corps for concerted action. 
Having secretly got a battering train into Almeida and directed 
Hill, as a blind, to engage Soult by threatening Badajoz, he 
suddenly (Jan. 8, 1812) besieged Ciudad Rodrigo. 

The French, still numbering nearly 200,000, now held the 
following positions: the Army of the North Dorsenne (48,000) 
was about the Pisuerga, in the Asturias, and along the northern 
coast; the Army of Portugal Marmont (50,000) mainly in 
the valley of the Tagus, but ordered to Salamanca; the Army of 
the South Soult (55,000) in Andalusia; the Army of the Centre 
Joseph (19,000) about Madrid. 

The siege of Ciudad Rodrigo was calculated in the ordinary 
course to require twenty-four days: but on it becoming known that 
Marmont was moving northward, the assault was giegeof 
delivered after twelve days only (Jan. 19). The Ciudad 
gallantry of the troops made it successful, though with Rodrigo, 
the loss of Generals Craufurd and McKinnon, and 1300 *J^ *" 
men, and Marmont's battering train of 150 guns here 
fell into the allied hands. Then, after a feint of passing on into 
Spain, Wellington rapidly marched south and, with 22,000 men, 
laid siege to Badajoz (March 17, 1812), Hill with 30,000 covering 
the siege near Merida. Wellington was hampered by want of 
time, arid had to assault prematurely. Soult and Marmont 
having begun to move to relieve the garrison, the assault was 
delivered on the night of the 7th of April, and siege of 
though the assailants failed at the breaches, the Badajoz, 
carnage at which was terrible, a very daring escalade Malvl > t7 to 
of one of the bastions and of the castle succeeded, ' 

and Badajoz fell, Souk's pontoon train being taken in it. After 
the assault, some deplorable excesses were committed by the 
victorious troops. The allied loss was 3600 in the assault alone 
and 5000 in the entire siege. 

The Allies had now got possession of the two great gates into 
Spain: and Hill, by an enterprise most skilfully carried out, 
destroyed (May 19) the Tagus bridge at Almaraz, by which 
Soult to the south of the river chiefly communicated with Mar- 
mont to the north. Wellington then, ostentatiously making 
preparations to enter Spain by the Badajoz line, once more 
turned northward, crossed the Tormes (June 17, 1812), and 
advanced to the Douro, behind which the French were drawn 
up. Marmont had erected at Salamanca some strong forts, 
the reduction of which occupied Wellington ten days, and cost 
him 600 men. The Allies and French now faced each other along 
the Douro to the Pisuerga. The river was high, and Wellington 
hoped that want of supplies would compel Marmont to retire, 
but in this he was disappointed. 

On the isth of July 1812, Marmont, after a feint against 
Wellington's left, suddenly, by a forced march, turned his 
right, and made rapidly towards the fords of Huerta and Alba 
on the Tormes. Some interesting manoeuvres now took place, 
Wellington moving parallel and close to Marmont, but more 
to the north, making for the fords of Aldea Lengua and 
Santa Marta on the Tormes nearer to Salamanca, and being 
under the belief that the Spaniards held the castle and ford at 
Alba on that river. But Marmont's manoeuvring and marching 
power had been underestimated, and on the 2ist of July while 
Wellington's position covered Salamanca, and but indirectly 
his line of communications through Ciudad Rodrigo, Marmont 
had reached a point from which he hoped to interpose between 
Wellington and Portugal, on the Ciudad Rodrigo road. This 
he endeavoured to do on the 22nd of July 1812, which brought 
on the important battle of Salamanca (q.v.) in which Battle of 
Wellington gained a decisive victory, the French Salamanca, 
falling back to Valladolid and thence to Burgos. Ju 'y 22 > 
Wellington entered Valladolid (July 30), and thence 
marched against Joseph, who (July 21) had reached Blasco 
Sancho with reinforcements for Marmont. Joseph retired 
before him, and Wellington entered Madrid (Aug. 12, 1812), 
where, in the Retire, 1700 men, 180 cannon, two eagles, and a 
quantity of stores were captured. Soult now raised the siege 
of Cadiz (Aug. 26), and evacuating Andalusia joined Suchet 



with some 55,000 men. Wellington then brought up Hill to 

On the ist of September 1812, the French armies having begun 
once more to collect together, Wellington marched against the 
Slege of the Army of the North, now under General Clause], and 
Castle of laid siege to the castle of Burgos (Sept. 19) to secure 
Burgos, the road towards Santander on the coast. But the 
Ocf'i/ 9 * stren S tn f the castle had been underrated ; 
Wellington had insufficient siege equipment and 
transport for heavy guns; five assaults failed, and Soult (having 
left Suchet in Valencia) and also the Army of Portugal were 
both approaching, so Wellington withdrew on the night of the 
Retreat 2ist of October, and, directing the evacuation of 
irom Madrid, commenced the " Retreat from Burgos." 

Burgos. j n (.jjjg retreat, although military operations were 
skilfully conducted, the Allies lost 7000 men, and discipline, as 
in that to Corunna, became much relaxed. 

By November 1812, Hill having joined him at Salamanca, 
Wellington once more had gone into cantonments near Ciudad 
Rodrigo, and the French armies had again scattered for con- 
venience of supply. In spite of the failure before Burgos, the 
successes of the campaign had been brilliant. In addition to 
the decisive victory of Salamanca, Madrid had been occupied, 
the siege of Cadiz raised, Andalusia freed, and Ciudad Rodrigo 
and Badajoz stormed. Early in January also the French had 
abandoned the siege of Tarifa, though Valencia had surrendered 
to them (Jan. 9). One important result of the campaign was 
that the Spanish Cortes nominated Wellington (Sept. 22, 1812) 
to the unfettered command of the Spanish armies. For the 
operations of this campaign Wellington was created earl, and 
subsequently marquess of Wellington; duke of Ciudad Rodrigo 
by Spain, and marquis of Torres Vedras by Portugal. 

Campaign in Spain and the South of France, 1813. At the 
opening of 1813, Suchet, with 63,000 men, had been left to hold 
Valencia, Aragon and Catalonia; and the remainder of the 
French (about 137,000) occupied Leon, the central provinces and 
Biscay, guarding also the communications with France. Of 
these about 60,000 under Joseph were more immediately 
opposed to Wellington, and posted, in scattered detachments, 
from Toledo and Madrid behind the Tormes to the Douro, and 
along that river to the Esla. Wellington had further organized 
the Spanish forces Castanos (40,000), with the guerrilla bands 
of Mina, Longa and others, was in Galicia, the Asturias and 
northern Spain; Copons (10,000) in Catalonia; Elio (20,000) in 
Murcia; Del Parque (12,000) in the Sierra Morena, and O'Donell 
(15,000) in Andalusia. More Portuguese troops had been 
raised, and reinforcements received from England, so that the 
Allies, without the Spaniards above alluded to, now numbered 
some 75,000 men, and from near the Coa watched the Douro and 
Tormes, their line stretching from their left near Lamego to the 
pass of Banos, Hill being on the right. The district of the Tras- 
os-Montes, north of the Douro, about the Tamega, Tua and 
Sabor, was so rugged that Wellington was convinced that 
Joseph would expect him to advance by the south of the river. 
He therefore, moving by the south bank himself with Hill, to 
confirm Joseph in this expectation, crossed the Tormes near and 
above Salamanca, having previously which was to be the 
decisive movement detached Graham, with 40,000 men, to 
make his way, through the difficult district above mentioned, 
towards Braganza, and then, joining with the Spaniards, to turn 
Joseph's right. Graham, crossing the Douro near Lamego, 
carried out his laborious march with great energy, and Joseph 
retired precipitately from the Douro, behind the Pisuerga. The 
allied army, raised by the junction of the Spanish troops in 
Galicia to 90,000, now concentrated near Toro, and moved to- 
wards the Pisuerga, when Joseph, blowing up the castle of 
Burgos, fell back behind the Ebro. Once more Wellington 
turned his right, by a sweeping movement through Rocamunde 
and Puente Arenas near the source of the Ebro, when he retreated 
behind the Zadorra near the town of Vitoria. 

Santander was now evacuated by the French, and the allied 
line of communications was changed to that port. On the 2oth 

of June Wellington encamped along the river Bayas, and the 
next day attacked Joseph. For a description of the decisive 
battle of Vitoria (June 21, 1813), see VITORIA. In it Battle of 
King Joseph met with a crushing defeat, and, after vitoria, 
it, the wreck of his army, cut off from the Vitoria- June 21, 
Bayonne road, escaped towards Pampeluna. Within l813 - 
a few days Madrid was evacuated, and all the French forces, 
with the exception of the garrisons of San Sebastian (3000), 
Pampeluna (3000), Santona (1500), and the troops under Suchet 
holding posts in Catalonia and Valencia, had retired across the 
Pyrenees into France. The Spanish peninsula was, to all 
intents and purposes, free from foreign domination, although 
the war was yet far from concluded. The French struggled 
gallantly to the close: but now a long succession of their leaders 
Junot, Soult, Victor, Massena, Marmont, Joseph had been 
in turn forced to recoil before Wellington; and while their troops 
fought henceforward under the depressing memory of many 
defeats, the Allies did so under the inspiriting influence of great 
successes, and with that absolute confidence in their chief 
which doubled their fighting power. 

For this decisive campaign, Wellington was made a field 
marshal in the British army, and created duke of Victory * 
by the Portuguese government in Brazil. He now, with about 
80,000 men, took up a position with his left (the Spaniards) on 
the Bidassoa near San Sebastian. Thence his line stretched 
along the Pyrenees by the passes of Vera, Echallar, Maya and 
Roncesvalles, to Altobiscar; his immediate object now being 
to reduce the fortresses of San Sebastian and Pampeluna. Not 
having sufficient materiel for two sieges, he laid siege to San 
Sebastian only, and blockaded Pampeluna. Sir Thomas Graham 
commenced the active siege of San Sebastian on the loth of 
July 1813, but as Soult was approaching to its relief, the assault 
was ordered for daylight on the 24th. Unfortunately siegeotsan 
a conflagration breaking out near the breaches Sebastian, 
caused it to be postponed until nightfall, when, the Ju 'y 10-24, 
breaches in the interval having been strengthened, I8t3 ' 
it was delivered unsuccessfully and with heavy loss. Wellington 
then suspended the siege in order to meet Soult, who endeavoured 
(July 25) to turn the allied right, and reach Pampeluna. 
Attacking the passes of Maya and Roncesvalles, he obliged their 
defenders to retire, after sharp fighting, to a position Batt j et / 
close to Sorauren, which, with 25,000 men, he the Pyn- 
attempted to carry (July 28). By this time Welling- nees,juiy2S 
ton had reached it from the allied left ; reinforcements JgiV*****' 
were pressing up on both sides, and about 1 2,000 allied 
troops faced the French. A struggle, described by Wellington as 
" bludgeon work," now ensued, but all efforts to dislodge the 
Allies having failed, Soult, withdrawing, manoeuvred to his right 
towards San Sebastian. Wellington now assumed the offensive, 
and, in a series of engagements, drove the French back (Aug. 2) 
beyond the Pyrenees. These included Roncesvalles and Maya 
(July 25); Sorauren (July 28 and 30); Yanzi (Aug. i); and 
Echallar and Ivantelly (Aug. 2), the total losses in them being 
about Allies under 7000, French 10,000. After this, Wellington 
renewing the siege of San Sebastian carried the place, excepting 
the castle, after a heavy expenditure of life (Aug. 31). Upon 
the day of its fall Soult attempted to relieve it, but stormofSaa 
in the combats of Vera and St Marcial was repulsed. Sebastian, 
The castle surrendered on the gth of September, Augustsi, 
the losses in the entire siege having been about lsl3 ' 
Allies 4000, French 2000. Wellington next determined to throw 
his left across the river Bidassoa to strengthen his own position, 
and secure the port of Fuenterrabia. 

Now commenced a series of celebrated river passages, which 
had to be effected prior to the further invasion of France. At 
daylight on the 7th of October 1813 he crossed the Bidassoa in 
seven columns, and attacked the entire French position, 
which stretched in two heavily entrenched lines from north 

1 Duque da Victoria, often incorrectly duke of Vitoria. The 
coincidence of the title with the place-name of the battle which had 
not yet been fought when the title was conferred, is curious, but 

9 6 


of the Irun-Bayonne road, along mountain spurs to the Great 
Rhune, 2800 ft. high. The decisive movement was a passage in 
Passage strength near Fuenterrabia, to the astonishment of 
otttie the enemy, who in view of the width of the river 
Bidassoa, and the shifting sands, had thought the crossing 
October 7, impossible at that point. The French right was 
Wl3 ' then rolled back, and Soult was unable to reinforce his 

right in time to retrieve the day. His works fell in succession 
after hard fighting, and he withdrew towards the river Nivelle. 
The loss was about Allies, 1600; French, 1400. The passage 
of the Bidassoa " was a general's not a soldiers' battle " 

On the 3ist of October Pampeluna surrendered, and Welling- 
ton was now anxious to drive Suchet from Catalonia before 
further invading France. The British government, however, 
in the interests of the continental powers, urged an immediate 
advance, so on the night of the pth of November 1813 he 
brought up his right from the Pyrenean passes to the northward 
of Maya and towards the Nivelle. Soult's army (about 79,000), 
in three entrenched lines, stretched from the sea in front of St 
Jean de Luz along commanding ground to Amotz and thence, 
behind the river, to Mont Mondarin near the Nive. Each army 
had with it about 100 guns; and, during a heavy cannonade, 
Wellington on the loth of November 1813 attacked this extended 
Passage of position of 16 m. in five columns, these being so 
the Nivelle, directed that after carrying Soult's advanced works 
Nov. to, a mass of about 50,000 men converged towards the 
1813. French centre near Amotz, where, after hard fighting, 

it swept away the 18,000 of the second line there opposed to it, 
cutting Soult's army in two. The French right then fell back to 
St Jean de Luz, the left towards points on the Nive. It was now 
late and the Allies, after moving a few miles down both banks 
of the Nivelle, bivouacked, while Soult, taking advantage of the 
respite, withdrew in the night to Bayonne. The allied loss was 
about 2700; that of the French 4000, 51 guns, and all their 
magazines. The next day Wellington closed in upon Bayonne 
from the sea to the left bank of the Nive. 

After this there was a period of comparative inaction, though 
during it the French were driven from the bridges at Urdains 
and Cambo. The weather had become bad, and the Nive 
unfordable; but there were additional and serious causes of 
delay. The Portuguese and Spanish authorities were neglecting 
the payment and supply of their troops. Wellington had also 
difficulties of a similar kind with his own government, and also 
the Spanish soldiers, in revenge for many French outrages, had 
become guilty of grave excesses in France, so that Wellington 
took the extreme step of sending 25,000 of them back to Spain 
and resigning the command of their army, though his resignation 
was subsequently withdrawn. So great was the tension at 
this crisis that a rupture with Spain seemed possible. These 
matters, however, having been at length adjusted, Wellington, 
who in his cramped position between the sea and the Nive could 
not use his cavalry or artillery effectively, or interfere with the 
French supplies coming through St Jean Pied de Port, deter- 
mined to occupy the right as well as the left bank of the Nive. 
He could not pass to that bank with his whole force while Soult 
held Bayonne, without exposing his own communications 
through Irun. Therefore, on the gth of December 1813, after 
making a demonstration elsewhere, he effected the passage with 
Passage of a portion of his force only under Hill and Beresford, 
the Nive, near Ustaritz and Cambo, his loss being slight, and 
Dec. 9, thence pushed down the river towards Villefranque, 
1813. where Soult barred his way across the road to 

Bayonne. The allied army was now divided into two portions 
by the Nive; and Soult from Bayonne at once took advantage 
of his central position to attack it with all his available force, 
first on the left bank and then on the right. On the morning 
of the loth of December he fell, with 60,000 men and 40 guns, 
upon Hope, who with 30,000 men and 24 guns held a position 
from the sea, 3 m. south of Biarritz on a ridge behind two lakes 
(or tanks) through Arcangues towards the Nive. Desperate 
fighting now ensued, but fortunately, owing to the intersected 

ground, Soult was compelled to advance slowly, and in the end, 
Wellington coming up with Beresford from the right bank, the 
French retired baffled. On the nth and i2th of Battles 
December there were engagements of a less severe Defore 
character, and finally on the I3th of December Soult %%*'/* 
with 35,000 men made a vehement attack up the the Nive, 
right bank of the Nive against Hill, who with about Dec. 10-13, 
14,000 men occupied some heights from Villefranque tsia. 
past St Pierre (Lostenia) to Vieux Moguerre. The conflict about 
St Pierre (Lostenia) was one of the most bloody of the war; but 
for hours Hill maintained his ground, and finally repulsed the 
French before Wellington, delayed by his pontoon bridge over 
the Nive having been swept away, arrived to his aid. The losses 
in the four days' fighting in the battles before Bayonne (or battles 
of the Nive) were Allies about 5000, French about 7000. Both 
the British and Portuguese artillery, as well as infantry, greatly 
distinguished themselves in these battles. 

In eastern Spain Suchet (April n, 1813) had defeated Elio's 
Murcians at Yecla and Villena, but was subsequently routed 
by Sir John Murray 1 near Castalla (April 13), who then besieged 
Tarragona. The siege was abandoned after a time, but was 
later on renewed by Lord W. Bentinck. Suchet, after the 
battle of Vitoria, evacuated Tarragona (Aug. 17) but defeated 
Bentinck in the combat of Ordal (Sept. 13). 

Campaign in the South of France, 1814. When operations re- 
commenced in February 1814 the French line extended from 
Bayonne up the north bank of the Adour to the Pau, thence 
bending south along the Bidouze to St Palais, with advanced 
posts on the Joyeuse and at St Jean Pied de Port. Wellington's 
left, under Hope, watched Bayonne, while Beresford, with Hill, 
observed the Adour and the Joyeuse, the right trending back 
till it reached Urcuray on the St Jean Pied de Port road. Exclu- 
sive of the garrison of Bayonne and other places, the available 
field force of Soult numbered about 41,000, while that of the 
Allies, deducting Hope's force observing Bayonne, was of much 
the same strength. It had now become Wellington's object 
to draw Soult away from Bayonne, in order that the allied army 
might, with less loss, cross the Adour and lay siege to the place 
on both banks of the river. 

At its mouth the Adour was about 500 yds. wide, and its 
entrance from the sea by small vessels, except in the finest 
weather, was a perilous undertaking, owing to the shifting sands 
and a dangerous bar. On the other hand, the deep sandy soil 
near its banks made the transport of bridging materiel by land 
laborious, and almost certain of discovery. Wellington, con- 
vinced that no effort to bridge below Bayonne would be expected, 
decided to attempt it there, and collected at St Jean Pied de 
Port and Passages a large number of country vessels (termed 
chasse-marees). Then, leaving Hope with 30,000 men to watch 
Bayonne, he began an enveloping movement round Soult's 
left. Hill on the I4th and isth of February, after a combat 
at Garris, drove the French posts beyond the Joyeuse; and 
Wellington then pressed these troops back over the Bidouze 
and Gave 2 de Mauleon to the Gave d'Oleron. Wellington's 
object in this was at once attained, for Soult, leaving only 10,000 
men in Bayonne, came out and concentrated at Orthes on the 
Pau. Then Wellington (Feb. 19) proceeded to St Jean de Luz 
to superintend the despatch of boats to the Adour. Unfavour- 
able weather, however, compelled him to leave this to Sir 
John Hope and Admiral Penrose, so returning to the Gave 
d'Oleron he crossed it, and faced Soult on the Pau (Feb. 25). 
Hope in the meantime, after feints higher up the Adour, suc- 
ceeded (Feb. 22 and 23) in passing 600 men across passage of 
the river in boats. The nature of the ground, the Adour, 
and there being no suspicion of an attempt at this *%* & < 
point, led to the French coming out very tardily to ** I814 ' 
oppose them; and when they did, some Congreve rockets 
(then a novelty) threw them into confusion, so that the right 
bank was held until, on the morning of the 24th, the flotilla of 

1 Commander of a British expedition from the Mediterranean 

'"Gave" in the Pyrenees means a mountain stream or torrent. 



chetsse-maries appeared from St Jean de Luz, preceded by men- 
of-war boats. Several men and vessels were lost in crossing the 
bar; but by noon on the 26th of February the bridge of 26 
vessels had been thrown and secured; batteries and a boom 
placed to protect it, 8000 troops passed over, and the enemy's 
gunboats driven up the river. Bayonne was then invested on 
both banks as a preliminary to the siege. 

On the 27th of February Wellington, having with little loss 
effected the passage of the Pau below Orthes, attacked Soult. 
In this battle the Allies and French were of about equal strength 
(37,00x3): the former having 48 guns, the latter 40. Soult held 
Battle of a st ron g position behind Orthes on heights command- 
Orthes, ing the roads to Dax and St Sever. Beresford was 
Feb. 27, directed to turn his right, if possible cutting him off 
""' from Dax, and Hill his left towards the St Sever road. 

Beresford's attack, after hard fighting over difficult ground, was 
repulsed, when Wellington, perceiving that the pursuing French 
had left a central part of the heights unoccupied, thrust up the 
Light Division into it, between Soult's right and centre. At the 
same time Hill, having found a ford above Orthes, was turning 
the French left, when Soult retreated just in time to save being 
cut off, withdrawing towards St Sever, which he reached on the 
28th of February. The allied loss was about 2000; the French 
4000 and 6 guns. 

From St Sever Soult turned eastwards to Aire, where he 
covered the roads to Bordeaux and Toulouse. Beresford, with 
12,000 men, was now sent to Bordeaux, which opened its gates as 
promised to the Allies. Driven by Hill from Aire on the 2nd of 
March 1814, Soult retired by Vic Bigorre, where there was a 
combat (March 19), and Tarbes, where there was a severe action 
(March 20), to Toulouse behind the Garonne. He endeavoured 
also to rouse the French peasantry against the Allies, but in 
vain, for Wellington's justice and moderation afforded them no 
grievances. Wellington wished to pass the Garonne above 
Toulouse in order to attack the city from the south its weakest 
side and interpose between Soult and Suchet. But finding it 
impracticable to operate in that direction, he left Hill on the 
west side and crossed at Grenade below Toulouse (April 3). 
When Beresford, who had now rejoined Wellington, had passed 
over, the bridge was swept away, which left him isolated on the 
right bank. But Soult did not attack; the bridge (April 8) 
was restored; Wellington crossed the Garonne and the Ers, and 
attacked Soult on the loth of April. In the battle of Toulouse 
the French numbered about 40,000 (exclusive of the local 
National Guards) with 80 guns; the Allies under 52,000 with 64 
Battle of guns. Soult's position to the north and east of the 
Toulouse, city was exceedingly strong, consisting of the canal 
April 10, L an g ue d OC) some fortified suburbs, and (to the 
extreme east) the commanding ridge of Mont Rave, 
crowned with redoubts and earthworks. Wellington's columns, 
under Beresford, were now called upon to make a flank march 
of some two miles, under artillery, and occasionally musketry, 
fire, being threatened also by cavalry, and then, while the 
Spanish troops assaulted the north of the ridge, to wheel up, 
mount the eastern slope, and carry the works. The Spaniards 
were repulsed, but Beresford gallantly took Mont Rave and 
Soult fell back behind the canal. On the 1 2th of April Welling- 
ton advanced to invest Toulouse from the south, but Soult on 
the night of the nth had retreated towards Villefranque, and 
Wellington then entered the city. The allied loss was about 
5000; the French 3000. Thus, in the last great battle of the 
war, the courage and resolution of the soldiers of the Peninsular 
army were conspicuously illustrated. 

On the I3th of April 1814 officers arrived with the announce- 
ment to both armies of the capture of Paris, the abdication of 
Napoleon, and the practical conclusion of peace; and on the 
i8th a convention, which included Suchet's force, was entered 
into between Wellington and Soult. Unfortunately, after 
Toulouse had fallen, the Allies and French, in a sortie from 
Bayonne on the i4th of April, each lost about 1000 men: so 
that some 10,000 men fell after peace had virtually been made. 

In the east, during this year (1814), Sir W. Clinton had, on 
xxi. 4 

the 1 6th of January, attacked Suchet at Molins de Rey and 
blockaded Barcelona (Feb. 7); the French posts of Lerida, 
Mequinenza and Monzon had also been yielded up, and Suchet, 
on the and of March, had crossed the Pyrenees into France. 
Figueras surrendered to Cuesta before the end of May; and peace 
was formally signed at Paris on the 3oth of May. 

Thus terminated the long and sanguinary struggle of the 
Peninsular War. The British troops were partly sent to England, 
and partly embarked at Bordeaux for America, with which 
country war had broken out (see AMERICAN WAR OF 1812-15): 
the Portuguese and Spanish recrossed the Pyrenees: the French 
army was dispersed throughout France: Louis XVIII. was 
restored to the P'rench throne: and Napoleon was permitted 
to reside in the island of Elba, the sovereignty of which had been 
conceded to him by the allied powers. For the operations 
of this campaign Wellington was created marquess of Douro 
and duke of Wellington, and peerages were conferred upon 
Beresford, Graham and Hill. 

The events of the Peninsular War, especially as narrated 
in the Wellington Despatches, are replete with instruction not 
only for the soldier, but 'also for the civil administrator. Even 
in a brief summary of the war one salient fact is noticeable, 
that all Wellington's reverses were in connexion with his sieges, 
for which his means were never adequate. In his many battles 
he was always victorious, his strategy eminently successful, 
his organizing and administrative power exceptionally great, 
his practical resource unlimited, his soldiers most courageous; 
but he never had an army fully complete in its departments 
and warlike equipment. He had no adequate corps of sappers 
and miners, or transport train. In 1812 tools and material 
of war for his sieges were often insufficient. In 1813, when he 
was before San Sebastian, the ammunition ran short; a battering 
train, long demanded, reached him not only some time after 
it was needed, but even then with only one day's provision of 
shot and shell. For the siege of Burgos heavy guns were avail- 
able in store on the coast; but he neither had, nor could procure, 
the transport to bring them up. By resource and dogged 
determination Wellington rose superior to almost every diffi- 
culty, but he could not overcome all; and the main teaching of 
the Peninsular War turns upon the value of an army that is 
completely organized in its various branches before hostilities 
break out. (C. W. R.) 

AUTHORITIES. The Wellington Despatches, ed. Gurwood (London, 
1834-1839); Supplementary Wellington Despatches (London, 1858- 
1861 and 1867-1872) ; Sir W. Napier, History of War in the Peninsula 
and South of France (London, 1828-1840); C. W. C. Oman, History 
of the Peninsular War (London, 1902) ; Sir J. Jones, Journals and 
Sieges in Spain, 1811-12 (London, 1814); and Account of the War 
in Spain, Portugal and South of France, 1808-14 (London, 1821) ; Sir 
J. F. Maurice, Diary of Sir John Moore (London, 1904); Command- 
ant Balagny, Campagne de I'Empereur Napoleon en Espagne, 1808- 
1800 (Paris, 1902); Major-General C. W. Robinson, Wellington's 
Campaigns (London, 1907) ; Sir A. Alison, History of Europe, 1789- 
1815 (London, 18351842); T. Choumara, Considerations militaires 
sur les memoires du Marechal Suchet et sur la bataille de Toulouse 
(Paris, 1838); Commandant Clerc, Campagne du Marechal Soult 
dans les Pyrenees occidentals en 1813-14 (Paris, 1894); Memoires 
du Baron Marbot (Paris, 1891 ; Eng. trans, by A. J. Butler, London, 
1902) ; H. R. Clinton, The War in the Peninsula, &c. (London, 1889) ; 
Marshal Suchet's Memoires (Paris, 1826; London, 1829); Captain L. 
Butler, Wellington's Operations in the Peninsula, 1808-14 (London, 
1904); Batty, Campaign of the Left Wing of the Allied Army in the 
Western Pyrenees and South of France, 1813-14 (London, 1823); 
Foy, Histoire de la guerre de la Peninsule, &c., sous Napoleon (Paris 
and London, 1827); Lord Londonderry, Narrative of the Peninsular 
War, 1808-13 (London, 1829) ; R. Southey, History of the Peninsular 
War (London, 1823-1832) ; Major A. Griffiths, Wellington and Water- 
loo (illustrated; London, 1898); Thiers, Histoire du consulat el de 
V empire (Paris, 1845-1847; and translated by D. F. Campbell, 
London, 1845); Captain A. H. Marindin, The Salamanca Campaign 
(London, 1906); Marmont's Memoires (Paris, 1857); Colonel Sir 
A. S. Frazer, Letters during the Peninsular and Waterloo Campaigns 
(ed. by Major-General E. Sabine, London, 1859); Lieut. -Colonel 
W. Hill-James, Battles round Biarritz, Nivelle and the Nive (London, 
1896); Battles round Biarritz, Carres and the Bridge of Boats (Edin- 
burgh, 1897); H. B. Robinson, Memoirs of Lieutenant-General Sir 
T. Picton (London, 1835): G. C. Moore-Smith, Autobiography oj 
Lieutenant-General Sir Harry Smith (London, 1901); Life of John 
Colborne (F.-M. Lord Seaton) (London, 1903) ; Rev. A. H. Crauford, 

9 8 


General Craufurd and his Light Division (London, 1891); Sir George 
Larpent, Private Journal of F. S. Larpent during the Peninsular War 
(London, 1853); Major-General H. D. Hutchinson, Operations in 
the Peninsula, 1808-9 (London, 1905); The Dickson MSS., being 
Journals of Major-General Sir Alexander Dickson during the Penin- 
sular War (Woolwich, 1907). 

PEftlSCOLA, a town of eastern Spain, in the province of Cas- 
tellon de la Plana, and on the Mediterranean Sea, 5 m. by road 
S. of Benicarl6. Pop. (1900), 3142. Peniscola, often called the 
Gibraltar of Valencia, is a fortified seaport, with a lighthouse, 
built on a rocky headland about 220 ft. high, and only joined 
to the mainland by a narrow strip of sand. Originally a 
Moorish stronghold, it was captured in 1233 by James I. of 
Aragon, who entrusted it to the Knights Templar. In the 
i4th century it was garrisoned by the knights of Montesa, and 
in 1420 it reverted to the Crown. From 1415 it was the home 
of the schismatic pope Benedict XIII. (Pedro de Luna), whose 
name is commemorated in the Bufador de Papa Luna, a curious 
cavern with a landward entrance through which the sea-water 
escapes in clouds of spray. 

PENITENTIAL (Lat. poenilentiale, libellus poenitentialis, 
&c.), a manual used by priests of the Catholic Church for 
guidance in assigning the penance due to sins. Such manuals 
played a large r61e in the early middle ages, particularly in 
Ireland, England and Frankland, and their influence in the 
moral education of the barbarian races has not received 
sufficient attention from historians. They were mainly com- 
posed of canons drawn from various councils and of dicta from 
writings of some of the fathers. Disciplinary regulations in 
Christian communities are referred to from the very borders of the 
apostolic age, and a system of careful oversight of those admitted 
to the mysteries developed steadily as the membership grew 
and dangers of contamination with the outside world increased. 
These were the elaborate precautions of the catechumenate, and 
as a bulwark against the persecutions the rigid system known 
as the Discipline of the Secret (disciplina arcani). The treat- 
ment of the lapsed, which produced the Novatian heresy, was 
also responsible for what has frequently been referred to as 
the first penitential. This is the libellus in which, according 
to Cyprian (Ep. 51), the decrees of the African synods of 251 
and 255 were embodied for the guidance of the clergy in dealing 
with their repentant and returning flocks. This manual, 
which has been lost, was evidently not like the code-like com- 
pilations of the 8th century, and it is somewhat misleading to 
speak of it as a penitential. Jurisdiction in penance was still 
too closely limited to the upper ranks of the clergy to call forth 
such literature. Besides the bishop an official well versed 
in the penitential regulations of the Church, called the poeni- 
tentiarius, assigned due penalties for sins. For their guidance 
there was considerable conciliar legislation (e.g. Ancyra, Nicaea, 
Neocaesarea, &c.), and certain patristic letters which had 
acquired almost the force of decretals. Of the latter the 
most important were the three letters of St Basil of Caesarea 
(d. 379) to Bishop Amphilochus of Iconium containing over 
eighty headings. 

Three things tended to develop these rules into something 
like a system of penitential law. These were the development 
of auricular confession and private penance; the extension of 
the penitential jurisdiction among the clergy owing to the 
growth of a parochial priesthood; and the necessity of adapting 
the penance to the primitive ideas of law prevailing among the 
newly converted barbarians, especially the idea of compensation 
by the wergild. In Ireland in the middle of the sth century 
appeared the " canons of St Patrick." In the first half of the 
next century these were followed by others, notably those of 
St Finian (d. 552). At the same time the Celtic British Church 
produced the penitentials of St David of Menevia (d. 544) and 
of Gildas (d. 583) in addition to synodal legislation. These 
furnished the material to Columban (d. 615) for his Liber de 
poenitentia and his monastic rule, which had a great influence 
upon the continent of Europe. The Anglo-Saxon Church 
was later than the Irish, but under Theodore of Tarsus (d.6Qo), 
archbishop of Canterbury, the practice then in force was made 

the basis of the most important of all penittntials. The 
Poenilenliale Theodori became the authority in the Church's 
treatment of sinners for the next four centuries, both in England 
and elsewhere in Europe. The original text, as prepared by 
a disciple of Theodore, and embodying his decisions, is given 
in Haddan and Stubbs's Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents 
relating to Great Britain and Ireland (in. 173 seq.). A 
Penitenliale Commeani (St Cumian), dating apparently from 
the early Sth century, was the third main source of Frankish 
penitentials. The extent and variety of this literature led the 
Gallican Church to exercise a sort of censorship in order to 
secure uniformity. After numerous synods, Bishop Haltigar 
of Cambrai was commissioned by Ebo of Reims in 829 to prepare 
a definitive edition. Haltigar used, among his other materials, 
a so-called poenilenliale romanum, which was really of Frankish 
origin. The canons printed by David Wilkins in his Concilia 
(1737) as being by Ecgbert of York (d. 767) are largely a transla- 
tion into Anglo-Saxon of three books of HaJtigar's penitentials. 
In 841 Hrabanus Maurus undertook a new Liber poenitentium 
and wrote a long letter on the subject to Heribald of Auxerre 
about 853. Then followed the treatise of Reginon of Prum 
in 906, and finally the collection made by Burchard, bishop of 
Worms, between 1012 and 1023. The codification of the canon 
law by Gratian and the change in the sacramental position of 
penance in the 1 2th century closed the history of penitentials. 

Much controversy has arisen over the question whether 
there was an official papal penitential. It is claimed that 
(quite apart from Haltigar's poenitentiale romanum) such a 
set of canons existed early in Rome, and the attempt has been 
made by H. J. Schmitz in his learned treatise on penitentials 
(Buszbucher und das kanonische Buszverfahren, 1883 and 1898) 
to establish their pontifical character. The matter is still in 
dispute, Schmitz's thesis not having met with universal 

In addition to the works mentioned above the one important work 
on the penitentials was L. W. H. Wasserschleben's epoch-making 
study and collection of texts, Die Buszordnungen der abendldndischcn 
Kirche nebst einer rechtsgeschichtlichen Einleitung (Halle, 1851). 
See articles in Wetzer and Welte's Kirchenlexikon, Hauck's Real- 
encyklopadie, and Haddan and Stubbs's Councils. See also Seebasz 
in Zeitschrift fur Kirchengeschichte, xviii. 58. On the canons of 
St Patrick see the Life of St Patrick by J. B. Bury (pp. 233-275). 

PENITENTIARY (med. Lat. poenitenliarius, from poenitentia, 
penance, poena, punishment, a term used both as adjective and 
substantive, referring either to the means of repentance or 
that of punishment. In its ecclesiastical use the word is used 
as the equivalent both of the Latin poenitentiarius, " penitentiary 
priest," and poenitentiaria, the dignity or office of a poenitenti- 
arius. By an extension of the latter sense the name is applied 
to the department of the Roman Curia known as the apostolic 
penitentiary (sacra poenitentiaria aposlolica), presided over 
by the cardinal grand penitentiary (major poenitentiarius, 
Ital. penitenziere maggiore) and having jurisdiction more particu- 
larly in all questions in foro interno reserved for the Holy See 
(see CURIA ROMANA). In general, the poenilentiarius, or peni- 
tentiary priest, is in each diocese what the grand penitentiary 
is at Rome, i.e. he is appointed to deal with all cases of conscience 
reserved for the bishop. In the Eastern Church there are very 
early notices of such appointments; so far as the West is con- 
cerned, Hinschius (Kirchenrecht, i. 428, note 2) quotes from 
the chronicle of Bernold, the monk of St Blase (c. 1054-1100), ' 
as the earliest record of such "appointment, that made by 
the papal legate Odo of Ostia in 1054. In 1215 the fourth 
Lateran Council, by its loth canon, ordered suitable men to 
be ordained in all cathedral and conventual churches, to act 
as coadjutors and assistants to the bishops in hearing confessions 
and imposing penances. The rule was not immediately nor 
universally obeyed, the bishops being slow to delegate their 
special powers. Finally, however, the council of Trent (Sess. 
xxiv. cap. viii. de reform.) ordered that, " wherever it could 
conveniently be done," the bishop should appoint in his cathedral 
a poenilentiarius, who should be a doctor or licentiate in theology 
or canon law and at least forty years of age. 



See P. Hinschius, Kirchenrecht, \. 427, &c. (Berlin, 1869); Du 
Cange, Glossarium s.v. " Poenitentiarius " ; Herzog-Hauck, Real- 
encyklopadie (ed. 1904), s.v. " Ponitentiarius." 

PENKRIDGE, a town in the western parliamentary division 
of Staffordshire, England; 134 m. N.W. from London by the 
London & North-Western railway, on the small river Penk. 
Pop. (1901), 2347. Trade is chiefly agricultural and there are 
stone-quarries in the vicinity. The church of St Michael and 
All Angels, formerly collegiate and dedicated to St Mary, is a 
fine building principally Perpendicular, but with earlier portions. 
The Roman Watling Street passes from east to west 3 m. south 
' of Penkridge. In the neighbourhood is Pillaton Hall, retaining 
a picturesque chapel of the isth century. 

PENLEY, WILLIAM SYDNEY (1852- ), English actor, 
was born at Broadstairs, and educated in London, where his 
father had a school. He first made his mark as a comedian 
by his exceedingly amusing performance as the curate in The 
Private Secretary, a part in which he succeeded Beerbohrn 
Tree; but he is even more associated with the title role in 
Brandon Thomas's Charley's Aunt (1892), a farce which had 
an unprecedentedly long run and was acted all over the world. 

PENMARC'H, a village of western France in the department 
of Finistere, 18 m. S.W. of Quimper by road. Pop. (1906), of 
the village, 387; of the commune, 5702. On the extremity of 
the peninsula on which it is situated are fortified remains of a 
town which was of considerable importance from the i4th to 
the i6th centuries and included, besides Penmarc'h, St Guenole 
and Kerity. It owed its prosperity to its cod-banks, the dis- 
appearance of which together with the discovery of the New- 
foundland cod-banks and the pillage of the place by the bandit 
La Fontenelle in 1595 contributed to its decadence. The 
church of St Nouna, a Gothic building of the early i6th century 
at Penmarc 'h, and the church of St Guenole, an unfinished 
tower of the isth century and the church of Kerity (isth 
century) are of interest. The coast is very dangerous. On 
the Point de Penmarc 'h stands the Phare d'Eckmuhl, with a 
light visible for 60 miles. There are numerous megalithic 
monuments in the vicinity. 

PENN, WILLIAM (1621-1670), British admiral, was the 
son of Giles Penn, merchant and seaman of Bristol. He served 
his apprenticeship at sea with his father. In the first Civil 
War he fought on the side of the parliament, and was in com- 
mand of a ship in the squadron maintained against the king 
in the Irish seas. The service was arduous and called for both 
energy and good seamanship. In 1648 he was arrested and 
sent to London, but was soon released, and sent back as rear 
admiral in the " Assurance " (32). The exact cause of the 
arrest is unknown, but it may be presumed to have been that 
he was suspected of being in correspondence with the king's 
supporters. It is highly probable that he was, for until the 
Restoration he was regularly in communication with the Royal- 
ists, while serving the parliament, or Cromwell, so long as their 
service was profitable, and making no scruple of applying for 
grants of the confiscated lands of the king's Irish friends. 
The character of " mean fellow " given him by Pepys is borne 
out by much that is otherwise known of him. But it is no less 
certain that he was an excellent seaman and a good fighter. 
After 1650 he was employed in the Ocean, and in the Mediter- 
ranean in pursuit of the Royalists under Prince Rupert. He 
was so active on this service that when he returned home on 
the i8th of March 1651 he could boast that he had not put foot 
on shore for more than a year. When the first Dutch War 
broke out Penn was appointed vice-admiral to Blake, and was 
present at the battle of the 28th of September off the Kentish 
Knock. In the three days' battle off Portland, February 
1653, he commanded the Blue squadron, and he also served 
with distinction in the final battles of the war in June and July. 
In December he was included in the commission of admirals 
and generals at sea, who exercised the military command of 
the fleet, as well as " one of the commissioners for ordering and 
managing the affairs of the admiralty and navy." In 1654 he 
offered to carry the fleet over to the king, but in October of 

the same year he had no scruple in accepting the naval command 
in the expedition to the West Indies sent out by Cromwell, 
which conquered Jamaica. He was not responsible for the 
shameful repulse at San Domingo, which was due to a panic 
among the troops. On their return he and his military colleague 
Venables were sent to the Tower. He made humble submission, 
and when released retired to the estate he had received from 
confiscated land in Ireland. He continued in communication 
with the Royalists, and in 1660 had a rather obscure share in 
the Restoration. He was reappointed commissioner of the 
navy by the king, and in the second Dutch War served as 
"great captain commander" or captain of the fleet, with 
the duke of York (afterwards King James II.) at the battle 
of Lowestoft (June 3, 1665). When the duke withdrew from 
the command, Penn's active service ceased. He continued 
however to be a commissioner of the navy. His death occurred 
on the i6th of September 1670, and he was buried in the church 
of St Mary Redcliffe, Bristol. His portrait by Lely is in the 
Painted Hall at Greenwich. By his wife Margaret Jasper, he 
was the father of William Penn, the founder of Pennsylvania. 
Though Sir William Penn was not a high-minded man, he is 
a figure of considerable importance in British naval history. 
As admiral and general for the parliament he helped in 1653 
to draw up the first code of tactics provided for the navy. It 
was the base of the " Duke of York's Sailing and Fighting 
Instructions," which continued for long to supply the orthodox 
tactical creed of the navy. 

See the Memorials of the Professional Life and Times of SirWilliam 
Penn, by Granville Penn. (D. H.) 

PENN, WILLIAM (1644-1718), English Quaker and founder 
of Pennsylvania, son of Admiral Sir William Penn (1621-1670) 
and Margaret Jasper, a Dutch lady, was born at Tower Hill, 
London, on the I4th of October 1644. During his father's 
absence at sea he lived at Wanstead in Essex, and went to school 
at Chigwell close by, in which places he was brought under 
strong Puritan influences. Like many children of sensitive 
temperament, he had times of spiritual excitement; when about 
twelve he was " suddenly surprised with an inward comfort, 
and, as he thought, an external glory in the room, which gave 
rise to religious emotions, during which he had the strongest 
conviction of the being of a God, and that the soul of man was 
capable of enjoying communication with Him." Upon the 
death of Cromwell, Penn's father, who had served the Protector 
because there was no other career open, remained with his family 
on the Irish estates which Cromwell had given him, of the value 
of 300 a year. On the resignation of Richard Cromwell he 
at once declared for the king and went to the court in Holland, 
where he was received into favour and knighted; and at the 
elections for the convention parliament he was returned for 
Weymouth. Meanwhile young Penn studied under a private 
tutor on Tower Hill until, in October 1660, he was entered as a 
gentleman commoner at Christ Church. He appears in the 
same year to have contributed to the Threnodia, a collection 
of elegies on the death of the young duke of Gloucester. 

The rigour with which the Anglican statutes were revived, 
and the Puritan heads of colleges supplanted, roused the spirit 
of resistance at Oxford to the uttermost. With this spirit Penn, 
who was on familiar terms with John Owen (1616-1683), and 
who had already fallen under the influence of Thomas Loe 
the Quaker, then at Oxford, actively sympathized. He and 
others refused to attend chapel and church service, and were 
fined in consequence. How far his leaving the university 
resulted from this cannot be clearly ascertained. Anthony 
Wood has nothing regarding the cause of his leaving, but says 
that he stayed at Oxford for two years, and that he was noted 
for proficiency in manly sports. There is no doubt that in 
January 1662 his father was anxious to remove him to Cambridge, 
and consulted Pepys on the subject; and in later years he speaks 
of being " banished " the college, and of being whipped, beaten 
and turned out of doors on his return to his father, in the 
anger of the latter at his avowed Quakerism. A reconciliation, 
however, was effected; and Penn was sent to France to forget this 



folly. The plan was for a time successful. Penn appears to have 
entered more or less into the gaieties of the court of Louis XIV., 
and while there to have become acquainted with Robert Spencer, 
afterwards earl of Sunderland, and with Dorothy, sister to 
Algernon Sidney. What, however, is more certain is that he 
somewhat later placed himself under the tuition of Moses 
Amyraut, the celebrated president of the Protestant college 
of Saumur, and at that time the exponent of liberal Calvinism, 
from whom he gained the patristic knowledge which is so 
prominent in his controversial writings. He afterwards travelled 
in Italy, returning to England in August 1664, with " a great 
deal, if not too much, of the vanity of the French garb and 
affected manner of speech and gait." 1 

Until the outbreak of the plague Penn was a student of 
Lincoln's Inn. For a few days also he served on the staff of 
his father now great captain commander and was by him 
sent back in April 1665 to Charles with despatches. Returning 
after the naval victory off Lowestoft in June, Admiral Penn 
found that his son had again become settled in seriousness and 
Quakerism. To bring him once more to views of life not incon- 
sistent with court preferment, the admiral sent him in February 
1666 with introductions to Ormonde's pure but brilliant court 
in Ireland, and to manage his estate in Cork round Shannan- 
garry Castle, his title to which was disputed. Penn appears 
also later in the year to have been " clerk of the cheque " 
at Kinsale, of the castle and fort of which his father had the 
command. When the mutiny broke out in Carrickfergus Penn 
volunteered for service, and acted under Arran so as to gain 
considerable reputation. The result was that in May 1666 
Ormonde offered him his father's company of foot, but, for 
some unexplained reason, the admiral demurred to this arrange- 
ment. It was at this time that the well-known portrait was 
painted of the great Quaker in a suit of armour; and it was at 
this time, too, that the conversion, begun when he was a boy 
by Thomas Loe in Ireland, was completed at the same place 
by the same agency. 2 . 

On the 3rd of September 1667 Penn attended a meeting of 
Quakers in Cork, at which he assisted to expel a soldier who 
had disturbed the meeting. He was in consequence, with 
others present, sent to prison by the magistrates. From prison 
he wrote to Lord Orrery, the president of Munster, a letter, 
in which he first publicly makes a claim for perfect freedom of 
conscience. He was immediately released, and at once returned 
to his father in London, with the distinctive marks of Quakerism 
strong upon him. Penn now became a minister of the denomi- 
nation, and at once entered upon controversy and authorship. 
His first book, Truth Exalted, was violent and aggressive in the 
extreme; The same offensive personality is shown in The Guide 
Mistaken, a tract written in answer to John Clapham's Guide 
to the True Religion. It was at this time, too, that he appealed, 
not unsuccessfully, to Buckingham, who on Clarendon's fall 
was posing as the protector of the Dissenters, to use his efforts 
to procure parliamentary toleration. 

Penn's first public discussion was with Thomas Vincent, a 
London Presbyterian minister, who had reflected on the 
" damnable " doctrines of the Quakers. The discussion, which 
had turned chiefly upon the doctrine of the Trinity, ended 
uselessly, and Penn at once published The Sandy Foundation 
Shaken, a tract of ability sufficient to excite Pepys's astonish- 
ment, in which orthodox views were so offensively attacked 
that Penn was placed in the Tower, where he remained for nearly 
nine months. The imputations upon his opinions and good 
citizenship, made as well by Dissenters as by the Church, he 
repelled in Innocency with her Open Face, in which he asserts 
his full belief in the divinity of Christ, the atonement, and 
justification through faith, though insisting on the necessity 
of good works. It was now, too, that he published the most 
important of his books, No Cross, No Crown, which contained 
an able defence of the Quaker doctrines and practices, and a 
scathing attack on the loose and unchristian lives of the clergy. 

1 Pepys, August 30, 1664. 

2 Webb, The Penns and Penningtons (1867), p. 174. 

While completely refusing to recant Penn addressed a letter 
to Arlington in July 1669, in which, on grounds of religious 
freedom, he asked him to interfere. It is noteworthy, as 
showing the views then predominant, that he was almost at 
once set at liberty. 

An informal reconciliation now took place with his father, 
who had been impeached through the jealousy of Rupert and 
Monk (in April 1668), and whose conduct in the operations of 
1665 he had publicly vindicated; and Penn was again sent on 
family business to Ireland. At the desire of his father, whose 
health was fast failing, Penn returned to London in 1670. 
Having found the usual place of meeting in Gracechurch Street 
closed by soldiers, Penn, as a protest, preached to the people 
in the open street. With William Mead he was at once arrested 
and indicted at the Old Bailey on the ist of September for 
preaching to an unlawful, seditious and riotous assembly, 
which had met together with force and arms. The Conventicle 
Act not touching their case, the trial which followed, and which 
may be read at length in Penn's People's Ancient and Just 
Liberties Asserted, was a notable one in the history of trial by 
jury. With extreme courage and skill Penn exposed the 
illegality of the prosecution, while the jury, for the first time, 
asserted the right of juries to decide in opposition to the ruling 
of the court. They brought in a verdict declaring Penn and 
Mead " guilty of speaking in Gracechurch Street," but refused 
to add " to an unlawful assembly "; then, as the pressure upon 
them increased, they first acquitted Mead, while returning 
their original verdict upon Penn, and then, when that verdict 
was not admitted, returned their final answer " not guilty " 
for both. The court fined the jurymen 40 marks each for their 
contumacy, and, in default of payment, imprisoned them, 
whereupon they vindicated and established for ever the right 
they had claimed in an action (known as Bushell's case from the 
name of one of the jurymen) before the court of common pleas, 
when all twelve judges unanimously declared their imprisonment 

Penn himself had been fined for not removing his hat in court, 
had been imprisoned on his refusal to pay, and had earnestly 
requested his family not to pay for him. The fine, however, 
was settled anonymously, and he was released in time to be 
present at his father's death on the i6th of September 1670, 
at the early age of forty-nine. Penn now found himself in 
possession of a fortune of 1500 a year, and a claim on the 
Crown for 16,000, lent to Charles II. by his father. Upon his 
release Penn at once plunged into controversy, challenging a 
Baptist minister named Jeremiah Ives, at High Wycombe, to 
a public dispute and, according to the Quaker account, easily 
defeating him. No account is forthcoming from the other 
side. Hearing at Oxford that students who attended Friends' 
meeting were rigorously used, he wrote a vehement and abusive 
remonstrance to the vice-chancellor in defence of religious 
freedom. This found still more remarkable expression in the 
Seasonable Caveat against Popery (Jan. 1671). 

In the beginning of 1671 Penn was again arrested for preaching 
in Wheeler Street meeting-house by Sir J. Robinson, the 
lieutenant of the Tower, formerly lord mayor, and known as a 
brutal and bigoted churchman. Legal proof being wanting 
of any breach of the Conventicle Act, and the Oxford or Five 
Mile Act also proving inapplicable, Robinson, who had some 
special cause of enmity against Penn, urged upon him the oath 
of allegiance. This, of course, the Quaker would not take, 
and consequently was imprisoned for six months. During this 
imprisonment Penn wrote several works, the most important 
being The Great Case of Liberty of Conscience (Feb. 1671), 
a noble defence of complete toleration. Upon his release he 
started upon a missionary journey through Holland and 
Germany; at Emden he founded a Quaker society, and 
established an intimate friendship with the princess palatine 

Upon his return home in the spring of 1672 Penn married 
Gulielma Springett, daughter of Mary Pennington by her first 
husband, Sir William Springett; she appears to have been 



equally remarkable for beauty, devotion to her husband, and 
firmness to the religious principles which she had adopted when 
little more than a child. 1 He now settled at Rickmansworth 
in Hertfordshire, and gave himself up to controversial writing. 
To this year, 1672, belong the Treatise on Oaths and England's 
Present Interest Considered. In the year 1673 Penn was still 
more active. He secured the release of George Fox, addressed 
the Quakers in Holland and Germany, carried on public 
controversies with Thomas Hicks, a Baptist, and John Faldo, an 
Independent, and published his treatise on the Christian Quaker 
and his Divine Testimony Vindicated, the Discourse of the General 
Ride of Faith and Practice? Reasons against Railing (in answer 
to Hicks), Counterfeit Christianity Detected, and a Just Rebuke 
to One-and-lwenly Learned Divines (an answer to Faldo and to 
Quakerism no Christianity). His last public controversy was 
in 1675 with Richard Baxter, in which, of course, each party 
claimed the victory. 

At this point Penn's connexion with America begins. The 
province of New Jersey, comprising the country between the 
Hudson and Delaware rivers on the east and west, had been 
granted in March 1663-1664 by Charles II. to his brother; James 
in turn had in June of the same year leased it to Lord Berkeley 
and Sir G. Carteret in equal shares. By a deed, dated i8th 
of March 1673-1674, John Fenwick, a Quaker, bought one of 
the shares, that of Lord Berkeley (Stoughton erroneously says 
Carteret's) in trust for Edward Byllinge, also a Friend, for 
1000. This sale was confirmed by James, after the second 
Dutch War, on the 6th of August 1680. Disputes having arisen 
between Fenwick and Byllinge, Penn acted as arbitrator; and 
then, Byllinge being in money difficulties, and being compelled 
to sell his interest in order to satisfy his creditors, Penn was 
added, at their request, to two of themselves, as trustee. The 
disputes were settled by Fenwick receiving ten out of the hundred 
parts into which the province was divided, 3 with a considerable 
sum of money, the remaining ninety parts being afterwards 
put up for sale. Fenwick sold his ten parts to two other Friends, 
Eldridge and Warner, who thus, with Penn and the other two, 
became masters of West Jersey, West New Jersey, or New West 
Jersey, as it was indifferently called. 4 The five proprietors 
appointed three commissioners, with instructions dated from 
London the 6th of August 1676, to settle disputes with Fenwick 
(who had bought fresh land from the Indians, upon which Salem 
was built, Penn being himself one of the settlers there) and to 
purchase new territories, and to build a town New Beverley, 
or Burlington, being the result. For the new colony Penn drew 
up a constitution, under the title of " Concessions." The 
greatest care is taken to make this constitution " as near as 
may be conveniently to the primitive, ancient and fundamental 
laws of the nation of England." But a democratic element 
is introduced, and the new principle of perfect religious freedom 
stands in the first place (ch. xvi.). With regard to the liberty 
of the subject, no one might be condemned in life, liberty or 
estate, except by a jury of twelve, and the right of challenging 
was granted to the uttermost (ch. xvii.). Imprisonment for 
debt was not abolished (as Dixon states), but was reduced to a 
minimum (ch. xviii.), while theft was punished by twofold 
restitution either in value or in labour to that amount (ch. 
xxviii.). The provisions of ch. xix. deserve special notice. 
All causes were to go before three justices, with a jury. " They, 
the said justices, shall pronounce such judgment as they shall 
receive from, and be directed by the said twelve men, in whom 
only the judgment resides, and not otherwise. And in case of 
their neglect and refusal, that then one of the twelve, by consent 
of the rest, pronounce their own judgment as the justices should 
have done." The justices and constables, moreover, were 

1 For a very charming account of her, and the whole Pennington 
connexion, see Maria Webb's The Penns and Penningtons. 

2 See on this Stoughton's Penn, p. 113. 

3 The deed by which Fenwick and Byllinge conveyed West New 
Jersey to Penn, Lawry and Nicholas Lucas is dated the loth of 
February 1674-1675. 

4 The line of partition was "from the. east side of Little Egg 
Harbour, straight north, through the country, to the utmost branch 
of Delaware River." 

elected by the people, the former for two years only (ch. xli.). 
Suitors might plead in person, and the courts were public 
(ch. xxii.). Questions between Indians and settlers were to be 
arranged by a mixed jury (ch. xxv.). An assembly was to 
meet yearly, consisting of a hundred persons, chosen by the 
inhabitants, freeholders and proprietors, one for each division 
of the province. The election was to be by ballot, and each 
member was to receive a shilling a day from his division, " that 
thereby he may be known to be the servant of the people." 
The executive power was to be in the hands of ten commissioners 6 
chosen by the assembly. Such a constitution soon attracted 
large numbers of Quakers to West Jersey. 

It was shortly before these occurrences that Penn inherited 
through his wife the estate of Worminghurst in Sussex, whither 
he removed from Rickmansworth. He now (July 25, 1677) 
undertook a second missionary journey to the continent along 
with George Fox, Robert Barclay and George Keith. He 
visited particularly Rotterdam and all the Holland towns, 
renewed his intimacy with the princess Elizabeth at Herwerden, 
and, under considerable privations, travelled through Hanover, 
Germany, the lower Rhine and the electorate of Brandenburg, 
returning by Bremen and the Hague. It is worthy of recollec- 
tion that the Germantown (Philadelphia) settlers from Kirch- 
heim, one of the places which responded in an especial degree 
to Penn's teaching, are noted as the first who declared it wrong 
for Christians to hold slaves. Penn reached England again on 
the 24th of October. He tried *.o gain the insertion in the bill 
for the relief of Protestant Dissenters of a clause enabling Friends 
to affirm instead of taking the oath, and twice addressed the 
House of Commons' committee with considerable eloquence 
and effect. The bill, however, fell to the ground at the sudden 

In 1678 the popish terror came to a head, and to calm and 
guide Friends in the prevailing excitement Penn wrote his 
Epistle to the Children of Light in this Generation. A far more 
important publication was An Address to Protestants of all 
Persuasions, by William Penn, Protestant, in 1679; a powerful 
exposition of the doctrine of pure tolerance and a protest against 
the enforcement of opinions as articles of faith. This was 
succeeded, at the general election which followed the dissolution 
of the pensionary parliament, by an important political manifesto, 
England's Great Interest in the Choice of this New Parliament, in 
which he insisted on the following points: the discovery and 
punishment of the plot, the impeachment of corrupt ministers 
and councillors, the punishment of " pensioners," the enactment 
of frequent parliaments, security from popery and slavery, and 
ease for Protestant Dissenters. Next came One Project for the 
Good of England, perhaps the most pungent of all his political 
writings. But he was not merely active with his pen. He was 
at this time in close intimacy with Algernon Sidney, who stood 
successively for Guildford and Bramber. In each case, owing 
in a great degree to Penn's eager advocacy, Sidney was elected, 
only to have his elections annulled by court influence. Toleration 
for Dissenters seemed as far off as ever. Encouraged by his suc- 
cess in the West Jersey province, Penn again turned his thoughts 
to America. In repayment of the debt mentioned above he 
now asked from the Crown, at a council held on the 24th of June 
1680, for " a tract of land in America north of Maryland, bounded 
on the east by the Delaware, on the west limited as Maryland 
[i.e. by New Jersey], northward as far as plantable "; this 
latter limit Penn explained to be " three degrees northwards." 
This formed a tract of 300 m. by 160, of extreme fertility, mineral 
wealth and richness of all kinds. Disputes with James, duke 
of York, and with Lord Baltimore, who had rights over 
Maryland, delayed the matter until the i4th of March 1681, 
when the grant received the royal signature, and Penn was made 
master of the province of Pennsylvania. His own account of 
the name is that he suggested " Sylvania," that the king added 
the " Penn " in honour of his father, and that, although he 

6 Penn's letter of the 26th of August 1676 says twelve, and Clark- 
son has followed this; but the Concessions, which were not assented 
to by the inhabitants until the 3rd of March 1676-1677, say ten. 



strenuously objected and even tried to bribe the secretaries, he 
could not get the name altered. It should be added that early 
in 1682 Carteret, grandson of the original proprietor, transferred 
his rights in East Jersey to Penn and eleven associates, who 
soon afterwards conveyed one-half of their interest to the earl 
of Perth and eleven others. It is uncertain to what extent 
Penn retained his interest in West and East Jersey, and when 
it ceased. The two provinces were united under one governor 
in 1699, and Penn was a proprietor in 170x3. In 1702 the 
government of New Jersey was surrendered to the Crown. 

By the charter for Pennsylvania Penn was made proprietary 
of the province. He was supreme governor; he had the power 
of making laws with the advice, assent and approbation of the 
freemen, of appointing officers, and of granting pardons. The 
laws were to contain nothing contrary to English law, with a 
saving to the Crown and the privy council in the case of 
appeals. Parliament was to be supreme in all questions of 
trade and commerce; the right to levy taxes and customs was 
reserved to England; an agent to represent Penn was to reside 
in London; neglect on the part of Penn was to lead to the passing 
of the government to the Crown (which event actually took place 
in 1692); no correspondence might be carried on with countries 
at war with Great Britain. The importunity of the bishop of 
London extorted the right to appoint Anglican ministers, 
should twenty members of the colony desire it, thus securing 
the very 'thing which Penn was anxious to avoid the 
recognition of the principle of an esta ilishment. 

Having appointed Colonel (Sir Will am) Markham, his cousin, 
as deputy, and having in October sent out three commissioners 
to manage his affairs until his arrival, Penn proceeded to draw 
up proposals to adventurers, with an account of the resources of 
the colony. He negotiated, too, with James and Lord Balti- 
more with the view, ultimately successful, of freeing the mouth 
of the Delaware, wrote to the Indians in conciliatory terms, 
and encouraged the formation of companies to work the infant 
colony both in England and Germany, especially the " Free 
Society of Traders in Pennsylvania," to whom he sold 20,000 
acres, absolutely refusing, however, to grant any monopolies. 
In July he drew up a body of " conditions and concessions." 
This constitution, savouring strongly of Harrington's Oceana, 
was framed, it is said, in consultation with Sidney, but the 
statement is doubtful. Until the council of seventy-two (chosen 
by universal suffrage every three years, twenty-four retiring 
each year), and the assembly (chosen annually) were duly elected, 
a body of provisional laws was added. 

It was in the midst of this extreme activity that Penn was 
made a Fellow of the Royal Society. Leaving his family 
behind him, Penn sailed with a hundred comrades from Deal 
in the " Welcome " on the ist of September 1682. His Last 
Farewell to England and his letter to his wife and children contain 
a beautiful expression of his pious and manly nature. He 
landed at New Castle on the Delaware on the 27th of October, 
his company having lost one-third of their number by small-pox 
during the voyage. After receiving formal possession, arid 
having visited New York, Penn ascended the Delaware to the 
Swedish settlement of Upland, to which he gave the name of 
Chester. The assembly at once met, and on the 7th of December 
passed the " Great Law of Pennsylvania." The idea which 
informs this law is that Pennsylvania was to be a Christian state 
on a Quaker model. Philadelphia was now founded, and within 
two years contained 300 houses and a population of 2500. At. 
the same time an act was passed, uniting under the same govern- 
ment the territories which had been granted by feoffment by 
James in 1682. Realistic and entirely imaginative accounts (cf. 
Dixon, p. 270), inspired chiefly by Benjamin West's picture, 
have been given of the treaty which there seems no doubt Penn 
actually made in November 1683 with the Indians. His c